在 SharePoint Server 中規劃受管理的中繼資料Plan for managed metadata in SharePoint Server

摘要:了解在規劃 SharePoint Server中受管理的中繼資料服務時,所需執行的抉擇。Summary: Learn about the decisions you need to make when planning for the managed metadata service in SharePoint Server.

透過 SharePoint Server 中受管理的中繼資料,您可以建立能夠在 SharePoint 伺服器陣列中使用的統一術語分類。在本文中,我們會逐步說明在 SharePoint Server 中設定受管理的中繼資料服務應用程式之前,您需要執行的設定決策。With managed metadata in SharePoint Server, you can create a unified taxonomy of terms that you can use throughout your SharePoint farm. In this article, we walk through the configuration decisions that you need to make before you configure the managed metadata service application in SharePoint Server.

設定受管理的中繼資料之前,務必了解什麼是受管理的中繼資料以及其如何在 SharePoint 中運作。閱讀此文章前,請務必先閱讀<受管理的中繼資料簡介>。Before you configure managed metadata, it's important to understand what managed metadata is and how it works in SharePoint. Before you read this article, be sure to read Introduction to managed metadata.

SharePoint Server 中受管理的中繼資料服務概觀Overview of the managed metadata service in SharePoint Server

在 SharePoint Server 中,受管理的中繼資料是經由服務應用程式和受管理的中繼資料 Web 服務 (執行於應用程式和前端伺服器角色) 來實作。如果您需要特殊用途的個別術語集,您可以建立多個受管理的中繼資料服務應用程式。每個服務應用程式都有自己的資料庫,其中包含術語集、術語和關鍵字等。In SharePoint Server, managed metadata is implemented through a service application and the Managed Metadata Web Service which runs on the Application and Front-end server roles. You can create multiple managed metadata service applications if you need separate term sets for specialized use. Each service application has its own database containing the term set, terms, keywords, and so on.

受管理的中繼資料服務應用程式與 Web 應用程式之間的連線,是由受管理的中繼資料連線處理。使用這些連線,您可以將不同的受管理中繼資料服務應用程式對應到不同的 Web 應用程式 (如有需要),並設定關鍵字和術語集建立原則相關功能。Connections between the managed metadata service application and your web applications are handled by managed metadata connections. Using these connections, you can map different managed metadata service applications to different web applications if needed, and configure features around keyword and term set creation policy.

如果您有多個 SharePoint Server 伺服陣列,而您想要在其間共用受管理的中繼資料術語存放區,您可以在一個伺服器陣列中發佈服務應用程式,而其他伺服器陣列可以與其連線。(這需建立伺服器陣列間的信任關係。)If you have multiple SharePoint Server farms and you want to share a managed metadata term store between them, you can publish the service application in one farm and the others can connect to it. (This requires a trust relationship between the farms.)

受管理的中繼資料服務應用程式也會提供內容類型中樞 (也就是網站集合) 的發佈功能,您可以在中樞建立標準內容類型並與其他網站集合共用。The managed metadata service application also provides publishing functionality for content type hubs, which are site collections where you can create standard content types and share them among other site collections.

設定受管理的中繼資料前,讓我們來看看您在這些區域中需要執行的決策。Let's look at the decisions you need to make in these areas before you configure managed metadata.

分隔受管理的中繼資料術語集Isolating managed metadata term sets

在術語存放區中,您可以建立各種不同的術語集。這些術語集可以組織在群組中。群組可以讓您指定管理或參與的人,以提供一些安全性隔離。不過,使用者通常可以存取並自行使用這些術語。如果您想要限制特定群組或使用者能使用術語,有兩個選項可用。Within a term store, you can create a variety of different term sets. These term sets can be organized in groups. Groups offer some security isolation by allowing you to specify who can manage or contribute to them. However, users in general can access and use the terms themselves. If you want to restrict a term set to a specific group of users, there are two options.

第一,您可以允許使用者建立網站集合的本地術語集。這些術語集無法在其他網站集合中使用。(我們將在下節中深入討論此選項。)First, you can allow users to create term sets that are local to a site collection. These term sets are not available in other site collections. (We talk more about this option in the next section.)

第二,您可以將術語集保留在個別的受管理中繼資料服務應用程式中,來進一步隔離。這讓您在個別的資料庫中有完全隔離的術語存放區,而您可以為其限制一組特定使用者。Second, you can provide even greater isolation for a term set by housing it in a separate managed metadata service application. This gives you a completely separate term store in a separate database which you can restrict to a particular set of users.

如果您有屬於機密的領域 (法律或人力資源),而您要限制術語存放區的存取權,則可考慮第二個方法。主要術語存放區的權限也給授與給此術語存放區的使用者If you have sensitive areas such as legal or human resources where you want a term store with limited access, consider this second approach. Users of this term store can also be granted access to your main term store.

