規劃 SharePoint Server 中的摘要和分散式快取服務Plan for feeds and the Distributed Cache service in SharePoint Server

摘要: 了解如何規劃實作 SharePoint Server 2013 和 SharePoint Server 2016 的微型部落格功能、新聞摘要及分散式快取服務。Summary: Learn how to plan to implement microblog features, the Newsfeed, and the Distributed Cache service in SharePoint Server 2013 and SharePoint Server 2016.

在 SharePoint Server 中,微型部落格功能可讓使用者針對其感興趣的主題進行簡短的公眾交談。新聞摘要和分散式快取服務支援 SharePoint Server 的此微型部落格功能。In SharePoint Server, microblog functionality enables users to have short, public conversations about topics they are interested in. The Newsfeed and the Distributed Cache service support this microblog functionality in SharePoint Server. .

規劃摘要Plan for the feeds

網站新聞摘要Site feeds

網站新聞摘要提供新聞摘要功能給特定的使用者群組。您可以在小組網站上使用網站新聞摘要。規劃在 SharePoint Server 的小組網站上使用網站新聞摘要時,小組網站必須使用相同的 User Profile Service 應用程式作為「我的網站」。「小組網站」和「我的網站」可以位於相同或不同的伺服器陣列,但必須使用相同的 User Profile Service 應用程式。如果您的小組網站是在來自「我的網站主機」的其他伺服器陣列上,便需要在這兩個伺服器陣列之間使用伺服器對伺服器驗證。在 SharePoint Server 中,建議「我的網站」主機 Web 應用程式和架設小組網站的 Web 應用程式使用相同的服務帳戶。此外,「我的網站」主機網站集合必須是 SharePoint Server 「我的網站」主機,且使用者必須具有 SharePoint Server「我的網站」才能使用網站新聞摘要功能。請考慮在包含小組網站的 Web 應用程式上啟用自助網站架設,讓使用者可以輕鬆從其「我的網站」建立小組網站。在 SharePoint Server 部署中,其中使用者僅使用 [關於我]**** 頁面 (管理員已將「我的網站」的其餘功能設定為停用),使用者仍然可以使用網站新聞摘要。Site feeds provide newsfeed functionality to a specific group of users. Site feeds are available on team sites. When planning to use site feeds on your team sites in SharePoint_Server, the team sites must consume the same User Profile Service application as My Sites. Team Sites and My Sites can be located on the same or different farms, but must use the same User Profile service application. If you have team sites on a different farm from the My Site Host, server-to-server authentication between the two farms is required. In SharePoint_Server, we recommend that the same service account be used for both the MySite_singular host web application and the web application hosting the team sites. Additionally, the MySite_singular host site collection must be a SharePoint Server MySite_singular host, and the user must have a SharePoint Server MySite_singular to use the site feed feature. Consider enabling Self Service Site Creation on the web application that contains the team sites so that users can easily create team sites from their MySite_singular. In a SharePoint_Server deployment where users only use About Me pages (the administrator has configured the rest of the MySite_singular features to be unavailable), site feeds are still available to users.

當管理員從 SharePoint Server 2013 Service Pack 1 (SP1) 升級小組網站時,必須啟用已升級小組網站上的網站新聞摘要,方法是先啟用小組網站上的 [追蹤內容]**** 功能,然後再啟用小組網站上的 [網站新聞摘要]**** 功能。接著使用者即可從網站新聞摘要追蹤實體及檢視文章。When an administrator upgrades team sites from MOSS_1st_CurrentVer_SP1, they must activate site feeds on the upgraded team site by first enabling the Following Content feature on the team site, and then enabling the Site Feeds feature on the team site. Following entities and seeing posts from Site Feeds are then available to the user.

注意

如果使用者在管理員啟用 [網站新聞摘要]**** 功能之前便開始追蹤網站,已升級的小組網站不會出現在 [共用對象]**** 功能表中。當管理員啟用 [網站新聞摘要]**** 功能時,使用者必須停止追蹤網站,再重新追蹤網站。網站現在會出現在 [共用對象]**** 功能表中。If users start following the site before the administrator enables the Site Feeds feature, the upgraded team site will not appear in the Share With menu. When the administrator enables the Site Feeds feature, the user must Stop Following the site, and Follow the site again. The site will now appear in the Share With menu.

