規劃 SharePoint Server 中的資訊管理原則Plan for information management policy in SharePoint Server

摘要:了解如何在 SharePoint Server 中使用資訊管理原則。Summary: Learn how to use information management policies in SharePoint Server.

資訊管理原則是一種內容的一組規則。 在原則中的每個規則是一項原則功能。例如,資訊管理原則功能可能指定一種內容應該保留多久,或是如何提供文件稽核。資訊管理原則可讓您控制誰可以存取您的組織資訊、他們可以如何使用資訊,以及資訊應該保留多久。An information management policy is a set of rules for a type of content. Each rule in a policy is a policy feature. For example, an information management policy feature could specify how long a type of content should be retained, or it could provide document auditing. Information management policies enable you to control who can access your organizational information, what they can do with it, and how long the information should be retained.

資訊管理原則和原則功能Information management policies and policy features

注意

針對本文中的字詞原則是指資訊管理原則除非另有指定。In this article, the term policy refers to information management policy unless otherwise specified.

可實作原則以協助組織遵守保留記錄此類法律強制要求。例如,組織中用來確定員工記錄的處理方法遵循法律建議準則的人力資源原則,可能包含下列原則功能:Policies can be implemented to help an organization comply with legally mandated requirements, such as the need to retain records. For example, a Human Resources policy, used in an organization to ensure that employee records are handled in compliance with legally recommended guidelines, could include the following policy features:

  • 稽核,記錄每份與員工相關的文件的編輯和檢視歷程記錄。Auditing, to record the editing and viewing history of each employee-related document.

  • 保留,確保工作進行中的內容不會非必要地保留過長時間。Retention, to ensure that work-in-progress content is not kept for an unnecessarily long time.

  • 列印限制,以確保機密與員工相關文件會列印只在安全的印表機。請注意這必須是實作所使用的 SharePoint 伺服器物件模型或從協力廠商軟體廠商取得的自訂原則功能的範例。Print restrictions, to ensure that sensitive employee-related documents are printed only on secure printers. Note that this is an example of a custom policy feature that must be implemented by using the SharePoint Server object model or obtained from a third-party software vendor.

原則功能會實作為 SharePoint 伺服器執行的程式]。可啟用及設定伺服器管理員及,當使用者已啟用,因此可用網站管理員可以定義原則。SharePoint Server 包含可協助您管理您的內容的原則功能。使用 SharePoint 伺服器物件模型,您可以設計並安裝符合企業中唯一需要的自訂原則功能。Policy features are implemented as programs that run on SharePoint Server. They can be enabled and configured by a server administrator and, when they are enabled, they can be used by site administrators to define policies. SharePoint Server includes policy features to help you manage your content. By using the SharePoint Server object model, you can design and install custom policy features that meet unique enterprise needs.

當您的組織使用 Office 用戶端應用程式與 SharePoint Server 時、 原則強制執行在伺服器上以及用戶端應用程式中。這可以完成透明;原則陳述式相關聯的文件所述套用至文件的原則功能和原則感知應用程式可防止使用者執行工作的違反文件的原則。When your organization uses Office client applications together with SharePoint Server, policies are enforced both on the server and in the client applications. This is done transparently; policy features that apply to a document are described in a policy statement that is associated with the document, and policy-aware applications prevent users from doing tasks that violate the document's policy.

若要實作原則,請將它與網站裡的內容類型、程式庫或清單產生關聯。To implement a policy, associate it with content types, libraries, or lists in sites.

您可以透過下列方式,將程式庫、清單或內容類型與原則產生關聯:You can associate a policy with a library, list, or content type in the following ways:

  • 與網站集合原則關聯的原則功能並建立與內容類型或與清單或文件庫關聯的原則。網站集合的頂層網站包含網站集合原則庫 (英文) 的最上層網站的系統管理員可以在其中建立新的原則。建立後的網站集合原則,您可以匯出憑證使其他網站集合管理員可以匯入到其網站集合原則庫 (英文)。這可讓您標準化貴組織的原則。Associate policy features with a Site Collection policy and then associate that policy with a content type or with a list or library. The top-level site of a site collection includes a Site Collection Policies gallery where administrators of the top-level site can create new policies. After creating a Site Collection policy, you can export it so that administrators of other site collections can import it into their Site Collection Policies galleries. This lets you standardize policies across your organization.

    當網站集合原則與內容類型產生關聯,且該內容類型與清單或程式庫產生關聯時,清單或程式庫的擁有者無法修改清單或程式庫中的網站集合原則。這樣可以確保在網站階層架構的每個層級強制執行指派給內容類型的原則。When a Site Collection policy is associated with a content type and that content type is associated with a list or library, the owner of the list or library cannot modify the Site Collection policy in the list or library. This ensures that policies that are assigned to a content type are enforced at each level of the site hierarchy.

