測試 SharePoint 2013 架構的 WAN 連線Testing WAN connections for SharePoint 2013 architectures

摘要: 了解 WAN 的效能改進、測試結果和 WAN 的測試工具和案例。Summary: Learn about WAN performance improvements, test results, and WAN test tools and scenarios.

SharePoint Server 2013 已經過最佳化,可透過 WAN 連線良好運作。本文說明測試 WAN 連線的效能改善和方法,可協助您判定是否需要跨地區部署多個伺服器陣列。它也包括參與預先發行版計畫之公司的測試結果範例。SharePoint Server 2013 is optimized to perform well over WAN connections. This article describes performance improvements and methods for testing WAN connections to help you determine if you need to deploy more than one farm geographically. It also includes example test results from companies that participated in the prerelease program.

重要概念Key concepts

  • 頻寬 - 以每秒位元數 (bps) 測量的數位通訊系統的資料傳輸能力或傳輸速度。Bandwidth — The data transfer capacity, or speed of transmission, of a digital communications system as measured in bits-per-second (bps).

  • 延遲 - 將要求從網路的一點傳輸至另一個所需的時間。Latency — The time that is required for a request to travel from one point on a network to another point.

  • 網路壅塞 - 當目前的負載逼近或超過網路的特定位置中,針對該負載進行處理時所設計的可用資源和頻寬時,該網路所發生的狀況。封包遺失和延遲與壅塞有關。Network congestion - The condition of a network when the current load approaches or exceeds the available resources and bandwidth that are designed to handle that load at a particular location in the network. Packet loss and delays are associated with congestion.

WAN 的效能改進WAN performance improvements

SharePoint Server 2013 回應輸入要求的速度比舊版快 50%。它利用伺服器與用戶端之間的可用的頻寬時,比舊版提高約 40% 的效率。這些效能增益是搭配使用 Microsoft 環境與全球最忙碌的 SharePoint 伺服器陣列所量化的結果。SharePoint Server 2013 responds to incoming requests 50% faster the previous version. It utilizes available bandwidth between the server and the client almost 40% more efficiently than the previous version. These performance gains were quantified in Microsoft's environment with the busiest SharePoint farms in the world.

由於眾多客戶分散於全球各地,因此 Microsoft Office 365 環境需要比 WAN 連線更高的效能水平。因此,Office 365 在 WAN 狀況中進行廣泛的測試。測試案例包含高達 300 毫秒的延遲,也就是遠高於北美地區與亞洲之間的延遲。A Microsoft Office 365 environment demands higher levels of performance over WAN connections because many customers are geographically distributed. As a result, Office 365 was extensively tested under WAN conditions. Testing scenarios included latencies up to 300 milliseconds, which is much higher than latencies between the North America and Asia.

為了在使用可用頻寬時提升高達 40% 的效能 (相較於舊版),最佳化將目標戶在各種網路堆疊層:To achieve up to 40% improvement in the use of available bandwidth (compared to the previous version), optimizations were targeted to various layers of the network stack:

  • IIS 壓縮及影像壓縮在伺服器端更有效率。IIS compression and image compression are more effective on the server side.

  • 伺服器回應 http 和 https 要求的速度快多了。Servers respond to http and https requests much faster.

  • 低階 TCP/IP 最佳化可更妥善地利用用戶端與伺服器之間開啟的通訊連接埠。連接埠會更快速且更有效地使用。Low-level TCP/IP optimizations result in better use of the communication ports that are open between the client and the server. The ports ramp up quicker and are used more efficiently.

使用者不僅能從增進的效率獲益,也能使用其他功能來提升體驗:Users benefit not only from the performance gains but also from additional features that improve the experience:

  • 主動下載管理和視需要編寫指令碼 - 這些最佳化可優先處理資源和 JavaScript,先下載對使用者最有意義的內容。Active download management and script on demand — these optimizations prioritize resources and JavaScript to download the content that is most meaningful to users first.

  • 藉助動畫平滑轉換頁面,以提供豐富、互動式的瀏覽器體驗。Smooth page transitions with animations provide a rich, interactive browser experience.

  • 最少下載策略 - 當使用者瀏覽 SharePoint 內容時,只會下載頁面的變更並傳送給用戶端。Minimal download strategy — As users browse SharePoint content, only changes to a page are downloaded and sent to the client.