我的網站規劃My Sites planning

使用者可以在微型部落格文章中包含圖像。當文章包含圖像時,SharePoint Server 會將該圖像上傳至使用者之「我的網站」上的私人資料夾。此圖像會自動縮小檔案大小及維度,以最佳化圖像在使用者之「我的網站」上使用的空間。指定「我的網站」的配額時,管理員應規劃此額外的圖像儲存空間需求。如果使用者在其「我的網站」上沒有可用的儲存空間,當使用者嘗試張貼包含圖像的訊息時,會看到錯誤。A user can include an image in microblog posts. When posts include an image, SharePoint Server uploads that image to a private folder on the user's My Site. This image is automatically reduced in file size and dimensions to optimize how much space is consumed by the image on the user's My Site. When assigning quotas for My Sites, an administrator should plan for this additional image storage requirement. If the user does not have available storage on their My Site and the user is attempting to post a message that has an image, an error is displayed to the user.

通知Notifications

通知是系統產生的電子郵件訊息,會通知使用者其參與的往來書信中發生活動,或有人開始追蹤他們。通知需要將 SharePoint Server 的外寄電子郵件設定設為必要條件。Notifications are system-generated email messages that notify the user of an activity that occurs in a thread they contributed to, or that someone has started following them. Notifications require the configuration of outgoing email settings in SharePoint Server as a prerequisite.

升級Upgrade

從 SharePoint Server 2013 Service Pack 1 (SP1) 升級為 SharePoint Server 2016 時,SharePoint Server 2013 Service Pack 1 (SP1) 的新聞摘要會升級為 SharePoint Server 2016 的舊版功能。這表示 SharePoint Server 2013 Service Pack 1 (SP1) 新聞摘要已被取代,但是仍可在 SharePoint Server 中使用。管理員必須執行特殊設定步驟,才能讓使用者存取已升級的 SharePoint Server 2013 Service Pack 1 (SP1) 新聞摘要。您可以在 SharePoint Server 中使用儲存在 SharePoint Server 2013 Service Pack 1 (SP1) 新聞摘要的所有資料。但是,管理員無法將資料從 SharePoint Server 2013 Service Pack 1 (SP1) 新聞摘要移轉至 SharePoint Server 新聞摘要,因為這兩種摘要大不相同。When upgrading from SharePoint Server 2013 with Service Pack 1 (SP1) to SharePoint Server 2016, the newsfeeds from SharePoint Server 2013 with Service Pack 1 (SP1) are upgraded as a legacy feature in SharePoint Server 2016. This means that the SharePoint Server 2013 with Service Pack 1 (SP1) newsfeed is being deprecated, but is still available from within SharePoint Server. An administrator must perform special configuration steps to allow users access to the upgraded SharePoint Server 2013 with Service Pack 1 (SP1) newsfeed. Any data that is stored in the SharePoint Server 2013 with Service Pack 1 (SP1) newsfeed is available in SharePoint Server. However, an administrator cannot migrate data from the SharePoint Server 2013 with Service Pack 1 (SP1) newsfeed to the SharePoint Server newsfeed because the feeds differ significantly.

Outlook Social ConnectorOutlook Social Connector

Outlook Social Connector 顯示 Microsoft Outlook 的摘要資訊及 Outlook 郵件、會議等。Outlook Social Connector 會增加 SharePoint Server 伺服器陣列上的系統負載。這是因為 Outlook Social Connector 經常存取「我的網站」功能並將資訊推入 Outlook。這會影響 SharePoint Server 伺服器陣列的效能,因此設計伺服器陣列時應列入考量。The Outlook Social Connector displays feed information in Microsoft Outlook alongside Outlook messages, meetings, and so on. The Outlook Social Connector increases system load on a SharePoint Server server farm. This is because the Outlook Social Connector frequently accesses My Sites features and pushes the information into Outlook. This affects the performance of the SharePoint Server farm and should be considered when designing the server farm.