  • 直接將原則功能集關聯的內容類型,並再將該內容類型新增至一或多個清單或文件庫。若要確保使用此方法所建立的原則將用於整個網站集合,請將其關聯最上層網站集合中的網站內容類型庫內容類型中。然後在網站集合] 中的內容類型的每個項目與繼承原始的內容類型的內容類型的每個項目才有原則。當您使用此方法與內容類型建立關聯的原則時,速度會比較難發現重複使用其他網站集合中的原則因為無法匯出使用此方法所建立的原則。Associate a set of policy features directly with a content type, and then add that content type to one or more lists or libraries. To ensure that a policy that is created by using this method will be used in the whole site collection, associate it with a content type in the Site Content Type gallery of the top-level site collection. Then every item of that content type in the site collection, and every item of a content type that inherits from the original content type, will have the policy. When you use this method of associating a policy with a content type, it is harder to reuse the policy in other site collections, because policies created by using this method cannot be exported.

    注意

    若要更密切地控制哪些原則正用於網站集合,網站集合管理員可以停用直接在內容類型上設定原則功能的功能。限制在內容類型上設定原則功能時,內容類型設計者只能將來自網站集合原則樣式庫的原則與內容類型產生關聯。To more tightly control which policies are being used in a site collection, site collection administrators can disable the ability to set policy features directly on a content type. When setting policy features on a content type is restricted, content type designers can only associate policies from the Site Collection Policies gallery with content types.

  • 直接與清單或文件庫關聯的原則功能集。您僅可使用此方法如果清單或文件庫不支援多種內容類型。建立原則此方法才有用的窄定義的原則套用至單一清單或文件庫。Associate a set of policy features directly with a list or library. You can only use this method if the list or library does not support multiple content types. This method of creating a policy is only useful for a narrowly defined policy that applies to a single list or library.

    注意

    若要更密切地控制哪些原則正用於網站集合,網站集合管理員可以停用直接在程式庫上設定原則功能的功能。限制在程式庫上設定原則功能時,程式庫設計者只能將來自網站集合原則樣式庫的原則與程式庫產生關聯。To more tightly control which policies are being used in a site collection, site collection administrators can disable the ability to set policy features directly on a library. When setting policy features on a library is restricted, content type designers can only associate policies from the Site Collection Policies gallery with libraries.

整合資訊管理原則與 Office 系統應用程式Information management policy integration with Office system applications

SharePoint Server 的資訊管理原則都會公開在 Office 用戶端應用程式。當您在伺服器上設定的資訊管理原則時,您可以撰寫通知資訊工作者的文件,並強制執行原則的相關原則陳述式。例如,原則陳述式可能會指出文件將會刪除在特定時間之後,或含有不會傳達給公司外部的機密資訊。如果資訊工作者需求之原則的詳細資訊,陳述式甚至可能提供的連絡人名稱。SharePoint Server information management policies are exposed in Office client applications. When you configure an information management policy on the server, you can write a policy statement that informs information workers about the policies that are enforced on documents. For example, the policy statement might indicate that a document will be deleted after a certain time or that it contains sensitive information that should not be communicated outside the company. The statement might even provide a contact name if the information worker needs more information about the policy.

Office 用戶端應用程式中整合的自訂原則功能。不過,您必須實作您要從 Office 用戶端應用程式,可用的特定原則的行為與您必須將使用者提供一種方式透過例如增益集,使其能從 Office 機制其用戶端電腦上安裝這些行為用戶端應用程式。例如,如果實作限制可列印的內容類型的印表機的自訂原則功能,您必須提供自訂增益集來強制執行從這些應用程式限制的 Microsoft Office 用戶端應用程式。Custom policy features can be integrated in Office client applications. However, you must implement policy-specific behaviors that you want to be available from Office client applications, and you must give users a way to install these behaviors on their client computers via mechanisms such as add-ins to make them available from Office client applications. For example, if you implement a custom policy feature that restricts the printers that can be used to print a content type, you must provide a custom add-in for Microsoft Office client applications to enforce the restriction from these applications.

在 SharePoint Server 中可用的原則功能Policy features available in SharePoint Server

本章節說明 SharePoint Server 中包含的原則功能。This section describes the policy features that are included in SharePoint Server.

  • 保留保留原則功能可讓您定義保留階段與每個階段結尾處的動作。例如,您無法定義兩階段保留原則上一年後的文件建立、 和宣告為記錄的五年後建立的文件的文件中刪除所有舊版的文件的特定文件庫中的所有文件.Retention The Retention policy feature lets you define retention stages, with an action that happens at the end of each stage. For example, you could define a two-stage retention policy on all documents in a specific library that deletes all previous versions of the document one year after the document is created, and declares the document to be a record five years after the document is created.

