SharePoint Server 中的 Business Connectivity Services 概觀Overview of Business Connectivity Services in SharePoint Server

摘要: 了解 Microsoft Business Connectivity Services 和其如何將外部資料帶進 SharePoint Server 2016 或 SharePoint Server 2013 以及 Office。Summary: Understand Microsoft Business Connectivity Services and how it brings external data into SharePoint Server 2016 or SharePoint Server 2013, and Office.

本文介紹 Microsoft Business Connectivity Services。閱讀本文之後,您將了解:This article introduces you to Microsoft Business Connectivity Services. After you read this article you'll understand:

  • 何謂 Business Connectivity Services。What Business Connectivity Services is.

  • Business Connectivity Services 解決的商務問題及其使用時機。The business problems that Business Connectivity Services solves for and when to use it.

  • Business Connectivity Services 的運作方式。How Business Connectivity Services works.

  • Business Connectivity Services 的三個基本解決方案為何及其外觀。What the three basic Business Connectivity Services solutions are and what they look like.

本文是您使用 Business Connectivity Services 建立 SharePoint Server 和 Office 2016 之資料整合解決方案的起始位置。您必須了解本文中的概念,再繼續規劃、開發及安裝 Business Connectivity Services 資料整合解決方案。Business Connectivity Services 文件的所有其餘部分都會用到本文中的範例。This article is your starting place for using Business Connectivity Services to create data integration solutions in SharePoint Server and Office 2016. You have to understand the concepts in this article before you can move on to planning, developing, and installing Business Connectivity Services data integration solutions. The examples in this article are used throughout the remainder of the Business Connectivity Services documentation.

何謂 Business Connectivity Services?What is Business Connectivity Services?

搭配 Business Connectivity Services,您可以使用 SharePoint Server 和 Office 用戶端作為不在 SharePoint Server 本身裡之資料的介面。Business Connectivity Services 可以連線到可透過資料庫、Web 服務所取得資料,或是已發佈為 OData 來源或許多其他類型的外部資料。Business Connectivity Services 會透過現成可用或自訂連接器進行。而連接器,正如其名,是 SharePoint Server 和外部系統所裝載外部資料之間的溝通橋樑。With Business Connectivity Services, you can use SharePoint Server and Office clients as interfaces to data that doesn't live in SharePoint Server itself. Business Connectivity Services can connect to data that is available through a database, a web service, or data that is published as an OData source or many other types of external data. Business Connectivity Services does this through out-of-the box or custom connectors. The connectors, as the name implies, are the communication bridge between SharePoint Server and the external system that hosts the external data.

使用 Business Connectivity Services,您即可對資料執行不同的作業,例如建立、讀取、更新、刪除及查詢 (CRUDQ)。根據啟用的作業,在 SharePoint Server 或 Office 中對資料所做的變更會自動同步處理回外部資料來源。您也可以讓資料離線以供工作,並使用 SharePoint 搜尋來搜尋外部資料。Using Business Connectivity Services, you can perform different operations on the data such as Create, Read, Update, Delete, and Query (CRUDQ). Depending on the operations that are enabled, the changes made to the data in SharePoint Server or Office can be automatically synchronized back to the external data source. You can also take the data offline to work on it, and search the external data by using SharePoint Search.

SharePoint Server 提供幾個呈現外部資料的方式。最常用的方式可能是以外部清單來呈現資料。外部清單的外觀和風格類似一般 SharePoint 清單,不同之處在於外部清單只能顯示外部資料。如果您想將外部資料連同其他資料一起顯示在清單或文件庫中,請使用外部資料欄。外部資料欄是一種您可以建立並新增至 SharePoint 清單的欄,就像是新增 [個人或群組]**** 或 [日期及時間]**** 欄一樣,不同之處在於外部資料欄會顯示外部資料。SharePoint Server 包含商務資料網頁組件,用以呈現外部資料及適用於 SharePoint 的應用程式 (其可能也會使用外部資料),並與其互動。SharePoint_Server has several ways to present the external data. Probably the most common way is to present the data in an external list. External lists look and feel like regular SharePoint lists, except that they can only display external data. If you want to integrate external data alongside other data in a list or library, you would use an external data column. An external data column is a column type that you can create and add to a SharePoint list just as you would add a Person or Group or Date and Time column, except that it is displays external data. SharePoint_Server includes Business Data Web Parts for presenting and interacting with external data and SharePoint_apps_plural, which can also use external data.