搜尋及安全性調整Search and security trimming

[所有人]**** 檢視和 [跟隨]**** 檢視包含所有使用者都可存取的公眾交談 (文章和回覆)。當公眾交談新增至 SharePoint Server 的搜尋索引之後,使用者即可搜尋及檢視包含這些公眾交談的搜尋結果。由於未指派權限給公眾交談,因此不會將安全性調整套用至這些交談。如果使用者需要將安全性調整套用至特定交談,請使用小組網站上的網站新聞摘要。在小組網站上,將權限指派給可參與交談的使用者群組。然後根據指派的權限對搜尋結果進行安全性調整。The Everyone view and Following view contain public conversations (posts and replies), which all users can access. When public conversations are added to the search index in SharePoint_Server, users can search for and view search results that include these public conversations. Security trimming does not apply to public conversations because there are no permissions assigned to the conversation. If users require security trimming to be applied to specific conversations, use site feeds on team sites. On the team site, assign permissions to the group of users who can participate in the conversation. The search results are then security trimmed based on the assigned permissions.

請考慮如何設定索引器的累加編目排程,因為這會影響交談在使用者搜尋結果中顯示的速度。如果使用者積極地使用微型部落格功能張貼文章和回覆,預期會在搜尋結果中更快看到交談。在此情況下,請考慮縮短更新間隔。Consider how you configure the incremental crawl schedule of the indexer because this affects how quickly conversations appear in the search results of users. If users actively use the microblog features to make posts and replies, they might expect to see conversations appear in the search results quicker. In this case, consider shorter intervals between updates.

規劃分散式快取服務Plan for the Distributed Cache service

當您規劃實作分散式快取服務時,請考慮以下列兩種模式來部署分散式快取服務:專屬模式或共置模式。在專屬模式中,會停止執行分散式快取服務之應用程式伺服器上的所有服務 (分散式快取服務除外)。在共置模式中,分散式快取服務會與應用程式伺服器上的其他服務一起執行。專屬模式是部署分散式快取服務的建議模式。When you plan to implement the Distributed Cache service, consider that the Distributed Cache service can be deployed in two modes: dedicated mode or collocated mode. In dedicated mode, all services other than the Distributed Cache service are stopped on the application server that runs the Distributed Cache service. In collocated mode, the Distributed Cache service runs together with other services on the application server. Dedicated mode is the recommended mode in which to deploy the Distributed Cache service.

重要

如果您在 SharePoint Server (使用 AppFabric 用戶端 API) 中使用自訂應用程,或建立自訂快取,則應該建立個別的 AppFabric 快取叢集以支援自訂應用程式。不要使用支援 SharePoint Server 伺服器陣列的 AppFabric 快取叢集。請從 SharePoint Server 伺服器陣列專用之伺服器的個別伺服器上,為自訂應用程式執行個別 AppFabric 快取叢集。If you are using custom applications in SharePoint Server which use the AppFabric client APIs, or are creating custom caches, you should create a separate AppFabric cache cluster to support your custom applications. Do not use the AppFabric cache cluster supporting your SharePoint Server farm. Run your separate AppFabric cache cluster for your custom applications on separate servers from the servers dedicated to your SharePoint Server farm.

重要

請不要使用含有符號 $ 的服務帳戶名稱。Do not use service account names that contain the symbol $.

安裝 Windows Server AppFabric 必要條件Install the Windows Server AppFabric prerequisite

當 SharePoint Server 必要條件安裝程式執行時,會安裝 Windows Server AppFabric。這是在執行 SharePoint Server 之伺服器上安裝 Windows Server AppFabric 的建議方法。如果執行必要條件安裝程式之前已在伺服器上安裝 Windows Server AppFabric,則必須解除安裝 Windows Server AppFabric,再執行必要條件安裝程式。如果管理員決定手動安裝 Windows Server AppFabric,管理員必須安裝 CacheAdmin、CachingService 及 CacheClient 功能,並使用 /gac 參數。如需詳細資訊,請參閱 MSDN Library 中的 自動化安裝套件 (AppFabric 1.1 快取)When the SharePoint Server prerequisite installer runs, it installs Windows Server AppFabric. This is the recommended approach for installing Windows Server AppFabric on a server that is running SharePoint Server. If you already have Windows Server AppFabric installed on the server before you run the prerequisite installer, you must uninstall Windows Server AppFabric before you run the prerequisite installer. If an administrator decides to install Windows Server AppFabric manually, the administrator must install the CacheAdmin, CachingService, and CacheClient features, and use the /gac switch. For more information see Automated Installation (AppFabric 1.1 Caching) in the MSDN Library.