WAN 產品小組測試結果WAN product-team test results

下列圖表詳細說明 SharePoint 的其中一個最受歡迎的頁面 (Teamsite) 之 WAN 效能最佳化效果。這些圖表顯示 SharePoint 2010 和 SharePoint Server 2013 之 Teamsite 的網路追蹤 (包含下列網路狀況):The following diagrams detail the effect of WAN performance optimizations on one of the most popular pages in SharePoint — Teamsite. The diagrams show network traces of Teamsite for both SharePoint 2010 and SharePoint Server 2013 with the following network conditions:

  • 大約 300 毫秒的延遲往返時間Approximately 300 ms latency roundtrip

  • 伺服器與用戶端之間的 1 mpbs 頻寬連線1 mpbs bandwidth connection between the server and clients

相較於一般的全球 WAN 連線,這些狀況代表較高的延遲和較低的頻寬。然而,具備超遠距網站的客戶可能會發現自己位於此範圍內 (例如,採礦、石油和天然氣,及全球化的建築公司)。1 mpbs 頻寬的連線比一般的行動電話連線還要慢。These conditions represent higher latencies and lower bandwidths than are typical for global WAN connections. However, some customers who have extremely remote sites find themselves within this range (for example, mining, oil and gas, and global construction companies). 1 mpbs bandwidth connection is lower than a typical mobile phone connection.

下圖示範 SharePoint Server 2013 如何善用可用的通訊連接埠。The following diagram demonstrates that SharePoint Server 2013 makes better use of available communication ports.

比較 SharePoint 2010 和 SharePoint 2013 之間的連接埠使用狀況

在兩個網路追蹤中,水平列表示開啟的連接埠。彩色的區塊代表透過線路傳輸的內容,例如影像、JavaScript 和 HTML。在 SharePoint 2010 網路追蹤,彩色區塊之間的空格代表在完成下個動作前,用戶端或伺服器正在等待其他動作的時間。在 SharePoint Server 2013 網路追蹤,網路管道幾乎 100% 填滿。用戶端與伺服器之間的通訊將持續進行,直到交易完成為止。動作之間擁有極少或完全無閒置時間。這些增強功能是本文稍早所述的最佳化所提供 (最少下載策略、主動下載管理和視需要編寫指令碼)。In the two network traces, the horizontal rows represent the ports that are open. The colored blocks represent content that is traveling over the wire, such as the images, JavaScript, and HTML. In the SharePoint 2010 network trace, the white spaces between the colored blocks represent idle time in which the client or server is waiting for something to happen before completing the next action. In the SharePoint Server 2013 network trace, the network pipe is filled almost 100%. Communication between the client and server is ongoing until the transaction is complete. There is very little or no idle time between actions. These improvements are provided by the optimizations described earlier in this article (minimal download strategy, active download management, and script on demand).

下圖說明頻寬使用情況的改善。兩個網路追蹤的藍色圖形代表頻寬使用情況。SharePoint Server 2013 中的可用頻寬使用更有效率。The following diagram calls attention to the improvement in bandwidth utilization. The blue graphs in both network traces represent the bandwidth utilization. The use of available bandwidth is more efficient in SharePoint Server 2013.

比較 SharePoint 2010 和 SharePoint 2013 之間的頻寬使用率,並說明 SharePoint 2013 中所改進的效率。

此網路追蹤圖顯示使用者在 SharePoint Server 2013 中下載頁面的互動內容 (文件庫、提示、巡覽式元素等) 時,足足比在 SharePoint 2010 中下載快了一秒鐘。使用者可更快速地與網站互動。This following diagram of the network traces shows that the content that users interact with on the page (the document library, prompts, navigational elements, etc.) are downloaded a full second faster in SharePoint Server 2013 compared to SharePoint 2010. Users can interact with the site much sooner.

比較 SharePoint 2010 和 SharePoint 2013 之間的內容下載速度

針對此網路案例,SharePoint Server 2013 中的 WAN 最佳化可取得下列增強功能 (相較於 SharePoint 2010):Compared to SharePoint 2010, WAN optimizations in SharePoint Server 2013 achieve the following improvements for this network scenario:

  • 由於更完善的使用影像壓縮,因此下載的影像位元組減少 65%。Downloads 65% fewer bytes for images because of better use of image compression.

