在 SharePoint Server 中規劃備份和修復Plan for backup and recovery in SharePoint Server

摘要:了解如何規劃 SharePoint Server 2016 和 SharePoint 2013 環境的備份和復原策略。Summary: Learn how to plan backup and recovery strategies for your SharePoint Server 2016 and SharePoint 2013 environments.

一般而言,在部署 SharePoint Server 環境之前,您需要具有備份及復原計劃。然後隨著 SharePoint Server 改變,您必須維護及更新此備份及復原計劃,以保護您的資料。Typically, you want to have a backup and recovery plan available before you deploy your SharePoint Server environment. You then need to maintain and update your backup and recovery plan as your SharePoint Server changes to protect your data.

規劃備份及復原所涉及的階段包括決定 SharePoint Server 環境適用的備份及復原策略,以及決定所要使用的工具。您不需要依所列順序完成這些階段,且程序可能會重複。The stages involved in planning for backup and recovery include determining backup and recovery strategies for a SharePoint Server environment and deciding which tools to use. The stages do not have to be done in the order listed, and the process may be iterative.

當您規劃嚴重損壞修復的備份及復原時,請將常見事件、失敗、錯誤、當地和區域的緊急情況納入考量。本文中的各節說明您必須在備份及復原計劃中處理的階段。每個階段可逐步邁向最終目標,也就是用來復原 SharePoint Server 伺服器陣列的最佳備份。您可以自訂階段,以符合您的需求。請注意,整體備份及復原計劃是動態的,且必須反映您目前的 SharePoint Server 環境。When you plan backup and recovery for disaster recovery, consider common events, failures, and errors; local emergencies; and regional emergencies. The sections in this article describe the stages that you must address in your backup and recovery plan. Each stage is a step toward the final goal of a good backup to use to recover your SharePoint Server farm. You can customize the stages to meet your needs. Note that your overall backup and recovery plan is dynamic and must reflect your current SharePoint Server environment.

如需 SharePoint Server 備份和復原的詳細資訊,請參閱<SharePoint Server 的備份與復原概觀>。For more information about SharePoint Server backup and recovery, see Overview of backup and recovery in SharePoint Server.

定義 SharePoint 伺服器陣列與服務的商業需求Define business requirements for SharePoint farms and services

若要定義業務需求,請為環境中每個伺服器陣列與服務決定下列項目:To define business requirements, determine the following for each farm and service in the environment:

  • 「目標復原時點 (RPO)」是最新可用備份與任何可能之失敗點之間的最大時間期間目標。該目標取決於發生失敗情況時,業務所能承受損失的資料量。Recovery point objective (RPO) is the objective for the maximum time period between the last available backup and any potential failure point. It is determined by how much data that the business can afford to lose if a failure were to occur.

  • 「目標復原時間 (RTO)」是資料復原程序所需的最長時間目標。該目標取決於公司可承受網站或服務無法使用的時間。Recovery time objective (RTO) is the objective for the maximum time that a data recovery process will take. It is determined by the time that the business can afford for the site or service to be unavailable.

  • 「目標復原層級 (RLO)」是定義您必須能復原資料之精確度的目標,例如您必須能復原整個伺服器陣列、Web 應用程式、網站集合、網站、清單或文件庫,或項目。Recovery level objective (RLO) is the objective that defines the granularity with which you must be able to recover data — whether you must be able to recover the whole farm, Web application, site collection, site, list or library, or item.

RPO 與 RTO 愈短,以及 RLO 的精確度愈高,通常都會提高成本。Shorter RPO and RTO, and finer granularity of RLO, all typically cost more.

選擇要在 SharePoint 環境中保護及復原的內容Choose what to protect and recover in your SharePoint environment

您的業務需求可協助您決定需要保護的環境元件,以及需要能復原這些元件的精確度。Your business requirements will help you determine which components of the environment that you must protect, and the granularity with which you must be able to recover them.

下表列出您可能決定要保護的 SharePoint 環境元件,以及可用於備份及復原每一個元件的工具。您會注意到,這兩個資料表很類似,但是會顯示每個 SharePoint Server 版本的特定備份元件。The following tables list components of a SharePoint environment that you might decide to protect, and the tools that can be used to back up and recover each component. As you'll notice, both tables are similar but specific backup components are shown for each SharePoint Server edition.

