管理高可用性及站台恢復Managing high availability and site resilience

在您建立、驗證和部署 Microsoft Exchange Server 高可用性或網站恢復解決方案之後, 解決方案會從部署階段轉換至整體解決方案生命週期的操作階段。After you build, validate, and deploy a Microsoft Exchange Server high availability or site resilience solution, the solution transitions from the deployment phase to the operational phase of the overall solution lifecycle. 作業階段包含數個工作,並為其中一個下列項目相關的所有工作: 會使用資料庫可用性群組 (Dag)、 信箱資料庫副本執行主動監視及管理轉換和容錯移轉。The operational phase consists of several tasks, and all tasks are related to one of the following areas: database availability groups (DAGs), mailbox database copies, performing proactive monitoring, and managing switchovers and failovers.

資料庫可用性群組管理Database availability group management

與 Dag 相關聯的操作的管理工作包括:The operational management tasks associated with DAGs include:

  • 建立一或多個 dag: 建立 DAG 通常是在解決方案生命週期的部署階段執行的一次性程式。Creating one or more DAGs: Creating a DAG is typically a one-time procedure performed during the deployment phase of the solution lifecycle. 不過,可能會建立期間所發生的作業階段中,例如 Dag 的原因:However, there may be reasons for creating DAGs that occur during the operational phase, for example:

    • DAG 設定為協力廠商複寫模式,並想要還原使用連續複寫。您無法將 DAG 轉換回連續複寫;您需要建立 DAG。The DAG is configured for third-party replication mode, and you want to revert to using continuous replication. You can't convert a DAG back to continuous replication; you need to create a DAG.

    • 您有多個網域中的伺服器。相同 DAG 中的所有成員也必須都是相同網域的成員。You have servers in multiple domains. All members of the same DAG must also be members of the same domain.

  • 管理 dag 成員資格: 管理 dag 成員是通常在解決方案生命週期的部署階段執行的不常執行的工作。Managing DAG membership: Managing DAG members is an infrequent task typically performed during the deployment phase of the solution lifecycle. 不過,漸進式部署所提供的彈性,因為管理 DAG 成員資格可能也可執行整個解決方案生命週期。However, because of the flexibility provided by incremental deployment, managing DAG membership may also be performed throughout the solution lifecycle.

  • 設定dag內容: 每個 dag 都有各種可視需要設定的屬性。Configuring DAG properties: Each DAG has various properties that can be configured as needed. 這些屬性包括:These properties include:

    • 見證伺服器和見證目錄: 見證伺服器是 dag 外部的伺服器, 當 dag 包含偶數個成員時, 會充當仲裁 voter。Witness server and witness directory: The witness server is a server outside the DAG that acts as a quorum voter when the DAG contains an even number of members. 見證目錄是建立及使用的見證伺服器上的共用系統維護仲裁的目錄。The witness directory is a directory created and shared on the witness server for use by the system in maintaining a quorum.

    • IP 位址: 每個 DAG 會有一或多個 IPv4 位址, 並選擇性地有一或多個 IPv6 位址。IP addresses: Each DAG will have one or more IPv4 addresses, and optionally, one or more IPv6 addresses. 指派給 DAG 的 IP 位址會使用 DAG 的基礎叢集。The IP addresses assigned to the DAG are used by the DAG's underlying cluster. IPv4 位址指派給 DAG 的數目等於組成由 DAG 的 MAPI 網路子網路數目。The number of IPv4 addresses assigned to the DAG equals the number of subnets that comprise the MAPI network used by the DAG. 您可以設定 DAG 使用靜態 IP 位址或使用動態主機設定通訊協定 (DHCP) 自動取得地址。You can configure the DAG to use static IP addresses or to obtain addresses automatically by using Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP).

    • 資料中心啟動協調模式: 資料中心啟動協調模式是一個 DAG 上的屬性設定, 其設計目的是防止在資料庫層級的裂腦條件, 在您要將服務還原至主要時的情況下。已執行資料中心轉換之後的資料中心。Datacenter Activation Coordination mode: Datacenter Activation Coordination mode is a property setting on a DAG that's designed to prevent split-brain conditions at the database level, in a scenario in which you're restoring service to a primary datacenter after a datacenter switchover has been performed. 如需資料中心啟用協調模式的詳細資訊, 請參閱資料中心啟動協調模式For more information about Datacenter Activation Coordination mode, see Datacenter Activation Coordination mode.

    • 替代見證伺服器和替代見證目錄: 替代見證伺服器和替代見證目錄是您可以在資料中心轉換的規劃程式中進行預先配置的值。Alternate witness server and alternate witness directory: The alternate witness server and alternate witness directory are values that you can preconfigure as part of the planning process for a datacenter switchover. 這些參照的見證伺服器和見證目錄已執行資料中心轉換時將使用。These refer to the witness server and witness directory that will be used when a datacenter switchover has been performed.