Business Connectivity Services 解決方案範例Examples of Business Connectivity Services solutions

您可以使用 Business Connectivity Services 建立許多資料整合解決方案類型。以下是一些範例。You can use Business Connectivity Services to build many types of data integration solutions. Here are some examples.

  • 服務台 提供內部技術支援的企業服務台會使用 Business Connectivity Services。例如,服務台技術人員使用的支援票證和知識庫會儲存在兩個不同的資料庫中,且這兩個資料庫都不在 SharePoint Server。透過 Business Connectivity Services,公司可以擷取這兩個來源的資料、篩選及排序資料,然後在 SharePoint Server 的外部清單中呈現資料以與其互動。此外,服務台技術人員若具有正確設定的權限,則可以處理資料;而有支援問題的使用者只具有搜尋其開放支援票證以檢查狀態的權限。開放支援票證可由工作流程透過預先定義的步驟路由傳送。Help desk Enterprise help desks that provide internal technical support can use Business Connectivity Services. For example, the support tickets and the knowledge base that the help desk technicians use are stored in two separate databases, both of which are not in SharePoint Server. By using Business Connectivity Services, the company can retrieve data from both sources, filter and sort it, and then present it for interaction in an external list in SharePoint Server. What's more, with the correctly configured permissions, the help desk technicians can manipulate the data, while users with support questions only have permissions to search for their open support tickets to check the status. Open support tickets can be routed through predefined steps by workflows.

  • 銷售儀表板 銷售儀表板應用程式可協助銷售人員在組織中,快速找到他們所需的資訊並輸入新資料。銷售訂單及客戶資訊在外部應用程式 (例如 Salesforce.com) 中加以管理,並會整合到使用 Business Connectivity Services 的解決方案中。視銷售人員角色之不同,團隊成員可以檢視銷售分析資訊、個別團隊成員的銷售業績資料、潛在客戶與客戶的連絡資訊及訂單。專業銷售人員可以從網頁瀏覽器檢視其日常行事曆、檢視經理指派給他們的工作、與團隊成員合作、閱讀產業新聞。透過使用 Word 2016,經理可編寫外部系統提供資料的每月情況報告。Sales dashboard A sales dashboard application helps sales associates in an organization quickly find the information that they need and enter new data. Sales orders and customer information are managed in an external application, such as Salesforce.com, and integrated into the solution by using Business Connectivity Services. Depending on their roles, team members can view sales analytics information, individual team members' sales performance data, sales leads, and a customer's contact information and orders. Sales professionals can view their daily calendars, view tasks assigned to them by their managers, collaborate with team members, and read industry news from a web browser. By using Word 2016, managers can author monthly status reports that include data from the external systems.

Business Connectivity Services 與類似解決方案的區別?What distinguishes Business Connectivity Services from similar solutions?

Business Connectivity Services 不過是將外部資料整合到 SharePoint Server 和 Office 2016 用戶端型商務資料解決方案的一種方式。其他方式還包括以 Java 指令碼為基礎的自訂解決方案、自訂資料連線和自訂編碼網頁組件。此外,也提供 Office 應用程式。Office 應用程式可直接存取外部資料,或使用 Business Connectivity Services API 和集中式 Business Connectivity Services 基礎結構。這些方式各有其目的,不過 Business Connectivity Services 提供企業級資料整合的多項優點。Business Connectivity Services is just one way to integrate external data into SharePoint Server and Office 2016 client-based business data solutions. There are custom Java script-based solutions, custom data connections, and custom-coded Web Parts. In addition, apps for Office are also available. apps for Office can access external data directly or use the Business Connectivity Services APIs and the centralized Business Connectivity Services infrastructure. While each of these has its purpose, Business Connectivity Services offers several advantages for enterprise-scale data integration.