SharePoint Server 2016 備份及復原元件SharePoint Server 2016 components for backup and recovery

元件Component SharePoint 備份SharePoint backup SQL Server 2014 Service Pack 1 (SP1)SQL Server 2014 Service Pack 1 (SP1) SQL Server 2016SQL Server 2016 System Center 2016 - Data Protection Manager 更新彙總套件2 (UR2)System Center 2016 - Data Protection Manager Update Rollup 2 (UR2) 檔案系統備份File system backup
伺服器陣列Farm
Yes
是 (6)Yes (6)
服務應用程式Service applications
可以Yes
Web 應用程式Web application
Yes
內容資料庫Content databases
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
網站集合Site collection
是 (1、2)Yes (1, 2)
是 (1、2)Yes (1, 2)
是 (1、2)Yes (1, 2)
是 (1、2)Yes (1, 2)
網站Site
是 (2)Yes (2)
是 (2)Yes (2)
是 (2)Yes (2)
可以Yes
文件庫或清單Document library or list
是 (2)Yes (2)
是 (2)Yes (2)
是 (2)Yes (2)
可以Yes
清單項目或文件List item or document
Yes
儲存在遠端 BLOB 存放區中的內容Content stored in remote BLOB stores
是 (3)Yes (3)
是 (3)Yes (3)
是 (3)Yes (3)
是 (3)Yes (3)
部署為方案套件的自訂Customizations deployed as solution packages
是 (7)Yes (7)
是 (7)Yes (7)
是 (7)Yes (7)
是 (6、7)Yes (6, 7)
使用管理中心或 API 變更 Web.configChanges to Web.config made by using Central Administration or an API
Yes
Yes
Yes
是 (4)Yes (4)
SharePoint 組態設定SharePoint configuration settings
是 (2、8)Yes (2, 8)
是 (2、8)Yes (2, 8)
是 (2、8)Yes (2, 8)
是 (2、9)Yes (2, 9)
未部署為方案套件的自訂Customizations not deployed as solution packages
是,若當作檔案保護,即可復原檔案。(4、5)Yes, files can be recovered if protected as files. (4, 5)
Yes
不使用管理中心或 API 變更 Web.configChanges to Web.config not made by using Central Administration or an API
是 (4)Yes (4)
Yes
未透過 SharePoint Server 2016 設定 IIS 設定IIS configurations not set through SharePoint Server 2016
是 (5)Yes (5)
Yes
SQL Server Reporting Services 資料庫 SQL Server Reporting Services databases
Yes
Yes
Yes

(1) 若單一網站集合儲存在資料庫中,則可使用伺服器陣列層級與資料庫層級備份與還原,復原網站集合。(1) Farm-level and database-level backup and restore can be used for site collection recovery if a single site collection is stored in a database.

(2) 伺服器陣列層級與資料庫層級備份可搭配 SharePoint Server 2016 未附加的資料庫復原使用,以還原網站集合、網站、清單及設定。(2) Farm-level and database-level backups can be used with SharePoint Server 2016 unattached database recovery to restore site collections, sites, lists, and configurations.

(3) 無法使用 System Center Data Protection Manager 還原儲存在遠端 BLOB 存放區中的內容。(3) Content stored in remote BLOB stores cannot be restored by using System Center Data Protection Manager.

(4) 可使用 DPM 的檔案系統備份,備份 Web.config 的變更。(4) Changes to Web.config can be backed up by using file system backup from DPM.

(5) IIS 設定可透過裸機備份從 DPM 復原。(5) IIS configurations can be recovered by using a bare-metal backup from DPM.

(6) DPM 可結合裸機備份和 SharePoint Server 2016 備份,復原此項目。此項目無法以物件形式備份及復原。(6) DPM can recover this item by using a combination of a bare-metal backup and SharePoint Server 2016 backup. It cannot be backed up and recovered as an object.

(7) 完全信任的方案套件儲存在設定資料庫中,沙箱化解決方案則儲存在內容資料庫。這些都可在伺服器陣列或內容資料庫復原過程中復原。(7) Fully-trusted solution packages are stored in the configuration database, and sandboxed solutions are stored in content databases. They can be recovered as part of farm or content database recovery.