  • 為 JavaScript 下載的位元組多 20%,從而在瀏覽器中提供更快速且更強大的功能。Downloads 20% more bytes for the JavaScript which provides quicker and improved functionality in the browser.

  • 下載的位元組總計減少 15%。Downloads 15% fewer bytes total.

簡單的 WAN 單元測試Simple WAN unit testing

透過 WAN 連線測試效能的最簡單方法是讓遠端位置的使用者連線到 SharePoint 網站,然後執行若干使用者動作。例如,您可以主控線上會議,採取行動與使用者交談,並計數完成動作的秒數。或者,您可以遠端連線至電腦並執行工作。The simplest method to test performance over WAN connections is to have a user at a remote location connect to a SharePoint site and perform several user actions. For example, you can host an online meeting, talk the user through the actions, and count the number of seconds for actions to be completed. Or, you can connect to a computer remotely and perform the tasks.

例如,在早期採用 SharePoint Server 2013 的階段中,Microsoft 與 Teck 合作評估採礦公司在聖地牙哥、智利和加拿大卡加立的兩個資料中心之間的 WAN 效能。Mahmood Jaffer ( 為一名 IT 專家和 SharePoint 架構設計人員) 從他的加拿大辦事處建立一條連至聖地牙哥和智利資料中心的遠端連線。他從聖地牙哥的電腦連線到卡加立資料中心正在執行 SharePoint Server 2013 的伺服器,並且上傳數個檔案。另外連線到卡加立中執行 SharePoint 2010 的伺服器,並且上傳具有相同特質的檔案。下表記錄結果。For example, during the early adoption phase of SharePoint Server 2013, Microsoft worked with Teck to evaluate WAN performance between the mining company's two datacenters in Santiago, Chile, and Calgary, Canada. Mahmood Jaffer, IT Specialist and SharePoint Architect, created a remote connection from his Canadian office to the datacenter in Santiago, Chile. From a computer in Santiago, he connected to a server running SharePoint Server 2013 in the Calgary datacenter and uploaded several files. He also connected to a server running SharePoint 2010 in Calgary and uploaded files that have the same characteristics. The following table records the results.

Teck 單元測試 - 使用 Riverbed 裝置將檔案從聖地牙哥上傳至卡加立 (140 毫秒延遲)Teck unit test — File upload from Santiago to Calgary (140ms latency) with Riverbed device

檔案大小和類型File size and type SharePoint 2010SharePoint 2010 SharePoint 2013SharePoint 2013
1 mg pdf1 mg pdf
5 秒5 seconds
<1 秒<1 second
10 mg .zip10 mg .zip
25 秒25 seconds
12 秒12 seconds

此使用者測試有一個重要的考量因素,那就是在兩個位置之間使用 WAN 加速器裝置。Teck 使用 Riverbed 裝置來加速流量。WAN 加速器會尋找資料封包內的模式,並可能僅傳送唯一的封包,以另一端快取的內容取代重複的封包。為了讓 Teck 獲得精確的結果,為每一項測試使用具有不同內容的檔案,而非只是重新命名檔案極為重要。An important consideration for this user test is the use of a WAN accelerator device between the two locations. Teck uses a Riverbed device to accelerate traffic. WAN accelerators look for patterns within packets of data and potentially only send packets that are unique, replacing duplicate packets with content that is cached on the other end. For Teck to obtain accurate results, it was important to use files that have different content for each test, instead of just renaming files.

為了重複此單元測試,Microsoft SharePoint 撰寫小組指示北京辦事處的同事連線到北門辦事處的 SharePoint 網站。在此案例中,兩名作者會全天候重複測試多次並產生某個範圍的結果。雖然未在兩個位置之間使用 WAN 加速器裝置,但每次都會使用不同內容的檔案以避免可能的快取問題。下表記錄了結果。To repeat this unit test, the Microsoft SharePoint writing team had colleagues in the Beijing office connect to SharePoint sites in the Redmond office. In this scenario, two writers repeated the test multiple times throughout the day and produced a range of results. Files with different content were used each time to avoid potential caching issues, although a WAN accelerator device is not used between the two locations. The following table records the results.