    • 複寫: 依預設, 所有 dag 都使用 TCP 埠64327進行連續複寫。Replication port: By default, all DAGs use TCP port 64327 for continuous replication. 您可以使用set-databaseavailabilitygroup 程式指令程式的_ReplicationPort_參數, 修改 DAG, 以使用不同的 TCP 埠進行複寫。You can modify the DAG to use a different TCP port for replication by using the ReplicationPort parameter of the Set-DatabaseAvailabilityGroup cmdlet.

    • 網路探索: 您可以強制 DAG 重新探索網路和網路介面。Network discovery: You can force the DAG to rediscover networks and network interfaces. 當您新增或移除網路或引進新的子網路會使用這項作業。This operation is used when you add or remove networks or introduce new subnets. 您可以使用set-databaseavailabilitygroup 程式指令程式的_DiscoverNetworks_參數, 強制重新發現所有 DAG 網路。Rediscovery of all DAG networks can be forced by using the DiscoverNetworks parameter of the Set-DatabaseAvailabilityGroup cmdlet.

    • 網路壓縮: 依預設, dag 會在不同子網的 DAG 網路之間使用壓縮。Network compression: By default, DAGs use compression only between DAG networks on different subnets. 您可以啟用或植入作業只的所有 DAG 網路壓縮或您可以停用的所有 DAG 網路壓縮。You can enable compression for all DAG networks or for seeding operations only, or you can disable compression for all DAG networks.

    • 網路加密: 依預設, dag 只會在不同子網的 DAG 網路之間使用加密。Network encryption: By default, DAGs use encryption only between DAG networks on different subnets. 您可以啟用加密所有 DAG 網路或植入作業只,或您可以停用的所有 DAG 網路加密。You can enable encryption for all DAG networks or for seeding operations only, or you can disable encryption for all DAG networks.

  • 關閉 DAG 成員: Exchange Server 高可用性解決方案已與 Windows 關機程式整合。Shutting down DAG members: The Exchange Server high availability solution is integrated with the Windows shutdown process. 如果系統管理員或應用程式起始Windows DAG 中的伺服器已複寫至一或多個 DAG 成員裝載的資料庫的關機,系統將嘗試啟動另一個複本之前允許關機裝載的資料庫若要完成的程序。If an administrator or application initiates a shutdown of a Windows server in a DAG that has a mounted database that's replicated to one or more DAG members, the system will try to activate another copy of the mounted databases prior to allowing the shutdown process to complete. 不過,這個新的行為並不保證所有要關閉之伺服器上的資料庫會遇到不失真的啟用。However, this new behavior doesn't guarantee that all of the databases on the server being shut down will experience a lossless activation. 因此,它會執行伺服器轉換之前關閉 DAG 成員伺服器的最佳作法。As a result, it's a best practice to perform a server switchover prior to shutting down a server that's a member of a DAG.

如需如何建立 DAG 的詳細步驟, 請參閱建立資料庫可用性群組For detailed steps about how to create a DAG, see Create a database availability group. 如需如何設定 Dag 和 DAG 的詳細步驟屬性,請參閱設定資料庫可用性群組內容For detailed steps about how to configure DAGs and DAG properties, see Configure database availability group properties. 如需上述每個管理工作的詳細資訊, 以及一般管理 Dag, 請參閱管理資料庫可用性群組For more information about each of the preceding management tasks, and about managing DAGs in general, see Manage database availability groups.

信箱資料庫副本管理Mailbox database copy management

信箱資料庫副本相關聯的操作的管理工作包括:The operational management tasks associated with mailbox database copies include:

  • 新增信箱資料庫副本: 當您新增信箱資料庫的複本時, 會自動啟用現有資料庫與資料庫副本之間的連續複寫。Adding mailbox database copies: When you add a copy of a mailbox database, continuous replication is automatically enabled between the existing database and the database copy.

  • 設定信箱資料庫副本內容: 您可以設定各種屬性, 例如資料庫啟用原則、重新顯示延遲和截斷延遲的時間量 (如果有的話), 以及資料庫副本的啟用喜好設定。Configuring mailbox database copy properties: You can configure a variety of properties, such as the database activation policy, the amount of time, if any, for replay lag and truncation lag, and the activation preference for the database copy.

  • 擱置或繼續信箱資料庫副本: 您可以在準備植入或其他形式的維護時暫停信箱資料庫副本。Suspending or resuming a mailbox database copy: You can suspend a mailbox database copy in preparation for seeding, or for other forms of maintenance. 您也可以暫停僅啟用信箱資料庫副本。You can also suspend a mailbox database copy for activation only. 此設定會防止系統自動啟動失敗,因為的複本,但它仍可讓系統保留資料庫副本最新的記錄傳送和重新顯示。This configuration prevents the system from automatically activating the copy as a result of a failure, but it still allows the system to keep the database copy up to date with log shipping and replay.