(8) 組態設定可從伺服器陣列層級備份復原。如需詳細資訊,請參閱<在 SharePoint Server 中還原伺服器陣列>。(8) Configuration settings can be recovered from farm-level backups. For more information, see Restore farms in SharePoint Server.

(9) SharePoint Server 2016 伺服器陣列的 管理中心 內容資料庫和設定資料庫雖可復原,但只能在相同電腦上對同一伺服器陣列的完整伺服器陣列復原過程中復原。(9) The Central Administration content database and the configuration database for a SharePoint Server 2016 farm can be recovered but only as part of a full-farm recovery to the same farm, with the same computers.

如需詳細資訊,請參閱通知:以增強的安全性來保護 Server 2016 的工作負載For more information, see Announcement: Protect your Server 2016 workloads with Enhanced Security.

SharePoint 2013 備份及復原元件SharePoint 2013 components for backup and recovery

元件Component SharePoint 備份SharePoint backup SQL Server 2008 Service Pack 1 (SP1) 與累計更新 2SQL Server 2008 with Service Pack 1 (SP1) and Cumulative Update 2 SQL Server 2012SQL Server 2012 System Center 2012 - Data Protection Manager (DPM)System Center 2012 - Data Protection Manager (DPM) 檔案系統備份File system backup
伺服器陣列Farm
Yes
是 (6)Yes (6)
服務應用程式Service applications
可以Yes
Web 應用程式Web application
Yes
內容資料庫Content databases
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
網站集合Site collection
是 (1、2)Yes (1, 2)
是 (1、2)Yes (1, 2)
是 (1、2)Yes (1, 2)
是 (1、2)Yes (1, 2)
網站Site
是 (2)Yes (2)
是 (2)Yes (2)
是 (2)Yes (2)
可以Yes
文件庫或清單Document library or list
是 (2)Yes (2)
是 (2)Yes (2)
是 (2)Yes (2)
可以Yes
清單項目或文件List item or document
Yes
儲存在遠端 BLOB 存放區中的內容Content stored in remote BLOB stores
是 (3)Yes (3)
是 (3)Yes (3)
是 (3)Yes (3)
是 (3)Yes (3)
部署為方案套件的自訂Customizations deployed as solution packages
是 (7)Yes (7)
是 (7)Yes (7)
是 (7)Yes (7)
是 (6、7)Yes (6, 7)
使用管理中心或 API 變更 Web.configChanges to Web.config made by using Central Administration or an API
Yes
Yes
Yes
是 (4)Yes (4)
SharePoint 組態設定SharePoint configuration settings
是 (2、8)Yes (2, 8)
是 (2、8)Yes (2, 8)
是 (2、8)Yes (2, 8)
是 (2、9)Yes (2, 9)
未部署為方案套件的自訂Customizations not deployed as solution packages
是,若當作檔案保護,即可復原檔案。(4、5)Yes, files can be recovered if protected as files. (4, 5)
Yes
不使用管理中心或 API 變更 Web.configChanges to Web.config not made by using Central Administration or an API
是 (4)Yes (4)
Yes
未透過 SharePoint 2013 設定 IIS 設定IIS configurations not set through SharePoint 2013
是 (5)Yes (5)
Yes
SQL Server Reporting Services 資料庫 SQL Server Reporting Services databases
Yes
Yes
Yes

(1) 若單一網站集合儲存在資料庫中,則可使用伺服器陣列層級與資料庫層級備份與還原,復原網站集合。(1) Farm-level and database-level backup and restore can be used for site collection recovery if a single site collection is stored in a database.

(2) 伺服器陣列層級與資料庫層級備份可搭配 SharePoint 2013 未附加的資料庫復原使用,以還原網站集合、網站、清單及設定。(2) Farm-level and database-level backups can be used with SharePoint 2013 unattached database recovery to restore site collections, sites, lists, and configurations.

(3) 無法使用 System Center Data Protection Manager 還原儲存在遠端 BLOB 存放區中的內容。(3) Content stored in remote BLOB stores cannot be restored by using System Center Data Protection Manager.