Microsoft 撰寫小組單元測試 - 將檔案從北京上傳到北門 (144 毫秒延遲)Microsoft writing team unit test — File upload from Beijing to Redmond (144ms latency)

檔案大小和類型File size and type SharePoint 2010SharePoint 2010 SharePoint 2013SharePoint 2013
1 mg pdf1 mg pdf
8-9 秒8-9 seconds
7-8 秒7-8 seconds
10 mg .zip10 mg .zip
53-140 秒53-140 seconds
49-63 秒49-63 seconds

比較這兩組結果所獲得的數個觀察結果:Several observations result from a comparison of these two sets of results:

  • 在整天或整週進行多次測試後會產生某個範圍的結果。Testing multiple times throughout a day or week will produce a range of results.

  • SharePoint Server 2013 的結果範圍比 SharePoint 2010 的結果範圍更窄。使用 SharePoint 更能預測結果。The range of results for SharePoint Server 2013 is narrower than the range of results for SharePoint 2010. The result is in a more predictable experience with SharePoint.

  • 網路環境特性對結果的影響大於對延遲的影響。這兩種測試都是透過 WAN 連線執行,並具有類似的延遲。然而,從北京到北門的 WAN 連線較慢。網路環境特性包含路由模式、網路壅塞、封包遺失及其他因素。部分全球性的地區和國際化電信公司很少針對 WAN 流量最佳化。Network environment characteristics can affect results more than latency. Both tests were conducted over WAN connections with similar latencies. However, the results are slower for the WAN connection from Beijing to Redmond. Network environment characteristics include routing patterns, network congestion, packet loss, and other factors. Some global regions and international telecommunications companies are less optimized for WAN traffic.

  • 簡單的單元測試可提供有意義的資料。在這兩種情況下,將頻寬和延遲數加入 WAN 模擬裝置時,不大可能產生重複的實務體驗。Simple unit testing can provide meaningful data. In these two cases, the real-world experience is unlikely to be duplicated by plugging numbers for bandwidth and latency into a WAN simulation device.

如果您進行自己的簡單單元測試,建議您這麼做:Here are recommendations if you conduct your own simple unit testing:

  • 使用具有不同內容的不同檔案,避免在第二次上傳時的 WAN 加速器裝置最佳化。Use different files that have different content to avoid optimization of WAN accelerator devices on second upload.

  • 在整天或整週測試多次,以擷取不同的網路負載結果。Test multiples times throughout a day or week to capture results for different network loads.

  • 請注意,SharePoint Server 2013 中的檔案上傳速度可能比在 SharePoint 2010 中慢,因為後者具備「高效率檔案 I/O」功能。「高效率檔案 I/O」是一種儲存方式;其會將儲存的檔案分割成多個片段並個別進行更新。當使用者要求該檔案時,才會將所有片段串流在一起。因此,第一次上傳檔案時可能會有較慢的效能。後續的檔案下載和上傳會較快,因為只會更新變更的片段。然而,當您在伺服所在或鄰近的位置處並排測試版本時,可能會發現 SharePoint Server 2013 的效能較慢。本文說明的兩個單元測試結果示範了在高延遲連線時,SharePoint Server 2013 中的 WAN 最佳化遠遠抵銷「高效率檔案 I/O」 功能的效能負擔。Be aware that a file upload in SharePoint Server 2013 might be slower than in SharePoint 2010 due to the new Efficient File I/O features. Efficient File I/O is a storage method in which a file is split into pieces that are stored and updated separately, and streamed together when a user requests the file. As a result, the performance of the first upload might be slower. Subsequent downloads and uploads of the file will be faster as only the pieces that change are updated. However, you might see slower performance for SharePoint Server 2013 when you test the versions side-by-side in or near the same location as the servers. The results of the two unit tests described in this article demonstrate that the WAN optimizations in SharePoint Server 2013 more than offset the performance overhead of the Efficient File I/O feature for high latency connections.

適用於系統化測試的 WAN 測試工具和案例WAN test tools and scenarios for systematic testing

跨 WAN 環境開始任何類型的系統化負載測試時,請務必瞭解網路的性質。您應該具備使用者與 SharePoint 前端網頁伺服器之間的頻寬、延遲、網路壅塞、封包遺失和裝置類型的相關資料。此資料不一定容易取得。但可使用 System Center Operations Manager 之類的工具來降低困難度。Before you begin any type of systematic load testing across a WAN environment make, sure that you understand the nature of your network. You should have data about bandwidth, latency, network congestion, packet loss and types of devices between users and the SharePoint front-end web server. This data is not always easy to obtain. However tools, such as System Center Operations Manager, can make it easier.