分散式快取服務的容量規劃Capacity planning for the Distributed Cache service

本文件小節可協助管理員規劃主控分散式快取服務之伺服器的架構及記憶體需求。分散式快取服務僅儲存記憶體中的資料,且不需依賴 SharePoint Server 中的資料庫。此外,SharePoint Server 的部分服務需要大量記憶體資源,而可能影響分散式快取服務的效能。分散式快取服務的效能深受用於本身之架構及記憶體配置的影響。This section of the document helps administrators plan the architecture and memory requirements for servers hosting the Distributed Cache service. The Distributed Cache service stores data in-memory only and does not have a dependency on databases in SharePoint Server. Additionally, some services in SharePoint Server require significant memory resources which may affect the performance of the Distributed Cache service. The performance of the Distributed Cache service is significantly affected by both the choice of architecture and memory allocation for the Distributed Cache service.

下表列出適合分散式快取服務的不同記憶體及架構建議 (視使用者總數而定)。The following table lists different memory and architecture recommendations for the Distributed Cache service, depending on the total number of users.

部署大小Deployment size 小型伺服器陣列Small farm 中型伺服器陣列Medium farm 大型伺服器陣列Large farm
使用者總數Total number of users
< 10,000< 10,000
< 100,000< 100,000
< 500,000< 500,000
分散式快取服務的快取大小建議值Recommended cache size for the Distributed Cache service
1 GB1 GB
2.5 GB2.5 GB
12 GB12 GB
分散式快取服務 (為上述建議快取大小的兩倍,加上為作業系統保留的 2 GB) 的總記憶體配置Total memory allocation for the Distributed Cache service (double the recommended cache size above, plus reserve 2 GB for the OS)
2 GB2 GB
5 GB5 GB
34 GB34 GB
> [!NOTE]> 分散式快取服務的快取大小不可超過 16 GB,因此我們建議您在大型伺服陣列環境中使用兩台伺服器。The Distributed Cache service, cache size should not exceed 16 GB so we recommend that you use two servers in a large farm environment.
建議的架構組態Recommended architectural configuration
專用伺服器或共置於前端伺服器Dedicated server or co-located on a front-end server
專用伺服器Dedicated server
專用伺服器Dedicated server
每個伺服器陣列快取主機數量下限Minimum cache hosts per farm
1(1)
1(1)
22.

注意

在 SharePoint Server 伺服器陣列中,必須至少要有一部執行分散式快取服務的快取主機。In a SharePoint Server farm, there must be at least one cache host running the Distributed Cache service.

記憶體配置Memory allocation

安裝 SharePoint Server 時,分散式快取服務用於快取大小的記憶體配置會設為預設值 (總實體記憶體的 10%)。管理員可以使用 Update-SPDistributedCacheSize Cmdlet 變更分散式快取服務的記憶體配置。可以指派快取叢集中每部快取主機最多 16 GB 的記憶體給分散式快取服務。建議您為伺服器上執行的其他服務保留 2 GB 記憶體,然後將其餘記憶體指定給分散式快取服務。如需詳細資訊,請參閱< 在 SharePoint Server 中管理分散式快取服務>。The Distributed Cache service's memory allocation for the cache size is set to a default value of 10 percent of total physical memory when SharePoint Server installs. An administrator can change the memory allocation for the Distributed Cache service by using the Update-SPDistributedCacheSize cmdlet. The Distributed Cache service can be assigned a maximum of 16GB of memory per cache host in the cache cluster. We recommend that you reserve 2 GB of memory for other services that are running on the server, and assign the remaining memory to the Distributed Cache service. For more information, see Manage the Distributed Cache service in SharePoint Server.

重要

Windows 伺服器 AppFabric 1.1 可能會造成在作業系統層級的高記憶體使用量。這會影響分散式快取服務,因此如果您配置 16 GB 的記憶體,則在分散式快取伺服器上仍應該有至少 34 GB 的記憶體。這包括保留給作業系統的 2 GB 記憶體。如需詳細資訊,請參閱<Windows 伺服器 AppFabric 的記憶體耗用量行為>和<AppFabric 1.1 快取>:快取的主機所配置的記憶體不能超過電腦上可用記憶體的 50%Windows Server AppFabric 1.1 can cause high memory usage on the operating system level. This affects the Distributed Cache Service so if you allocate 16 GB of memory you should have at least 34 GB of memory on the Distributed Cache server. This includes 2 GB of memory reserved for the operating system. For more information, see Windows Server AppFabric Memory Consumption Behavior and AppFabric 1.1 Caching: The memory allocated to cache hosts must not exceed 50% of the available memory on the computer.