(4) 可使用 DPM 的檔案系統備份,備份 Web.config 的變更。(4) Changes to Web.config can be backed up by using file system backup from DPM.

(5) IIS 設定可透過裸機備份從 DPM 復原。(5) IIS configurations can be recovered by using a bare-metal backup from DPM.

(6) DPM 可結合裸機備份和 SharePoint 2013 備份,復原此項目。此項目無法以物件形式備份及復原。(6) DPM can recover this item by using a combination of a bare-metal backup and SharePoint 2013 backup. It cannot be backed up and recovered as an object.

(7) 完全信任的方案套件儲存在設定資料庫中,沙箱化解決方案則儲存在內容資料庫。這些都可在伺服器陣列或內容資料庫復原過程中復原。(7) Fully-trusted solution packages are stored in the configuration database, and sandboxed solutions are stored in content databases. They can be recovered as part of farm or content database recovery.

(8) 組態設定可從伺服器陣列層級備份復原。如需詳細資訊,請參閱<在 SharePoint Server 中還原伺服器陣列>。(8) Configuration settings can be recovered from farm-level backups. For more information, see Restore farms in SharePoint Server.

(9) SharePoint 2013 伺服器陣列的 管理中心 內容資料庫和設定資料庫雖可復原,但只能在相同電腦上對同一伺服器陣列的完整伺服器陣列復原過程中復原。(9) The Central Administration content database and the configuration database for a SharePoint 2013 farm can be recovered but only as part of a full-farm recovery to the same farm, with the same computers.

注意

您可以使用 stsadm.exe -o -registerwsswriter 作業,向 Windows Server Backup 登錄 ,以設定 的磁碟區陰影複製服務 (VSS) 編寫器。Windows Server Backup 會接著將 納入全伺服器備份。當您從 Windows Server Backup 還原時,可選取 SharePoint Foundation (而不論安裝的 版本為何),如此將會還原該伺服器上 的 VSS 編寫器於備份時報告的所有元件。 > 僅建議於單一伺服器部署環境中使用 Windows Server Backup。You can register SharePoint 2013 with Windows Server Backup by using the stsadm.exe -o -registerwsswriter operation to configure the Volume Shadow Copy Service (VSS) writer for SharePoint 2013. Windows Server Backup then includes SharePoint 2013 in server-wide backups. When you restore from a Windows Server backup, you can select SharePoint Foundation (regardless of which version of SharePoint 2013 is installed), and all components reported by the VSS writer for SharePoint 2013 on that server at the time of the backup will be restored. > Windows Server Backup is recommended only for use with for single-server deployments.

選擇要從 SharePoint 內容資料庫中復原的內容Choose what to recover from within SharePoint content databases

您可以從內容資料庫中復原網站集合、網站、清單及文件庫。From within a content database, you can recover site collections, sites, lists and libraries.

備份及復原工具提供不同的復原層級,以復原內容資料庫中的內容。從內容資料庫中復原物件一律比復原整個內容資料庫更複雜。Backup and recovery tools provide different levels of recovery for content in a content database. Recovering an object from within a content database is always more complex than recovering the whole content database.

保護自訂Protecting customizations

SharePoint 網站的自訂包括下列項目:Customizations to SharePoint sites can include the following:

  • 主版頁面、頁面配置與階層式樣式表。這些物件會儲存在 Web 應用程式的內容資料庫中。Master pages, page layouts and cascading style sheets. These objects are stored in the content database for a web application.

  • 網頁組件、網站或清單定義、自訂欄、新內容類型、自訂欄位、自訂動作、編碼工作流程或工作流程活動與條件。Web Parts, site or list definitions, custom columns, new content types, custom fields, custom actions, coded workflows, or workflow activities and conditions.

  • 協力廠商解決方案及其相關的二進位檔案與登錄機碼,例如 IFilter。Third-party solutions and their associated binary files and registry keys, such as IFilters.

  • 標準 XML 檔案的變更。Changes to standard XML files.

  • 自訂網站定義 (Webtemp.xml)。Custom site definitions (Webtemp.xml).

  • 變更 Web.config 檔案。Changes to the Web.config file.

