巩固Reinforce

有关维持更改的提示Tips for sustaining change

奖励对习惯构成至关重要。Rewards are critical to habit formation. 我们全都听说过动物(如 rat、狗和 monkeys)如何在给定奖励(如食物)时了解实验中的新行为。We all have heard about how animals such as rats, dogs, and monkeys can learn new behaviors in labs when given rewards such as food. 无论采用何种习惯,人类与其他动物之间没有什么不同之处。Human beings are no different from other animals when it comes to habit formation.

在他 _的_书籍中,Charles Duhigg 以三步骤循环的形式介绍了养成习惯的过程。In his book The Power of Habit, Charles Duhigg describes the habit-formation process as a three-step loop. 首先有一个提示,这是一个触发器,告诉您的大脑进入自动模式并使用哪种习惯习惯。“First there is a cue, a trigger that tells your brain to go into automatic mode and which habit to use. 然后有一个例程,它可以是物理或精神或情绪。Then there is a routine, which can be physical or mental or emotional. 最后,有一个奖励,这有助于你的大脑在此特定循环需要记住未来。 "Finally, there is a reward, which helps your brain figure out if this particular loop is worth remembering for the future.”

奖励可分为多种形式,并且可以通过多种方式提供。Rewards can come in many forms and can be delivered in many ways. 结构、进程、系统、目标设置和激励都提供了强化和嵌入所需更改的方法。Structures, processes, systems, target setting, and incentives all offer ways to reinforce and embed the changes that you want. 困难在于选择正确的 reinforcement 机制。The challenge is selecting the right reinforcement mechanism. 奖励的交付方式也同样重要–奖励的执行时间和对公平的理解也会影响 (的四个构建块) 的 有效性。The way a reward is delivered also matters – timing of rewards and perceptions of fairness also impact effectiveness (The Four Building Blocks of Change).

将行为链接到性能审查,从而使财务奖励成为一种显而易见的选择,但财务奖励通常比我们预期的效率低,甚至可能会破坏内部动机。Linking behaviors to performance reviews and thus to financial incentives is an obvious choice, but often financial incentives are less effective than we expect and can even undermine intrinsic motivation. 较小的意外回报可能具有 outsided 效果。Small, unexpected rewards can have outsided effects. 请尝试以下技术来奖励、认识和强化行为更改并保持计划结果:Try the following techniques to reward, recognize, and reinforce behavior change and sustain program results:

  • 定期并公开识别你的团队的成员,以演示正常的协作习惯,并明确陈述他们选择的原因–例如,始终在会议邀请中加入议程。Periodically and publicly recognize a member of your team for demonstrating healthy collaboration habits, and explicitly state the reason they were selected – for example, for always including an agenda in meeting invites. 请考虑将此识别与一种奖励(如礼品证书)结合到一个非常棒的新餐馆。Consider combining this recognition with a reward such as a gift certificate to an awesome new restaurant. 下面是有关 如何奖励和识别你的团队的一些其他提示。Here are some additional tips on how to reward and recognize your team.
  • 在团队会议上进行共享情景的例行工作,了解 healthier 协作习惯如何增强性能和文化。Make a routine of sharing stories at team meetings about how healthier collaboration habits have enhanced performance and culture. 例如,缩减后的时间已使工作组成员在晚间参加更多的家庭活动。For example, a reduction in after hours has enabled team members to attend more family events in the evening.
  • 重新构建当前的高度可见的系统或过程(如每周团队会议或定期业务评审),以反映新的团队协作规范。Restructure a current highly visible system or process, such as a weekly team meeting or periodic business review, to reflect new team-collaboration norms.
  • 要求经理和执行发起人能够以一致且直观的方式对新行为进行角色建模。Require managers and executive sponsors to commit to consistently and visibly role-modeling new behaviors.
  • 继续提供学习机会—例如,发送有关健康工作习惯的文章,并围绕会议主持或写作提供特定的附加培训。Continue to offer learning opportunities – for example, send articles about healthy work habits and offer specific additional training around meeting facilitation or writing.
  • 共享指向团队 MyAnalytics 的链接,以便他们可以继续自行使用 MyAnalytics,以维持新的习惯并构建其他 Share the link to MyAnalytics Individual adoption with your team so that they can continue to use MyAnalytics on their own to sustain new habits and build additional ones.