決策Decision

在 SharePoint 中設定受管理的中繼資料之前,請決定您是否需要一個以上的受管理中繼資料服務應用程式以作為個別術語存放區。(您可以在之後有需要時,新增其他服務應用程式。)Before you configure managed metadata in SharePoint, decide if you need more than one managed metadata service application for separate term stores. (You can add additional service applications in the future if needed.)

使用本地術語集Using local term sets

除了所有網站集合可使用的全域術語集,您可以建立網站集合的本地術語集。當使用者為 SharePoint 清單建立受管理的中繼資料欄時,他們就可以選擇建立新術語集,而不是使用全域術語集。Beyond the global term sets that are available across all of your site collections, you can create term sets that are local to a site collection. When users create a managed metadata column for a SharePoint list, they have the option of creating a new term set rather than using global term sets.

如果您要使用的受管理中繼資料不適用於整個組織 (如特定專案或事件的中繼資料),此方法就十分實用。This can be useful if you want to use managed metadata in ways that don't apply to the entire organization, such as metadata for a particular project or event.

透過使用本地術語集,不同團隊和商業組織可建立自己的受管理中繼資料,不需要要求正式更新全域術語集,且您可以讓全域術語集聚焦在您業務的核心領域。By using local term sets, different teams and business groups can create their own managed metadata without needing to request formal updates to a global term set, and you can keep the global term sets focused on core areas of your business.

如果您不想讓使用者建立網站集合的自有本地術語集,您可以在設定受管理的中繼資料連線時停用此功能。If you don't want to allow users to create their own term sets that are local to site collections, you can disable this feature when you configure the managed metadata connection.

決策Decision

在 SharePoint 中設定受管理的中繼資料前,請先決定您是否允許建立本地術語集。(您建立的每個服務應用程式都可以有不同的設定。)Before you configure managed metadata in SharePoint, decide if you want to allow local term sets to be created. (You can have different setting for each service application that you create.)

受管理的中繼資料關鍵字和大眾分類法 (Folksonomy)Managed metadata keywords and folksonomy

當您在 SharePoint 清單中使用受管理的中繼資料欄時,填寫該欄的使用者就必須使用術語存放區 (與該欄連線) 中定義的其中一個可用值。這是受管理的中繼資料的主要優勢之一 - 您能肯定該值是從預先定義的清單中選取的。When you use a managed metadata column in a SharePoint list, users who fill out that column have to use one of the available values defined in the term store that the column is connected to. This is one of the primary advantages of managed metadata - you're certain the value was chosen from a predefined list.

不過,SharePoint 受管理中繼資料也支援標記功能,使用者可以在 SharePoint 項目上標記,例如在文件上標記現有術語存放區中沒有、由他們創造的關鍵字。這些關鍵字會累積在術語存放區中,而您可以將這些關鍵字整合或新增在現有或新增的術語集中 (如有需要)。這允許使用大眾分類法,使用者可以在需要時建立新的關鍵字,無須通過正式的程序來更新特定術語集。However, SharePoint managed metadata also supports tagging functionality where users can tag SharePoint items such as documents with keywords that they create that aren't in the existing term store. These keywords accumulate in a list in the term store, and you can manage them by consolidating them and adding them to existing or new term sets as needed. This allows a folksonomy approach where users can create new keywords as needed without having to go through a formal process to update a particular term set.

如果您想要對受管理的中繼資料採取更正式的方法,您可以在設定受管理的中繼資料連線時停用這個功能。在此情況下,使用者必須在術語存放區中的現有術語中挑選術語,然後將這些值新增至您為此目的所建立的特定欄位。If you want to take a more formal approach to managed metadata, you can disable this feature when you configure the managed metadata connection. In this case, users will have to pick from the existing terms in the term store and add those values to specific fields that you create for that purpose.

決策Decision

在 SharePoint 中設定受管理的中繼資料前,請先決定您是否允許使用術語存放區中沒有的關鍵字標記 SharePoint 項目。Before you configure managed metadata in SharePoint, decide if you want to allow tagging of SharePoint items with keywords that are not in the term store.

發佈受管理的中繼資料內容類型Publishing managed metadata content types

除了共用受管理的中繼資料外,您也可以使用受管理的中繼資料來共用內容類型。藉由在設定受管理中繼資料服務應用程式時,將網站集合指定為內容類型中樞,您可以共用網站集合內容類型庫中所有內容類型,讓這些內容類型可用於其他網站集合。In addition to sharing managed metadata, you can also use the managed metadata service to share content types. By specifying a site collection as the content type hub when you configure the managed metadata service application, you can share all content types in the site collection's content type gallery, making them available to other site collections.

決策Decision

在 SharePoint 中設定受管理的中繼資料前,請先決定您是否要建立內容類型中樞。(您也可以在之後新增)Before you configure managed metadata in SharePoint, decide if you want to create a content type hub. (You can also add one later.)