    下面是可能會發生在階段結尾處的動作:The actions that can occur at the end of a stage include the following:

    • 將項目移到 [資源回收筒]Moving the item to the Recycle Bin

    • 永久刪除項目Permanently deleting the item

    • 將項目傳送到另一個位置Transferring the item to another location

    • 啟動工作流程Starting a workflow

    • 跳到下一個階段Skipping to the next stage

    • 將項目宣告為記錄Declaring the item to be a record

    • 刪除項目的所有先前草稿Deleting all previous drafts of the item

    • 刪除項目的所有先前版本Deleting all previous versions of the item

  • 稽核稽核原則功能記錄事件和文件及清單項目執行的作業。您可以設定稽核記錄事件如下所示:Auditing The Auditing policy feature logs events and operations that are performed on documents and list items. You can configure Auditing to log events such as the following:

    • 編輯文件或項目Editing a document or item

    • 檢視文件或項目Viewing a document or item

    • 存回或取出文件Checking a document in or out

    • 變更文件或項目的權限Changing the permissions for a document or item

    • 刪除文件或項目 Deleting a document or item

  • 顯示標籤Labeling 原則功能會指定文件或清單項目類型建立關聯的標籤。標籤是 SharePoint 伺服器產生的區域根據內容與格式設定] 所指定的可搜尋的文字。例如法律事務所可能在法律專家相關的文件無法包含包含用戶端的名稱、 case 號碼和指派給專家律師的標籤。標籤是特別有用的文件的列印版本來列印複本中顯示文件屬性的方式。搭配使用的文件的標籤,您可以將清單項目建立關聯的標籤和包含該標籤的清單檢視中。Labeling The Labeling policy feature specifies a label to associate with a type of document or list item. Labels are searchable text areas that SharePoint Server generates based on properties and formatting that you specify. For example, in a law firm, a document related to a legal matter could include a label that contains the clients' names, the case number, and the attorney assigned to the matter. Labels are especially useful in printed versions of documents as a way to display document properties in printed copy. Along with using labels for documents, you can associate a label with a list item and include that label in views of the list.

    注意

    標籤原文功能已過時,不應使用在 SharePoint Server 2013 或 SharePoint Server 2016。The label policy feature has been deprecated and should not be used in SharePoint Server 2013 or SharePoint Server 2016.

  • 條碼條碼原則功能可讓您建立文件的唯一識別碼值及文件中插入該值的條碼圖像所追蹤的文件的實體副本。根據預設,條碼符合公用程式碼 39 標準 (ANSI/目標 BC1 1995、 程式碼 39),且您可以使用 「 原則 」 物件模型來插入其他列程式碼提供者。Barcode The Barcode policy feature enables you to track physical copies of a document by creating a unique identifier value for a document and inserting a bar code image of that value in the document. By default, bar codes are compliant with the common Code 39 standard (ANSI/AIM BC1-1995, Code 39), and you can plug in other bar code providers by using the policies object model.

規劃文件原則Plan document policies

在您規劃解決方案的原則時,請先決定整個組織的原則需要,然後設計網站集合原則以符合那些需要,並分散那些原則以便包含在所有相關網站集合的網站集合原則樣式庫。這可能需要規劃自訂的原則功能。請注意,如果您的原則需要自訂的原則功能和資源,那些功能和資源必須在使用解決方案的所有伺服器陣列上安裝並啟用。When you plan your solution's policies, first determine organization-wide policy needs, and then design Site Collection policies to meet those needs and distribute those policies for inclusion in the Site Collection Policy galleries of all relevant site collections. This might require planning custom policy features. Note that, if your policy requires custom policy features and resources, those features and resources must be installed and enabled on all server farms on which your solution is used.

典型的整個組織原則範例是設計來跨組織部門推廣稽核與保留產品規格之最佳作法的原則。單一網站集合原則已設計來套用到所有生產規格,以便它們能一致地稽核和保留。設計與測試網站集合原則之後,它會被匯出然後匯入到其他儲存產品規格之網站集合的網站集合原則樣式庫。接著會與各種網站集合中的所有產品規格產生關聯,以在所有產品規格上實施原則。A typical example of an organization-wide policy is one that is designed to promote best practices in auditing and retaining product specifications across the divisions of an organization. A single Site Collection policy is designed to be applied to all product specifications so that they are consistently audited and retained. After the Site Collection policy is designed and tested, it is exported and then imported to Site Collection Policy galleries of other site collections in which product specifications are stored. It is then associated with all product specification content types in the various site collections to impose the policy on all product specifications.