部署自訂的方式及變更 Web.config 檔案的方式,會顯著影響可用於備份及復原自訂的工具。為使復原作業能萬無一失地完成,建議您使用方案套件部署自訂,並使用管理中心或 SharePoint API 及物件模型來設定 Web.config 檔案。How customizations are deployed, and how changes are made to the Web.config file, have a significant effect on which tools can be used to back up and recover customizations. To provide the greatest opportunity for recovery, we recommend that you use solution packages to deploy customizations and use Central Administration or the SharePoint APIs and object model to configure the Web.config file.

保護工作流程Protecting workflows

工作流程是自訂動作的一個特別案例,其中您可以備份及復原。請務必確認您的備份及復原規劃能解決套用至您環境中的任何下列案例:Workflows are a special case of customizations that you can back up and recover. Make sure that your backup and recovery plan addresses any of the following scenarios that apply to your environment:

  • 宣告式工作流程 (例如在 SharePoint Designer 中建立的工作流程) 儲存在部署所在之網站集合的內容資料庫中。備份內容資料庫可保護這些工作流程。Declarative workflows, such as those that you created in SharePoint Designer, are stored in the content database for the site collection to which they are deployed. Backing up the content database protects these workflows.

  • 自訂宣告式工作流程動作在下列三個位置包含元件:Custom declarative workflow actions have components in the following three locations:

    • 活動的 Visual Studio 組件會儲存在全域組件目錄 (GAC) 中。The Visual Studio assemblies for the Activities are stored in the global assembly catalog (GAC).

    • XML 定義檔案 (.ACTIONS 檔) 會儲存在 15\TEMPLATE{LCID}\Workflow 目錄中。The XML definition files (.ACTIONS files) are stored in the 15\TEMPLATE{LCID}\Workflow directory.

    • 將活動標記為授權類型的 XML 項目,會儲存在其所用於的 Web 應用程式之 Web.config 檔案中。An XML entry to mark the activity as an authorized type is stored in the Web.config file for the Web applications in which it is used.

      若您的伺服器陣列工作流程使用自訂動作,您應該使用檔案備份系統來保護這些檔案及 XML 項目。這些檔案類似於 SharePoint Server 的網頁組件及事件接收器等功能,在復原後應該可視需要重新套用至伺服器陣列。If your farm workflows use custom actions, you should use a file backup system to protect these files and XML entries. Similar to SharePoint Server features such as Web Parts and event receivers, these files should be reapplied to the farm as needed after recovery.

  • 相依於自訂程式碼的工作流程,例如使用 Visual Studio 所建立的工作流程,會儲存在兩個位置。工作流程的 Visual Studio 組件會儲存在全域組件目錄 (GAC) 中,而 XML 定義檔則儲存在「功能」目錄中。這與其他類型的 SharePoint Server 功能相同,例如:網頁組件以及事件接收器。若工作流程已安裝為方案套件的一部分,備份內容資料庫即可保護這些工作流程。Workflows that depend on custom code, such as those that are created by using Visual Studio, are stored in two locations. The Visual Studio assemblies for the workflow are stored in the global assembly catalog (GAC), and the XML definition files are stored in the Features directory. This is the same as other kinds of SharePoint Server features such as Web Parts and event receivers. If the workflow was installed as part of a solution package, backing up the content database protects these workflows.

  • 如果建立自訂工作流程,與非工作流程部署所在的網站集合互動,您必須同時備份這兩個網站集合,以保護工作流程。這包括寫入歷程記錄清單或其他網站集合的其他自訂清單之工作流程。執行伺服器陣列備份便足以備份伺服器陣列中的所有網站集合,以及相關聯的所有工作流程。如需詳細資訊,請參閱<備份 SharePoint Server 中的自訂>中的<SharePoint 中的備份流程>。If you create a custom workflow that interacts with a site collection other than the one where the workflow is deployed, you must back up both site collections to protect the workflow. This includes workflows that write to a history list or other custom list in another site collection. Performing a farm backup is sufficient to back up all site collections in the farm and all workflows that are associated with them. For more information, see "Back up workflows in SharePoint" in Back up customizations in SharePoint Server.