重要

在總實體記憶體超過 16 GB 的伺服器上,最多可配置 16 GB 記憶體給分散式快取服務。如果配置 16 GB 以上的記憶體給分散式快取服務,伺服器可能會不預期地停止回應超過 10 秒。On a server that has more than 16 GB of total physical memory, allocate a maximum of 16 GB of memory to the Distributed Cache service. If you allocate more than 16 GB of memory to the Distributed Cache service, the server might unexpectedly stop responding for more than 10 seconds.

如果需要更多記憶體,您可以設定分散式快取服務在多部應用程式伺服器上執行。在此情況下,會跨執行分散式快取服務的所有伺服器進行快取,然後作為支援整個伺服器陣列的一個快取。若要新增其他應用程式伺服器,請使用 [SharePoint 設定精靈] 將新的應用程式伺服器加入伺服器陣列。您應該決定新的應用程式伺服器要在專屬模式或共置模式中執行。您必須確定指派給分散式快取服務的記憶體配置,與指派給執行分散式快取服務之所有伺服器的記憶體配置相同。快取資料只會儲存在一部伺服器上,而不會儲存在兩部伺服器上。如需詳細資訊,請參閱<在 SharePoint Server 中管理分散式快取服務>。If you require more memory, you can configure the Distributed Cache service to run on several application servers. In this case, the cache spans all the servers that are running the Distributed Cache service, and acts as one cache that supports the entire farm. To add another application server, join the new application server to the server farm by using the SharePoint Configuration Wizard. You should decide whether the new application server should run in dedicated or collocated mode. You must ensure that the memory allocation assigned to the Distributed Cache service is the same on all servers that are running the Distributed Cache service. Cached data is stored on one server, not both servers. For more information, see Manage the Distributed Cache service in SharePoint Server.

當分散式快取服務在共置模式中執行時,應該增加伺服器的實體記憶體,並停止所有非必要的服務。不建議在與分散式快取服務所在相同的伺服器上執行下列任何服務或應用程式:When the Distributed Cache service runs in collocated mode, the physical memory of the server should be increased and all non-essential services stopped. We do not recommend that any of the following services or applications run on the same server as the Distributed Cache service:

  • SQL Server 2008 或 SQL Server 2012SQL Server 2008 or SQL Server 2012

  • 搜尋服務Search service

  • SharePoint 中的 Excel Services (僅適用於 SharePoint Server 2013)Excel Services in SharePoint (only available in SharePoint Server 2013)

  • Project Server servicesProject Server services

規劃開發人員工作站時,開發人員工作站的總實體記憶體至少應該有 32 GB。在開發人員工作站上,會以單一伺服器部署的形式來安裝 SharePoint Server。這表示會在共置模式中部署分散式快取服務。在共置模式中,會競用記憶體資源。若要管理記憶體資源配置,開發人員可以關閉任何未使用的服務,或定期重新啟動 SQL Server。When planning for developer workstations, the developer's workstation should have a minimum of 32 GB of total physical memory. On developer workstations, SharePoint Server is installed as a single server deployment. This means that the Distributed Cache service is deployed in collocated mode. In collocated mode, there will be competition for memory resources. To manage memory resource allocation, a developer can shut down any services that are not used, or they can periodically restart SQL Server.

重要

分散式快取服務可在實體伺服器或虛擬伺服器上執行。使用虛擬化時,請勿使用動態記憶體來管理其他虛擬機器與分散式快取伺服器之間的記憶體資源共用。您必須修正虛擬化之分散式快取伺服器的記憶體配置。The Distributed Cache service can run on either a physical or virtual server. When using virtualization, do not use Dynamic Memory to manage shared memory resources among other virtual machines and the Distributed Cache servers. The memory allocation for virtualized Distributed Cache servers must be fixed.

