SharePoint 中的控管是什麼?What is governance in SharePoint?

摘要:了解在成功的 SharePoint 部署中,控管所佔的重要地位以及組織控管計劃中的各項元件。Summary: Learn about governance as an essential part of a successful SharePoint deployment and the various components of an organizational governance plan.

控管是指用一組原則、角色、責任及程序,控制一家組織的業務部門與 IT 團隊如何合作達成目標。每家組織都有獨特的需求和目標,而這些會影響控管方法。較大的組織可能會比較小的組織需要更多、更精細的控管。一套良好的控管計劃可以:Governance is the set of policies, roles, responsibilities, and processes that control how an organization's business divisions and IT teams work together to achieve its goals. Every organization has unique needs and goals that influence its approach to governance. Larger organizations will probably require more—and more detailed—governance than smaller organizations. A good governance plan can:

  • 簡化產品與技術 (例如 SharePoint) 的部署。Streamline the deployment of products and technologies, such as SharePoint.

  • 協助保護貴組織的系統安全無虞且符合標準。Help keep your organization's system secure and compliant.

  • 協助確保從您的技術投資獲得最大回報。Help ensure the best return on your investment in technology.

注意

[!附註] 「何謂控管?」海報提供了本內容的摘要。下載 PDF 版本,或 Visio 版本,或利用 Microsoft 提供的 Zoom.it 將模型縮放至完整細節The What is governance? poster gives a summary of this content. Download the PDF version or Visio version, or Zoom into the model in full detail with Zoom.it from Microsoft.

控管小組Governance team

控管原則應該支援貴組織的目標,並隨時跟著貴組織的需要而變更。建議您召集貴組織中各種專業領域中的人員來建立一個小組,以開發和維護這些原則。請盡量完整納入下列角色的人員:Your governance policies should support your organization's goals and be kept up-to-date as your organization's needs change. We recommend that you create a team from various disciplines across your organization to develop and maintain these policies. Include people from as many of the following roles as possible:

角色Role 責任Responsibility
主管關係人Executive stakeholders
重要主管應該定義控管委員會的整體目標,並定期評估所實施的作法和原則是否成功。Key executives should define the overall goals of the governance committee and periodically evaluate the success of the implemented practices and policies.
財務關係人Financial stakeholders
財務主管應該確定控管規則和程序有助於提高貴組織的 SharePoint 帶來的投資報酬。Financial officers should make sure that governance rules and processes help increase the return on your organization's investment in SharePoint.
業務部門主管Business division leaders
業務主管代表執行企業主要業務、對部署抱有架構與功能需求的小組。他們與資訊架構師合作,建構資訊架構與分類標準。業務主管也與 IT 主管合作,建立服務層級協定和其他支援原則。Business leaders represent the teams that do the primary work of the enterprise and drive the architectural and functional requirements of the deployment. They work with information architects to structure the information architecture and taxonomy standards. Business leaders also work with IT leaders to create service-level agreements and other support policies.
IT 經理IT managers
IT 經理協助開發服務方案,並決定如何達成 IT 責任 (例如,改善安全性及維持可靠性),同時支援業務小組需要的功能。IT managers help develop their service offerings and determine how to achieve their IT responsibilities (for example, improving security and maintaining reliability) while supporting the features required by the business teams.
軟體開發主管Software development leaders
軟體開發主管協助決定核准哪些自訂工具、如何驗證程式碼安全性,並確保程式碼相關的最佳作法。Software development leaders help determine which customization tools are approved, how to verify code security, and ensure code-related best practices.
技術專家Technical specialists
技術專家負責設計、建置和執行 IT 服務與解決方案。Technical specialists design, build, and run IT services and solutions.
訓練人員Trainers
應由指導專家為組織開發一套訓練計劃。Instructional experts should develop a training plan for your organization.
有影響力的資訊工作者Influential information workers
貴組織中負責執行日常工作的成員應該協助確保服務和資訊架構符合他們的需要。The members of your organization who do the day-to-day work should help ensure that the services and information architecture meet their needs.
資訊架構師或分類師Information architects or taxonomists
這些群體的成員會設計資訊系統和分類。他們會根據自己對於觀眾所需資訊的分析,開發支援組織目標的計劃,並定義網站架構與導覽。Members of these groups design information systems and taxonomies. Based on their analysis of the information needs of the audience, they develop plans that support organizational objectives and define site architecture and navigation.
法規遵循主管Compliance officers
控管包括確定一家組織符合法規和法律要求,並管理公司的資訊資產。如果貴組織中設有負責監督法規或法律遵循的職位,請將這些專業領域中的代表納入到您的控管小組中。Governance includes making sure that an organization meets its regulatory and legal requirements and manages its corporate knowledge. If your organization has roles that are responsible for compliance or legal oversight, include representatives from those disciplines in your governance team.

貴組織可能未設立所有這些角色,或是部分角色使用不同的名稱。Your organization might not have all of these roles, or it might use a different name for some of these roles.