集中式基礎結構 Business Connectivity Services 連線到外部的資料,並使用稱為 外部內容類型的定義。外部內容類型為集中儲存並能夠共用 Business Connectivity Services的解決方案。外部內容類型可讓您深度整合外部資料到 SharePoint Server 和 Office 2016的解決方案中。Business Connectivity Services 基礎結構在伺服器和用戶端的環境中皆非常類似。因此,開發人員可以在最低系統管理介入的情況下建立外部內容類型,而該外部內容類型可用於用戶端和伺服器的解決方案。Centralized infrastructure Business Connectivity Services connects to external data using a definition called an external content type. External content types are centrally stored and secured and can be shared by many Business Connectivity Services solutions. External content types allow you to deeply integrate external data into SharePoint Server and Office 2016 solutions. The Business Connectivity Services infrastructure is very similar in server and client environments. Because of this, the developer can create an external content type and with minimal administrative intervention and that external content type can be used in both client and server solutions.

管理的驗證 Business Connectivity Services之集中式基礎結構的另一項優點是處理與外部系統的安全性交易。當開發人員建立外部內容類型時,會包含所要使用之驗證通訊協定和認證的相關資訊。Business Connectivity Services 會將此設定資訊傳送至適當的連接器並建立連線。這表示使用者想使用來自 SharePoint Server 的外部資料時,不需要提供其他任何認證。用戶端的使用者必須了解外部系統所需的認證,並且在第一次存取外部資料時提供認證。這些認證接著會儲存在 Windows 用戶端上。Managed authentication Another advantage of the centralized infrastructure in Business Connectivity Services is that it handles the security transactions with the external system. When the developer creates the external content type, information about which authentication protocol and credentials to use is included. Business Connectivity Services passes this configuration information to the appropriate connector and the connection is made. This means that users don't have to provide any additional credentials when they want to work with the external data from SharePoint Server. On the client-side, users must know the credentials that the external system requires and provide the credentials the first time that they access the external data. The credentials are then stored on the Windows client.

搜尋外部內容 由於 Business Connectivity Services 基礎結構內建於 SharePoint Server,因此可使用一般 SharePoint Server 功能,例如 [搜尋]。外部資料會定義為 SharePoint Server 可以編目及編製索引的內容來源。來自外部資料的搜尋結果與 SharePoint Server 的其他所有搜尋結果一樣,都會經過安全性調整,也就是使用者只會看到其有權限檢視的結果。Search external content Because the Business Connectivity Services infrastructure is built into SharePoint Server, it takes advantage of common SharePoint Server features such as Search. The external data is defined as a content source that SharePoint Server crawls and indexes. The search results from external data are security trimmed — meaning the user only sees what they have permissions to see — just as all other search results in SharePoint Server are.

Business Connectivity Services 的運作方式?How does Business Connectivity Services work?