  • 尚未部署的工作流程必須和其他任何資料檔案一樣分開備份及還原。當您開發新工作流程但尚未部署至 SharePoint Server 伺服器陣列時,請確定使用 Windows Server Backup 或其他檔案系統備份應用程式,備份工作流程專案檔案儲存所在的資料夾。Workflows that are not yet deployed must be backed up and restored separately like any other data file. When you are developing a new workflow but have not yet deployed it to the SharePoint Server farm, make sure that you back up the folder where you store your workflow project files by using Windows Server Backup or another file system backup application.

保護服務應用程式Protecting service applications

在 SharePoint Server 環境下的服務應用程式可由服務設定和一或多個資料庫構成,或僅僅只由服務設定構成。您無法僅透過還原資料庫以還原完整的服務應用程式。不過,您可以為服務應用程式還原資料庫,然後再佈建服務應用程式。如需詳細資訊,請參閱<在 SharePoint Server 中還原服務應用程式>。Service applications in a SharePoint Server environment can be made up of both service settings and one or more databases, or only service settings. You cannot restore a complete service application by restoring the database only. However, you can restore the databases for a service application and then provision the service application. For more information, see Restore service applications in SharePoint Server.

保護 SQL Server Reporting Services 資料庫Protecting SQL Server Reporting Services databases

SharePoint Server 備份及復原不包括 SQL Server Reporting Services 資料庫。您必須使用適用於 SharePoint Server 的 SQL Server 工具。如需詳細資訊,請參閱<報告服務的備份與還原作業>。SharePoint Server backup and recovery does not include SQL Server Reporting Services databases. You must use SQL Server tools for SharePoint Server. For more information, see Backup and Restore Operations for Reporting Services.

選擇 SharePoint 備份及復原工具Choose SharePoint backup and recovery tools

若要選取正確的備份及復原工具,您必須判斷是否可以在時間與資源預算內,滿足您為營運所設定的持續力需求。To select the correct tools for backup and recovery, you must determine whether you can meet the continuity requirements that you have set for your business within your budget for time and resources.

選取工具時所要考量的重要事項包括下列項目:Key things to consider when you select tools include the following:

  • 備份速度:該工具是否可在資料庫的維護時間範圍內執行?您應測試所有備份系統,以確保符合硬體需求。Speed of backup: Can the tool perform within the maintenance window for your databases? You should test any backup system to make sure that it meets your needs on your hardware.

  • 復原完整性。Completeness of recovery.

  • 可復原物件的精確度。Granularity of objects that can be recovered.

  • 支援的備份類型 (完整、差異或累加)。Backup type supported (full, differential, or incremental).

  • 管理工具的複雜性。Complexity of managing the tool.

如需能搭配 SharePoint Server 使用之備份及復原系統的詳細資訊,請參閱下列資源:For detailed information about the backup and recovery systems that can be used with SharePoint Server, see the following resources:

決定 SharePoint 備份及復原策略Determine SharePoint backup and recovery strategies

請依據您的業務需求、復原需求及選取的工具,決定環境的備份及復原策略,並加以記載。Based on your business requirements, recovery needs, and the tools that you have selected, determine and document the backup and recovery strategies for your environment.

由於支援 SharePoint Server 環境的 IT 部門會決定所要使用的策略,因此通常會由此部門決定使用多項工具保護環境。It is common for IT departments that support SharePoint Server environments to decide to use more than one tool to protect the environment, as they determine the strategies that they will use.

例如,在具有 DBA 所管理資料庫的環境中,可能會採用下列清單中的策略:For example, in an environment that has databases that are managed by DBAs, the strategies in the following list might be employed:

  • 由 SharePoint Server 的 SQL Server 備份所有資料庫。備份間隔設定依據如下:All databases are backed up by SQL Server for SharePoint Server. The backup interval that is set is based on the following:

    • 內容或服務的重要性。The importance of the content or service.

    • 備份對環境的效能影響。The effect on performance that the backup has on the environment.

  • 小型內容資料庫若變更快速,且對營運造成極大影響,會另以 SQL Server 資料庫快照集提升保護,這些快照集會儲存在另一個實體磁碟上。每個資料庫僅儲存成一個快照集,並定期捨棄這些快照集,如此才能降低對效能造成的影響。針對每一個資料庫所設定的快照間隔會依據下列條件:Small, quickly changing, very high-business-affect content databases are additionally protected by SQL Server database snapshots that are stored on a separate physical disk. Only one snapshot is stored per database, and snapshots are discarded regularly so that the effect on performance is minimized. The snapshot interval that is set for each database is based on the following:

    • 內容或服務的重要性。The importance of the content or service.