瞭解網路環境後,您就會知道是否必須先備妥哪些項目,再透過 WAN 進行測試。若為初次測試,請將網路壅塞和封包遺失的情況降到最低。另外請移除或停用網路最佳化裝置。如此從網路的觀點視之,會影響使用者的兩個主要因素就只剩下頻寬和延遲。After you understand the network environment, you'll know whether you must address items before you test over the WAN. For initial testing, minimize network congestion and packet loss. Also remove or disable network optimization devices. This will leave you with bandwidth and latency as the two primary factors that will impact your end-users from a network perspective.

測試工具Test tools

解除 WAN 限制後,即可開始使用工具組合來測試 WAN 效率。規範工具 (如 Visual Studio 2012 Update 1) 提供了可重複的單元和負載測試功能。非規範工具 (如 Microsoft Network Monitor (Netmon) with Visual Round Trip Analyzer) 可讓使用者進行導向型監控。這兩類工具都很有用,因為它們為 WAN 測試和資料集合提供不同的方案。整合結果可完整檢視 WAN 連線對使用者效能的影響。After you address WAN constraints, you can start to use a combination of tools to testing WAN efficiency. Prescriptive tools, such as Visual Studio 2012 Update 1, provide repeatable unit and load testing capabilities. Non-prescriptive tools, such as Microsoft Network Monitor (Netmon) with Visual Round Trip Analyzer, provide end-user oriented monitoring. Both types of tools can be useful because they each provide a different approach to WAN testing and data collection. The combined results can provide a complete view of the impact of WAN connections on user performance.

下表列出這兩項工具的優點。The following chart lists the strengths of both tools.

Visual Studio 2012 Update 1Visual Studio 2012 Update 1 Network Monitor with Visual Round Trip AnalyzerNetwork Monitor with Visual Round Trip Analyzer
可重複執行單元和負載測試的能力Repeatable unit and load test capabilities
跨伺服器和負載測試代理程式擷取資料Data capture across servers and load test agents
用於測試 SharePoint 負載的外掛程式Plug-ins to test SharePoint loads
使用樞紐分析表匯出至 Excel 的能力Export to Excel with Pivot capability
即時與模擬頻寬和延遲功能Real and simulated bandwidth and latency capability
使用者導向監視 (實際使用者體驗擷取)End-user oriented monitoring (true end-user experience capture)
網路封包及連接埠分析Network packet and port analysis
進入門檻低 (免費且容易設定)Low barrier to entry (free and easy setup)
反映即時頻寬、延遲、擁塞、封包遺失和最佳化Real bandwidth, latency, congestion, packet loss and optimization is reflected

測試案例Test scenarios

建立測試案例,反映使用者在其工作的過程中將執行的動作類型。以下是常見的案例:Create test scenarios that reflect the types of actions users will perform as part of their jobs. Common scenarios include the following:

  • 瀏覽小組網站Browse a team site

  • 填寫表單Fill out a form

  • 上傳文件Upload a document

  • 下載文件Download a document

  • 在 Office Web Apps Server 中檢視文件View a document in Office Web Apps Server

  • 在 Office Online 伺服器 中編輯文件Edit a document in Office Online Server

  • 新增新聞摘要文章Add a newsfeed post

  • 新增社交標記Add a social tag

目標是擁有完整的單元測試組,即捕捉使用者在 SharePoint 環境中執行的動作,並找出任何可能的嚴重延遲交易。The goal is to have a well-rounded set of unit tests which capture actions that end-users perform in a SharePoint environment and expose any potential latency-sensitive transactions.

最後,確定您在全天的不同時間循環執行測試,以擷取網路使用模式的差異。例如,相較於星期五 23:00,星期一上午 09:00 可能有極為不同的網路和效能模式。此外,請注意其他地理區域的事件 (如導致整個地區斷電的自然災害) 也可能影響 WAN 路由或效能。跨不同時間間隔進行廣泛的測試可提供深入的資訊,並能讓您了解當使用者跨 WAN 使用 SharePoint Server 2013 時預期會發生的狀況。Finally, make sure that you conduct rounds of tests at various times throughout the day to capture differences in network utilization patterns. For example, 09:00 on Monday morning may have a very different network and performance pattern compared to 23:00 on Friday. Also, be aware of events in other geographical regions, such as a natural disaster that results in region-wide power outages, that might impact WAN routing or performance. A comprehensive set of tests spread across different time intervals will provide insight and set expectations about what your end-users will experience when they use SharePoint Server 2013 across the WAN.

