SharePoint Server 2016 監視概觀Overview of monitoring in SharePoint Server

摘要:了解設定監視、檢視 SharePoint 報表和記錄,以及使用 SharePoint Health Analyzer 規則。Summary: Learn about configuring monitoring, viewing SharePoint reports and logs, and using SharePoint Health Analyzer rules.

監視的主要目的是為了確保狀況良好的 SharePoint Server 2016 環境,以便您達成服務效能目標 (例如縮短回應時間)。您可從 SharePoint 管理中心網站、System Center Management Pack for SharePoint Server 2013 及 Microsoft PowerShell 指令碼使用監視功能以監視 SharePoint Server 2016 環境和服務。The primary goal of monitoring is to ensure a healthy SharePoint Server 2016 environment so that you can achieve service performance objectives such as short response time. You can use the monitoring features from the SharePoint Central Administration website, System Center Management Pack for SharePoint Server 2013, and Microsoft PowerShell scripts to monitor the SharePoint Server 2016 environment and services.

記錄和報告會追蹤 SharePoint Server 2016 環境和服務狀態,您可從記錄資料庫讀取記錄。使用記錄資料庫的優點是,您可設定檢視並將記錄匯出至 Excel。來自於管理中心的記錄和資料可協助您了解 SharePoint Server 2016 系統的執行狀況、分析並修復問題,以及檢視站台的指標。此外,System Center Management Pack for SharePoint Server 2013 可提供端對端監視及報告系統,您可用以監視 SharePoint Server 2016。Logs and reports track SharePoint Server 2016 environment and service status. You can read the logs from the logging database. The advantage of using logging database is that you can configure your view and export the logs to Excel. The logs and reports from Central Administration help you understand how the SharePoint Server 2016 system is running, analyze and repair problems, and view metrics for the sites. In addition, System Center Management Pack for SharePoint Server 2013 provides an end-to-end monitoring and reporting system that you can use to monitor SharePoint Server 2016.

監視 SharePoint Server 2016 環境包括下列工作:Monitoring the SharePoint Server 2016 environment includes the following tasks:

  • 設定監視的各個方面以符合業務需求。Configuring the various aspects of monitoring to suit business needs.

  • 檢視報表和記錄以監視 SharePoint Server 2016 環境。Viewing reports and logs to monitor the SharePoint Server 2016 environment.

  • 使用 SharePoint Health Analyzer 監視並解決問題Monitoring and resolving problems by using SharePoint Health Analyzer

在 SharePoint 環境中設定監視Configuring monitoring in a SharePoint environment

SharePoint Server 2016 安裝時會使用其監視功能的預設設定。但您可能需要變更其中一些設定以充分符合業務需求。這些設定包含診斷記錄與 Usage and Health Data Collection。 診斷記錄 會收集有關 SharePoint Server 2016 伺服器陣列環境的資料; 使用狀況與狀況資料 則是針對 SharePoint Server 2016 服務而收集。SharePoint Server 2016 comes installed with default settings for its monitoring features. However, you might want to change some of these settings to better suit business needs. These settings include diagnostic logging and usage and health data collection. Diagnostic logging collects data about the SharePoint Server 2016 farm environment. Usage and health data is collected for SharePoint Server 2016 services.

診斷記錄Diagnostic logging

SharePoint Server 2016 在診斷記錄中收集可以用於疑難排解 SharePoint Server 2016 環境。在大部分情況下,預設設定即已足夠,但是依據伺服器陣列的業務需求與週期,您可能需要變更這些設定。例如,如果您要部署新功能或對環境進行大範圍的變更,則可能需要將記錄層級變更為更詳細的層級,以在變更程序中擷取更多有關系統狀態的資料,或者變更為較低層級,以減小記錄大小並減少記錄資料所需的資源。如需最佳作法的詳細資訊,請參閱在 SharePoint Server 中設定診斷記錄SharePoint Server 2016 collects data in the diagnostic log that you can use to troubleshoot the SharePoint Server 2016 farm environment. The default settings are sufficient for most situations, but depending upon the business needs and lifecycle of the farm, you might want to change these settings. For example, if you are deploying a new feature or making large-scale changes to the environment, you might want to change the logging level to either a more verbose level, to capture as much data about the state of the system during the changes, or to a lower level to reduce the size of the log and the resources that are required to log the data. For more information and best practices, see Configure diagnostic logging in SharePoint Server.

Usage and Health Data Collection 與計時器工作Usage and health data collection and timer job

使用狀況和狀況資料是收集用以顯示 SharePoint Server 2016 的使用狀況。系統會將使用狀況和狀況資料寫入記錄資料夾及記錄資料庫。使用狀況及狀況資料可能包括效能計數器資料、事件記錄資料、計時器服務資料、網站集合與網站的指標、搜尋流量資料或 Web 伺服器的各方面效能。系統使用此資料建立健康情況報告和管理報告。Usage and health data is collected to show how SharePoint Server 2016 is used. The system writes usage and health data to the logging folder and the logging database. The usage and health data might consist of performance counter data, event log data, timer service data, metrics for site collections and sites, search usage data, or various performance aspects of the Web servers. The system uses this data to create health reports, and administrative reports.