Business Connectivity Services 具有伺服器端元件和用戶端元件。Business Connectivity Services 解決方案在單一解決方案中可以包含任一種元件或同時包含這兩種元件。這兩個元件堆疊可以彼此完全獨立運作。不過,其結構方式非常相似,都是使用相同的設定資料。伺服器端的設定資料儲存在外部內容類型中,而外部內容類型則儲存在 Business Data Connectivity (BDC) 中繼資料存放區資料庫中。用戶端的設定資料儲存在 BDC 用戶端快取之用戶端的 BDC 模型中,而 BDC 模型不過是匯出至 XML 檔案的一種外部內容類型版本。此 XML 檔案接著會匯入 Office 用戶端。伺服器元件堆疊和用戶端元件堆疊會存取相同的外部內容來源。這兩個堆疊可透過使用者介面、定義外部連線的資料及外部系統的儲存位置和方式,以及服務的執行位置來區別。Business Connectivity Services has server-side components and client-side components. Business Connectivity Services solutions can include one or the other or both in a single solution. These two component stacks work completely independently of one another. However, they are structured very similarly. They both use the same configuration data. For the server-side, the configuration data is stored in an external content type. External content types are stored in the Business Data Connectivity (BDC) Metadata Store database. For the client-side, the configuration data is stored in a BDC model on the client in the BDC client-side cache. The BDC model is just a version of the external content type that is exported to an XML file. The XML file is imported into the Office client. The server component stack and the client component stack can access the same external content sources. The two stacks are distinguished by the user interfaces, where and how the data that define the external connection and external system are stored, and where the services run.

伺服器端解決方案Server-side solutions

在 Business Connectivity Services 伺服器端解決方案中,使用者只能在 SharePoint 網站上使用瀏覽器與外部資料互動。此 SharePoint 網站可以是支援外部清單、外部資料欄、外部網頁組件或 SharePoint 應用程式的任何 SharePoint 網站類型,以支援使用瀏覽器進行外部資料的 SharePoint 企業搜尋。In Business Connectivity Services server-side solutions, users interact only with external data in a browser on a SharePoint site. This can be on any type of SharePoint site that supports external lists, external data columns, external Web Parts, or apps for SharePoint. SharePoint Enterprise Search of external data is supported in the browser as well.

為了讓 Business Connectivity Services 連線至外部資料來源並與其中的資料互動,外部系統必須以 Business Connectivity Services 理解的方式在外部內容類型中進行定義。外部內容類型包含外部系統的名稱及其資料來源類型、用於連線的驗證類型、可連線的目的地、可執行的作業,以及 (選擇性) 可使用的任何篩選及排序指示,以僅傳回所需資料並以正確順序排列資料。For Business Connectivity Services to connect to an external data source and interact with the data there, that external system must be defined in an external content type in a way that Business Connectivity Services understands. An external content type contains the name of the external system and what kind of data source it is, what type of authentication to use for connections, where it can connect to, which operations can be performed, and, optionally, any filters and sorting instructions to be used so that only the desired data is returned and that the data is in the correct order.

用戶端解決方案Client-side solutions

在 Business Connectivity Services 解決方案的用戶端版本中,Office 應用程式會與外部資料互動。用戶端解決方案可以獨立於 SharePoint 執行。並非所有 Office 應用程式都可與外部資料完全互動,某些應用程式只會以唯讀方式與其互動。下表提供支援之作業的詳細資訊、應用程式存取資料的方式,以及建立連線的方式。In the client-side version of Business Connectivity Services solutions, the Office applications interact with external data. A client-side solution can run independently of SharePoint. Not all of the Office applications interact with external data and some of them only do so in a read-only manner. The following table provides details on which operations are supported, how the applications can access the data, and how the connection is made.

表:Business Connectivity Services 中支援的應用程式和作業Table: Applications and operations supported in Business Connectivity Services

應用程式Application 支援的作業Supported operations 連線或離線存取外部資料Access external data online or offline ClickOnce 或匯入 BDC 模型ClickOnce or import BDC model
WordWord
唯讀Read only
線上Online
匯入 BDC 模型Import BDC model
AccessAccess
CRUDQCRUDQ
線上Online
匯入 BDC 模型Import BDC model
VisioVisio
唯讀Read only
連線和離線Online and offline
匯入 BDC 模型Import BDC model
InfoPathInfoPath
CRUDQCRUDQ
連線和離線Online and offline
匯入 BDC 模型Import BDC model
ExcelExcel
CRUDQCRUDQ
線上Online
匯入 BDC 模型Import BDC model