    • 資料庫的標準變更速率。The standard rate of change for the database.

    • 快照集對環境的效能影響。The effect on performance that the snapshot has on the environment.

    • 儲存快照集所需的空間。The amount of space that is required to store the snapshot.

      相較於標準復原作業,從快照集復原所需時間較少,因為 SharePoint Server 會將快照集與其基礎資料庫視同未附加資料庫。不過,建立快照集會降低基礎資料庫的效能。建議您應先測試快照集對系統效能造成的影響,再實作快照集,而且您應定期捨棄快照集,以減少所需空間。Recovering from a snapshot is faster than standard recovery because a snapshot, and its underlying database, can be treated by SharePoint Server as an unattached database. However, creating snapshots can decrease the performance of the underlying database. We recommend that the effect that snapshots have on the performance of the system be tested before they are implemented, and that snapshots be discarded regularly to reduce the space that is required.

      注意

      若是使用遠端 BLOB 儲存 (RBS),且您所用的 RBS 提供者不支援快照集 (例如 FILESTREAM 提供者並不支援快照集),則無法使用快照集進行備份。If you are using Remote Blob Storage (RBS), and the RBS provider that you are using does not support snapshots, you cannot use snapshots for backup. For example, the FILESTREAM provider does not support snapshots.

  • SharePoint Server 備份可用以保護服務應用程式。備份間隔的依據如下:SharePoint Server backup is used to protect service applications. The backup interval is based on the following:

    • 服務的重要性。The importance of the service.

    • 資料庫的標準變更速率。The standard rate of change for the database.

    • 備份對資料庫的效能影響。The effect on performance that the backup has on the database.

  • 所有還原作業都會透過 SharePoint Server 執行。決定選擇要使用的還原系統時,要視可用的備份類型及所要還原的物件而定。All restore operations are performed through SharePoint Server. The choice of which restore system to use is determined by the kind of backup that is available and the object being restored.

其他工具必須為商務持續性策略的一部分。請考慮您將在整個環境的所有網站集合中使用資源回收筒及版本設定的方式。如需詳細資訊,請參閱<規劃 SharePoint Server 的高可用性與災害復原>。Other tools should be part of your business continuity strategy. Consider how you will use recycle bins and versioning in site collections throughout the environment. For more information, see Plan for high availability and disaster recovery for SharePoint Server.

在設計 SharePoint 備份及復原策略時規劃效能Plan for performance when designing your SharePoint backup and recovery strategy

當您規劃備份及復原策略時,請考量下列建議,以協助您降低備份及復原對系統效能造成的影響。As you plan your backup and recovery strategy, consider the following recommendations to help you decrease the effect of backup and recovery on system performance.

根據設計,大部分的備份工作會盡其所能耗用最多的 I/O 資源,以在維護時限內完成工作。因此,您可能會發現磁碟佇列的情況,也可能會發現所有 I/O 要求的回傳速度比平常慢。這是很平常的現象,不應視為問題。By design, most backup jobs consume as many I/O resources as they can to finish the job in the available time for maintenance. Therefore, you might see disk queuing and you might see that all I/O requests come back more slowly than usual. This is typical and should not be considered a problem.

請遵循設定 SQL Server 及儲存方式的建議Follow recommendations for configuring SQL Server and storage

請遵循 SharePoint Server 環境的設定 SQL Server 和儲存區的一般建議。如需詳細資訊,請參閱<規劃及設定儲存設備與 SQL Server 容量 (SharePoint Server)>。Follow the general recommendations for configuring SQL Server and storage for a SharePoint Server environment. For more information, see Storage and SQL Server capacity planning and configuration (SharePoint Server).