使用 Visual Studio 2013 進行 WAN 測試的範例Example WAN test using Visual Studio 2013

如需測試情況範例,請參閱<使用 Visual Studio 2012 進行 SharePoint 2013 SharePoint 2013 WAN 測試的逐步解說>。此 3 MB 的 Visio 幻燈片顯示如何為使用 Visual Studio 2013 的 WAN 測試,建立 Web 測試和負載測試。For an example test case, see SharePoint 2013 SharePoint 2013 WAN testing with Visual Studio 2012 walkthrough. This 3 megabyte Visio slide deck shows how to build a web test and load test for WAN testing that uses Visual Studio 2013.

測試結果範例Example test results

Fabrikam 是一家虛構公司,代表參與 SharePoint Server 2013 預先發行版計畫的全球化大型製造公司。Fabrikam 使用 Visual Studio 來進行一項由許多單元測試組成的負載測試,然後從多個地理區域執行負載測試。Fabrikam is a fictional company that represents a large, world-wide manufacturing company that participated in the SharePoint Server 2013 prerelease program. Fabrikam used Visual Studio to script a load test made up of many unit tests and then ran the load test from multiple geographic locations.

在第一組結果中,Fabrikam 中國上海辦事處的兩名使用者,針對美國德州資料中心正在執行 SharePoint Server 2013 的伺服器執行負載測試。得出約 190 毫秒的延遲。並針對 1MB 檔案執行上傳、下載和 Office Online 伺服器 測試。In this first set of results, two users in the Fabrikam Shanghai, China, office ran the load test against the servers running SharePoint Server 2013 in the Texas, USA datacenter. Latency is around 190 ms. The upload, download, and Office Online Server tests were conducted with a 1 mb file.

Fabrikam - 從上海到德州跨功能集的 WAN 效能Fabrikam — WAN performance across the feature set for Shanghai to Texas

Fabrikam 從上海到德州的效能測試結果。使用 5 秒下載檔案、使用 6 秒上傳檔案,在 Office Web Apps 中呈現文件的時間少於 2 秒,針對大部分社交工作所需的時間則少於 2 秒。

測試結果顯示效能良好,特別是對於社交工作。The test results show that performance is good, especially for the social tasks.

下一組結果顯示相同的負載測試,但對象則擴大為較廣泛的地理位置,亦即 Fabrikam 員工的工作場所。SharePoint 伺服器位於美國德州。The next set of results shows performance for the same load test across a larger set of geographic locations where Fabrikam employees work. The SharePoint servers are located in Texas, USA.

Fabrikam - 跨不同位置之功能集的結果Fabrikam— Results across the feature set for differentlocations

Fabrikam 在澳洲、德國、印度、新加坡、南非及英國初始 WAN 連線的測試結果。需要 2-6 秒來進行檔案下載。需要 3-8 秒來進行檔案上傳。針對大部分社交工作所需的時間則少於 2 秒。

即使延遲程度不同,全球的使用者都有良好的效能。Fabrikam 測試結果提供系統化的 WAN 測試範例,其使用一組負載測試,該測試則包含公司的許多重要 SharePoint 工作。Even though there are varying degrees of latency, performance is good for users across the globe. The Fabrikam test results provide an example of systematic WAN testing that uses a load test made up of many SharePoint tasks that are important to the company.

Fabrikam 是一家成功使用集中式資料中心模型,而非將 SharePoint Server 2013 部署到全球多個地區的全球化公司典範。如果您打算從集中式資料中心模型,轉移到在不同的地理區部署多個 SharePoint 網站,請務必先執行 WAN 測試來確定是否真正需要。Fabrikam is an example of a world-wide company that succeeds with a central datacenter model, instead of deploying SharePoint Server 2013 to multiple regions across the world. If you plans include a move from a central datacenter model to multiple SharePoint sites in different geographical regions, make sure that you conduct WAN testing to see whether it is really necessary.

另請參閱See also

概念Concepts

SharePoint 2013 的全域架構Global architectures for SharePoint Server 2013