SharePoint Server 2016 中的許多功能需仰賴計時器工作以根據排程執行服務。SharePoint Server 2016 使用特定計時器工作以定期監視工作並收集監視資料。計時器工作指定要執行的服務及該服務的啟動頻率。SharePoint Timer Service (SPTimerV4) 會執行計時器工作。Many features in SharePoint Server 2016 rely on timer jobs to run services according to a schedule. SharePoint Server 2016 uses specific timer jobs to regularly monitor tasks and collect monitoring data. A timer job specifies the service to run and how frequently the service should be started. The SharePoint Timer Service (SPTimerV4) runs timer jobs.

您可能想要提高或降低計時器工作的執行頻率。此外,如果作業收集您不感興趣的資料,則您可能會想停用這些工作。您可以在計時器工作上執行下列工作:You might want timer jobs to run more frequently or less frequently. You might even want to disable jobs that collect data that you are not interested in. You can perform the following tasks on timer jobs:

  • 修改計時器工作執行所依據的排程。Modify the schedule that the timer job runs on.

  • 立即執行計時器工作。Run timer jobs immediately.

  • 啟用或停用計時器工作。Enable or disable timer jobs.

  • 檢視計時器工作的狀態。您可以檢視目前排定的工作、失敗的工作、目前執行的工作,以及完整的計時器工作歷程記錄。View timer job status. You can view currently scheduled jobs, failed jobs, currently running jobs, and a complete timer job history.

如需詳細資訊,請參閱在 SharePoint Server 2016 中設定 SharePoint Health Analyzer 計時器工作For more information, see Configure SharePoint Health Analyzer timer jobs in SharePoint Server 2016.

檢視 SharePoint 報表和記錄Viewing SharePoint reports and logs

可以設定 SharePoint Server 2016 以收集伺服器狀態、網站流量及搜尋的資料並建立報表。請參閱下列資源:SharePoint Server 2016 can be configured to collect data and create reports about server status, site use and search. See the following resources:

您可使用 Microsoft PowerShell 檢視記錄,或從記錄資料庫直接讀取記錄。您可監視快取效能和搜尋,亦可檢視計時器工作狀態。You can view logs by using Microsoft PowerShell or read the logs directly from the logging database. You can monitor cache performance and search. And you can also view the timer job status.

下列資源提供有關報表和記錄的詳細資訊:The following resources give more information about reports and logs:

使用 SharePoint Health Analyzer 監視並解決問題Monitoring and resolving problems by using SharePoint Health Analyzer

SharePoint Server 2016 包括一個名為 SharePoint Health Analyzer 的整合狀況分析工具,其可用於檢查潛在的設定、效能及流量問題。SharePoint Health Analyzer 會根據伺服器陣列中的伺服器執行預先定義的執行狀況規則。執行狀況規則將執行測試,並傳回測試結果的狀態。若有規則失敗,SharePoint Health Analyzer 會在 [檢閱問題與方案] 頁面上建立提醒,並將狀態寫入 Windows 事件記錄。您可以按一下警告檢視問題的詳細資訊以及解決問題的步驟,還可以開啟引發警告的規則並變更其設定。SharePoint Server 2016 includes an integrated health analysis tool that is named SharePoint Health Analyzer that you can use to check for potential configuration, performance, and usage problems. SharePoint Health Analyzer runs predefined health rules against servers in the farm. A health rule runs a test and returns a status that tells you the outcome of the test. When any rule fails, SharePoint Health Analyzer creates an alert on the Review problems and solutions page and writes status to the Windows Event log. You can click an alert to view more information about the problem and see steps to resolve the problem. You can also open the rule that raised the alert and change its settings.

您也可以編輯執行狀況分析器報告清單項目、建立自訂檢視、將清單項目匯出至 Excel、訂閱清單的 RSS 摘要以及執行許多其他工作。每個執行狀況規則都屬於下列類別之一:安全性、效能、設定或可用性。You can also edit Health Analyzer Reports list items, create custom views, export the list items into Excel, subscribe to the RSS feed for the list, and perform many other tasks. Each health rule falls in one of the following categories: Security, Performance, Configuration, or Availability.

所有狀況規則皆可透過管理中心的 [監視] 頁面取得。伺服器陣列管理員可設定特定狀況規則以執行下列動作:All health rules are available through Central Administration, on the Monitoring page. Farm administrators can configure specific health rules to do the following:

  • 啟用或停用規則。Enable or disable rules.

  • 設定規則以預先定義的排程執行。Configure rules to run on a predefined schedule.

  • 定義規則的執行範圍。Define the scope where the rules run.

  • 在發現問題時接收電子郵件通知。Receive e-mail alerts when problems are found.

  • 根據已定義排程執行或即時執行規則。Run rules on a defined schedule or on an impromptu basis.

如需設定這些設定的詳細資訊,請參閱在 SharePoint Server 中設定 SharePoint Health Analyzer 規則For more information about configuring these settings, see Configure SharePoint Health Analyzer rules in SharePoint Server.

如需有關狀況規則以及如何在 SharePoint Server 2016 進行疑難排解的詳細資訊,請參閱SharePoint Server 2016 的 SharePoint 狀況分析器規則參考For more information about the health rules and how to troubleshoot problems in SharePoint Server 2016, see SharePoint Health Analyzer rules reference for SharePoint Server 2016.