將 SQL Server 與備份位置之間的延遲降至最低Minimize latency between SQL Server and the backup location

一般而言,請使用本機磁碟進行備份,而不要使用網路磁碟機進行備份。若要備份多部伺服器,建議您使用兩方伺服器皆可寫入的直接連線電腦。網路磁碟機與執行 SQL Server 之電腦間的延遲為 1 毫秒或更低時,執行效果相當良好。若伺服器陣列具有多部伺服器 (包括執行 SQL Server 的電腦),則必須使用 UNC 網路路徑做為 SharePoint 伺服器陣列的備份位置。In general, use a local disk instead of a network drive for backups. If you are backing up multiple servers, you may want to have a directly connected computer that both servers can write to. Network drives that have 1 millisecond or less latency between them and the computers that are running SQL Server will perform well. If your farm has multiple servers in it (including the computer that is running SQL Server, you must use UNC network paths for the SharePoint farm backup location.

避免處理衝突Avoid processing conflicts

請勿在使用者必須存取系統的時段執行備份工作。Do not run backup jobs during times in which users must have access to the system.

為避免 I/O 出現瓶頸,請在其他磁碟上執行主要備份,然後再將其複製到磁帶。To avoid I/O bottlenecks, perform the main backup to a separate disk, and only then copy to tape.

請考慮錯開備份,以免在同一時間備份所有的資料庫。Consider staggering backups so that not all databases are backed up at the same time.

SharePoint Server 備份使用 SQL Server 備份。進行備份時若使用壓縮,請小心不要壓制 SQL Server。例如,某些協力廠商的備份工具會在備份期間壓縮資料,如此會中斷 SQL Server 的效能。有些工具可以控制壓縮程序的流速,並控制對 SQL Server 造成的影響。SharePoint Server backups use SQL Server backups. When using compression with your backups, be careful not to overwhelm SQL Server. For example, some third-party backup tools compress data during backup, which can disrupt SQL Server performance. There are tools available to throttle the compression processes and control the effect on SQL Server.

遵循 SQL Server 備份與還原最佳化建議Follow SQL Server backup and restore optimization recommendations

如果執行的是 SQL Server Enterprise,建議您使用備份壓縮功能。如需詳細資訊,請參閱<備份壓縮 (SQL Server)>。If you are running SQL Server Enterprise, we recommend that you use backup compression. For more information, see Backup Compression (SQL Server).

如果使用 SQL Server 或 SQL Server 2008 R2 Express 備份,請針對完整復原模式,合併使用完整、差異及交易記錄檔備份,將復原時間減至最少。建立差異式資料庫備份通常比建立完整的資料庫備份快,並可減少復原資料庫所需的交易記錄檔量。If you are using SQL Server or SQL Server 2008 R2 Express backups, use a combination of full, differential, and transaction log backups for the full recovery model to minimize recovery time. Differential database backups are usually faster to create than full database backups, and they reduce the amount of transaction log required to recover the database.

若要在 SQL Server 2008 中使用完整復原模式,建議您在備份期間使用截斷選項,以免發生維護問題。If you are using the full recovery model in SQL Server 2008, we recommend that you use the truncate option during backup to avoid maintenance issues.

如需如何最佳化 SQL Server 備份與還原效能的詳細建議,請參閱<最佳化 SQL Server 中的備份和還原效能>。For detailed recommendations about how to optimize SQL Server backup and restore performance, see Optimizing Backup and Restore Performance in SQL Server.

請確定備份磁碟機的寫入效能良好Ensure sufficient write performance on the backup drive

請仔細考慮磁碟備份裝置是否要使用獨立磁碟容錯陣列 (RAID)。例如,RAID 5 的寫入效能低,速度約與單一磁碟相同 (這是因為 RAID 5 會維護同位檢查資訊)。為備份裝置使用 RAID 10 可提供較快的備份。如需如何在備份時使用 RAID 的詳細資訊,請參閱<設定適用於 SQL Server I/O 輸送量上限的 RAID>。Carefully consider whether to use redundant array of independent disks (RAID) on your disk backup device. For example, RAID 5 has low write performance, approximately the same speed as for a single disk. (This is because RAID 5 maintains parity information.) Using RAID 10 for a backup device may provide faster backups. For more information about how to use RAID with backups, see Configure RAID for maximum SQL Server I/O throughput.

另請參閱See also

概念Concepts

SharePoint Server 的備份與復原概觀Overview of backup and recovery in SharePoint Server

其他資源Other Resources

資料保護與復原Data Protection and Recovery