  • 更新信箱資料庫副本: 更新 (也稱為入) 是將信箱資料庫的複本新增至另一個信箱伺服器的程式。Updating a mailbox database copy: Updating, also known as seeding, is the process in which a copy of a mailbox database is added to another Mailbox server. 這會變成基準資料庫副本。This becomes the baseline database for the copy. 初始的第一個植入的比較基準資料庫複製之後,請僅在極罕見的情況下資料庫必須重新植入。After the initial first seed of the baseline database copy, only in rare circumstances will the database need to be seeded again.

  • 啟動信箱資料庫副本: 啟用是將特定的被動副本指定為信箱資料庫新的主動副本的程式。Activating a mailbox database copy: Activating is the process of designating a specific passive copy as the new active copy of a mailbox database. 此處理程式稱為轉換。 **This process is referred to as a switchover. 如需詳細資訊,請參閱本主題稍後的"轉換和容錯移轉 」。For more information, see "Switchovers and Failovers" later in this topic.

  • 移除信箱資料庫副本: 有時可能需要移除信箱資料庫副本。Removing a mailbox database copy: Occasionally, it may be necessary to remove a mailbox database copy. 例如,您無法移除信箱伺服器從 DAG 直到會從伺服器移除所有的信箱資料庫副本。For example, you can't remove a Mailbox server from a DAG until all mailbox database copies are removed from the server. 此外,您必須移除所有信箱資料庫副本之前您可以變更的信箱資料庫路徑。In addition, you must remove all copies of a mailbox database before you can change the path for a mailbox database.

如需如何新增信箱資料庫副本的詳細步驟,請參閱新增信箱資料庫副本For detailed steps about how to add a mailbox database copy, see Add a mailbox database copy. 如需如何設定信箱資料庫副本的詳細步驟,請參閱設定信箱資料庫副本屬性For detailed steps about how to configure mailbox database copies, see Configure mailbox database copy properties. 如需上述每個管理工作的詳細資訊, 以及一般管理信箱資料庫副本, 請參閱管理信箱資料庫副本For more information about each of the preceding management tasks, and about managing mailbox database copies in general, see Manage mailbox database copies. 如需如何移除信箱資料庫副本的詳細步驟,請參閱移除信箱資料庫副本For detailed steps about how to remove a mailbox database copy, see Remove a mailbox database copy.

主動式監控Proactive monitoring

確定您的伺服器都運作可靠和資料庫副本的狀況良好的主要目標的每日通訊的作業。Making sure that your servers are operating reliably and that your database copies are healthy are key objectives for daily messaging operations. Exchange Server 包含許多功能, 可用於執行 Dag 和信箱資料庫副本的各種狀況監視工作, 包括:Exchange Server includes a number of features that can be used to perform a variety of health monitoring tasks for DAGs and mailbox database copies, including:

除了監控的健康狀況和狀態,也有重大要監視之可能會危害可用性的情況。例如,我們建議您監視複製資料庫的備援。很重要避免你下單一資料庫複本的情況。此案例中應視為優先順序最高並儘速解析。In addition to monitoring the health and status, it's also critical to monitor for situations that can compromise availability. For example, we recommend that you monitor the redundancy of your replicated databases. It's critical to avoid situations where you're down to a single copy of a database. This scenario should be treated with the highest priority and resolved as soon as possible.

如需監控 Dag 和信箱資料庫副本之健康情況與狀態的詳細資訊, 請參閱監視資料庫可用性群組For more detailed information about monitoring the health and status of DAGs and mailbox database copies, see Monitor database availability groups.

轉換及容錯移轉Switchovers and failovers

轉換** 是手動啟動一或多個信箱資料庫副本的手動程式。A switchover is a manual process in which an administrator manually activates one or more mailbox database copies. 轉換,可以發生資料庫或伺服器層級,通常是維護活動的準備作業的一部分執行。Switchovers, which can occur at the database or server level, are typically performed as part of preparation for maintenance activities. 轉換管理包括所需執行資料庫或伺服器的轉換。Switchover management involves performing database or server switchovers as needed. 例如,如果您需要在 DAG 中的信箱伺服器上執行維護,您會先執行伺服器轉換使伺服器未裝載任何使用中信箱資料庫副本。For example, if you need to perform maintenance on a Mailbox server in a DAG, you would first perform a server switchover so that the server didn't host any active mailbox database copies. 如需如何執行資料庫轉換的詳細步驟,請參閱啟動信箱資料庫副本For detailed steps about how to perform a database switchover, see Activate a mailbox database copy. 也可以在資料中心等級進行轉換。Switchovers can also be performed at the datacenter level.

容錯移轉是一或多個資料庫副本的系統自動啟用, 以反應失敗。A failover is the automatic activation by the system of one or more database copies in reaction to a failure. 例如,RAID 較不環境中的磁碟機故障會觸發資料庫容錯移轉。For example, the loss of a disk drive in a RAID-less environment will trigger a database failover. MAPI 網路或電源失敗遺失會觸發伺服器容錯移轉。The loss of the MAPI network or a power failure will trigger a server failover.