控管和訓練Governance and training

良好的訓練、優質的資源,以及有效的搜尋都是以使用者採納的關鍵。建議您提供下列項目給貴組織的員工:Great training, good resources, and effective search are keys to user adoption. We recommend you provide the employees of your organization with the following:

提供Provide 為什麼?Why?
產品和服務的訓練Training for the products and services
控管計劃中有關 SharePoint 的訓練和教育有助於推動採用,並降低支援成本。Training and education about SharePoint in your governance plan helps drive adoption and reduce support costs.
控管原則的教育Education about your governance policies
適當訓練使用者社群可增加遵循原則的程度、提高對您服務的滿意度,並降低支援成本。Training your user community appropriately increases compliance with your policies, increases satisfaction with your services, and reduces support costs.
服務與原則的支援內容Content to support your services and policies
備妥良好的資源和資訊,可協助使用者在對服務、程序或原則懷有疑問時找到解答。Having good quality resources and information available helps your users find the answers when they have questions about a service, process, or policy.
良好的搜尋基礎結構A good search infrastructure
設置良好的搜尋基礎結構,可協助使用者找到需要的內容。Having a good search infrastructure helps your users find what they need when they need it.

控管計劃的最佳作法Best practices for governance plans

一套有效的控管計劃會想好貴組織之業務部門與 IT 小組的需求與目標。因為每家企業各有不同特色,建議您按照下列步驟,為自己的環境打造專屬的控管計劃。An effective governance plan anticipates the needs and goals of your organization's business divisions and IT teams. Because every enterprise is unique, we recommend that you tailor a governance plan to your environment by using the following steps.

  1. 決定初始的原則和目標。控管委員會應該發展一套控管願景、原則和可測量的標準,以追蹤法規遵循程度以及量化對貴組織的效益。例如,您的計劃應該針對 SharePoint 部署,識別技術與業務面的服務提供需求。Determine initial principles and goals. The governance committee should develop a governance vision, policies, and standards that can be measured to track compliance and to quantify the benefit to your organization. For example, your plan should identify service delivery requirements for both technical and business aspects of your SharePoint deployment.

  2. 分類您的業務資訊。根據現有的分類來組織您的資訊,或建立自訂分類來納入所有支援您業務解決方案的資訊。組織資訊之後,設計一套資訊架構來管理資訊。接著,判斷最適合用來支援資訊的 IT 服務。Classify your business information. Organize your information according to an existing taxonomy, or create a custom taxonomy that includes all the information that supports your business solution. After your information is organized, design an information architecture to manage it. Then, determine the most appropriate IT services to support it.

  3. 開發教育策略。繼控管計劃之後,人的因素是對 SharePoint 的部署成敗而言最重要的部分。您應有一套全面的訓練計劃,顯示如何根據您實施的標準與作法使用 SharePoint,並說明這些標準與作法之所以重要的原因。您的計劃應涵蓋特定使用者族群所需的訓練類型,並描述適當的訓練工具。例如,您的 IT 部門可以提供常見問題集 (FAQ) 網頁來解說其 SharePoint 服務方案,或是您的業務部門可以提供線上訓練,來顯示如何設定及使用新的文件管理程序。Develop an education strategy. The human element is, after the governance plan, the most important ingredient in the success or failure of a SharePoint deployment. A comprehensive training plan should show how to use SharePoint according to the standards and practices that you are implementing and explain why those standards and practices are important. Your plan should cover the kinds of training required for specific user groups and describe appropriate training tools. For example, your IT department might maintain a frequently asked questions (FAQ) page about its SharePoint service offerings, or your business division might provide online training that shows how to set up and use a new document management process.

  4. 開發持續的計劃。控管要持之以恆地進行才會成功。控管委員會應該定期開會,檢閱控管計劃的新需求、重新評估及調整控管原則,並解決業務部門之間對於 IT 資源的衝突。委員會應該定期提供報告給主管贊助者,以加強責信度並確保整個組織內皆嚴格遵循。儘管此程序似乎很複雜,但其目標是提高您的 SharePoint 投資所帶來的投資報酬、完整發揮 SharePoint 解決方案的實用性,以及提升貴組織的生產力。Develop an ongoing plan. Successful governance is ongoing. The governance committee should meet regularly to review new requirements in the governance plan, reevaluate and adjust governance principles, and resolve conflicts among business divisions for IT resources. The committee should provide regular reports to its executive sponsors to promote accountability and to help enforce compliance across your organization. Although this process seems complicated, its goals are to increase the return on your investment in SharePoint, take full advantage of the usefulness of your SharePoint solution, and improve the productivity of your organization.

另請參閱See also

概念Concepts

SharePoint 中的 IT 控管IT governance in SharePoint

SharePoint 中的資訊管理和控管Information management and governance in SharePoint

SharePoint 中的應用程式管理和控管Application management and governance in SharePoint

其他資源Other Resources

Governance planning in SharePointGovernance planning in SharePoint

什麼是控管海報 (Visio 格式)What is governance poster (Visio format)

什麼是控管海報 (PDF 格式)What is governance poster (PDF format)