分散式快取服務設定順序Distributed Cache service configuration sequence

在未規劃的情況下啟動及停止分散式快取服務會導致分散式快取服務變得不穩定。執行 SharePoint Server 2013 伺服器陣列的初始設定時,請以下列順序執行以下步驟:Starting and stopping the Distributed Cache service in an unplanned manner results in the Distributed Cache service becoming unstable. When performing the initial configuration of a SharePoint Server 2013 farm, perform the following steps in the following order:

  • 執行 [設定精靈] 將所有伺服器加入伺服器陣列。在伺服器陣列中的所有網頁伺服器和應用程式伺服器上啟動分散式快取服務。Run the Configuration Wizard to join all servers to the server farm. The Distributed Cache service is started on all web servers and application servers in the server farm.

  • 視需要執行其他伺服器陣列設定步驟。Perform other farm configuration steps as necessary.

  • 準備設定分散式快取服務時,確認分散式快取服務在伺服器陣列的所有伺服器上執行。然後在不打算作為快取叢集一部分的所有伺服器上停止分散式快取服務。避免在伺服器上停止並重新啟動分散式快取服務。如果在伺服器上意外停止分散式快取服務,且目前需要重新啟動分散式快取服務,請參閱<在 SharePoint Server 中管理分散式快取服務>中的指引。When ready to configure the Distributed Cache service, confirm that the Distributed Cache service is running on all servers in the server farm. Then proceed to stop the Distributed Cache service on any server that is not intended to be part of the cache cluster. Avoid stopping and restarting the Distributed Cache service on a server. If the Distributed Cache service was accidentally stopped on a server and a restart of the Distributed Cache service is now required, refer to the guidance in Manage the Distributed Cache service in SharePoint Server.

重要

如果在執行分散式快取服務的所有伺服器上停止分散式快取服務,請不要只在一部伺服器上重新啟動分散式快取服務。相反地,請同時在所有分散式快取伺服器上重新啟動分散式快取服務。重新啟動分散式快取服務時,會暫時影響一開始的效能。If you stop the Distributed Cache service on all servers that are running the Distributed Cache service, do not restart the Distributed Cache service on only one server. Instead, restart the Distributed Cache service on all Distributed Cache servers at the same time. While the Distributed Cache service is restarting, initial performance is affected for a short time.

除了上述方法之外,管理員也可以在不打算作為快取叢集一部分的伺服器上安裝 SharePoint Server,但不註冊分散式快取服務。若要達成此目的,請搭配 New-SPConfigurationDatabaseConnect-SPConfigurationDatabase PowerShell Cmdlet 使用 skipRegisterAsDistributedCachehost 參數,或在命令列執行 psconfig.exe 。此參數為選用。As an alternative to the previous method, an administrator can install SharePoint Server without registering the Distributed Cache service on servers not intended to be part of the cache cluster. This can be achieved by using the skipRegisterAsDistributedCachehost parameter with the New-SPConfigurationDatabase or the Connect-SPConfigurationDatabase PowerShell cmdlets, or when running psconfig.exe at the command line. This parameter is optional.

防火牆設定考量Firewall configuration considerations

分散式快取服務使用下列通訊連接埠:The Distributed Cache service uses the following communication ports:

  • 2223322233

  • 2223422234

  • 2223522235

  • 2223622236

注意

如果您在伺服器陣列中使用超過一部快取主機,則必須設定第一部執行分散式快取服務的快取主機允許透過防火牆的輸入 ICMP (ICMPv4) 流量。如需詳細資訊,請參閱在 Windows 8、Windows 7、Windows Vista、Windows Server 2012、Windows Server 2008 或 Windows Server 2008 R2 上建立輸入 ICMP 規則。如果管理員移除叢集中的第一部快取主機,該主機設定為允許透過防火牆的輸入 ICMP (ICMPv4) 流量,您必須將新叢集的第一部伺服器設定為允許透過防火牆的 ICMP (ICMPv4) 流量。If you are using more than one cache host in your server farm, you must configure the first cache host running the Distributed Cache service to allow Inbound ICMP (ICMPv4) traffic through the firewall. For more information, see Create an Inbound ICMP Rule on Windows 8, Windows 7, Windows Vista, Windows Server 2012, Windows Server 2008, or Windows Server 2008 R2. If an administrator removes the first cache host from the cluster which was configured to allow Inbound ICMP (ICMPv4) traffic through the firewall, you must configure the first server of the new cluster to allow Inbound ICMP (ICMPv4) traffic through the firewall.