SharePoint 2013 的安裝及設定概觀Overview of SharePoint 2013 installation and configuration

摘要:了解如何安裝及設定伺服器陣列的 SharePoint Server 2013 或 SharePoint Foundation 2013。Summary: Learn about how to install and configure SharePoint Server 2013 or SharePoint Foundation 2013 in a farm.

雖然 SharePoint 產品伺服器陣列不同的複雜度及大小、 小心規劃的組合及分階段的部署,但包含持續進行測試及評估大幅減少未預期的結果的風險。本文提供 SharePoint Server 2013 伺服器陣列部署的所有類型概觀。Although SharePoint products farms vary in complexity and size, a combination of careful planning and a phased deployment that includes ongoing testing and evaluation significantly reduces the risk of unexpected outcomes. This article provides an overview for all types of SharePoint Server 2013 farm deployment.

本文中的資訊以視覺化方式呈現,請參閱 < Technical diagrams for SharePoint Server主題中的 SharePoint 2013 產品部署模型。相關技術圖表包含" for SharePoint 2013 的拓撲Services in SharePoint Server 2013"。For a visual representation of the information in this article, see the SharePoint 2013 Products Deployment model in the Technical diagrams for SharePoint Server topic. Related technical diagrams include " Topologies for SharePoint 2013 and Services in SharePoint Server 2013".

概念Concepts

SharePoint Server 2013 的彈性和豐富的邏輯結果可以安裝及設定 SharePoint Server 2013 正確周圍的複雜性高程度。在 SharePoint Server 2013 環境中的下列重要結構化元素的基本知識才能正確地部署及支援 SharePoint Server 2013 需要:The logical result of SharePoint Server 2013's flexibility and richness can be a high degree of complexity around installing and configuring SharePoint Server 2013 correctly. A fundamental understanding of the following key structural elements in a SharePoint Server 2013 environment is required in order to correctly deploy and support SharePoint Server 2013:

  • 伺服器陣列: SharePoint Server 2013 的邏輯架構設計的頂層元素。Server farm: The top-level element of a logical architecture design for SharePoint Server 2013.

  • Web 應用程式: 會建立與 SharePoint Server 2013 所使用的 Iis 網站。Web application: An IIS Web site that is created and used by SharePoint Server 2013.

  • 內容資料庫:提供儲存 Web 應用程式內容。您可以在網站集合層級,將內容分散到多個內容資料庫中。Content database: Provides storage Web application content. You can separate content into multiple content databases at the site collection level.

  • 網站集合:是一組具有相同擁有人並共用管理設定的網站。Site collection: A set of Web sites that have the same owner and share administration settings.

  • 網站:由架設在網站集合內的一或多個相關網頁及其他項目 (例如清單、文件庫及文件) 所組成。Site: One or more related Web pages and other items (such as lists, libraries, and documents) that are hosted inside a site collection.

除了了解在 SharePoint Server 2013 環境及如何有設定為您的解決方案元素,您必須考慮下列其他因素: 實體架構、 安裝及設定及各式部署的階段。In addition to understanding the elements of a SharePoint Server 2013 environment and how they have to be configured for your solution, you must consider the following additional factors: physical architecture, installation and configuration, and the various stages of deployment.

實體架構Physical architecture

實體架構,其中包含的一或多個伺服器和網路基礎結構,可讓您實作 SharePoint Server 2013 解決方案的邏輯架構。實體架構通常是中所述的兩種方法: 依其大小及其拓撲。大小、 以數種方式,例如使用者數目或文件數目用來分類為小型、 中型或大型的伺服器陣列。拓撲會使用讓層或伺服器群組來定義伺服器陣列的邏輯排列。The physical architecture, which consists of one or more servers and the network infrastructure, enables you to implement the logical architecture for a SharePoint Server 2013 solution. The physical architecture is typically described in two ways: by its size and by its topology. Size, which can be measured in several ways, such as the number of users or the number of documents, is used to categorize a farm as small, medium, or large. Topology uses the idea of tiers or server groups to define a logical arrangement of farm servers.

大小Size

大小是以使用者人數及內容項目數目做為評量基準,定義伺服器陣列屬於小型、中型或大型,如下所示:Size uses the number of users and number of content items as a fundamental measure to indicate whether a server farm is small, medium, and large, as follows:

  • 小型伺服器陣列一般至少包括兩部前端網頁伺服器及一部資料庫伺服器。其中一部前端伺服器負責主控管理中心網站,另一部則處理其他伺服器陣列相關的工作,例如提供內容給使用者。A small server farm typically consists of at least two Web servers and a database server. One of the Web servers hosts the Central Administration site and the other handles additional farm-related tasks, such as serving content to users.

    小型伺服器陣列可透過一部專用應用程式伺服器,擴充成三個層級,以因應所需使用者人數、內容項目數目及服務數目。The small farm can be scaled out to three tiers using a dedicated application server in response to the number of users, the number of content items, and the number of services that are required.

  • 中型伺服器陣列一般包括兩部或以上的網頁伺服器、兩部應用程式伺服器,以及多部資料庫伺服器。建議您先從這樣的設定開始,然後再擴充,以因應伺服器上的負載。A medium server farm typically consists of two or more Web servers, two application servers, and more than one database servers. We recommend that you start with the preceding configuration and then scale out to accommodate the workload placed on the servers.

    在已知服務會使用大量資源的案例中,您可以擴充應用程式層。效能資料會指出哪些服務是您應該卸載至專用伺服器。In scenarios where services are known to use a disproportionate amount of resources, you can scale out the application tier. Performance data will indicate which services you should consider off-loading to a dedicated server.

  • 大型伺服器陣列可以調整以符合容量和效能需求的中型伺服器陣列取出或設計之前實作 SharePoint Server 2013 解決方案的邏輯的結果。在三層式拓撲環境通常會使用專用的伺服器上所有層。此外,這些伺服器通常會根據他在伺服器陣列中的角色群組。例如,用戶端相關的所有服務可分組到一或兩個伺服器及新增至此群組的伺服器回應這些服務的使用者需求所需向外延展。A large server farm can be the logical result of scaling out a medium farm to meet capacity and performance requirements or by design before a SharePoint Server 2013 solution is implemented. A three-tier topology environment typically uses dedicated servers on all the tiers. Additionally, these servers are often grouped according to their role in the farm. For example, all client-related services can be grouped onto one or two servers and then scaled out by adding servers to this group as needed in response to user demand for these services.

    注意

    在擴充伺服器陣列方面,建議您將具有類似效能特性的服務或資料庫歸類到專用伺服器上,再將這些伺服器視為一個群組加以擴充。在大型環境中,隨伺服器陣列而增長的特定群組,會以伺服器陣列中每個服務的特定需求為根據。The recommendation for scaling out a farm is to group services or databases with similar performance characteristics onto dedicated servers and then scale out the servers as a group. In large environments, the specific groups that evolve for a farm depend on the specific demands for each service in a farm.

特定數據相關小型、 中型及大型伺服器陣列,請參閱效能規劃 SharePoint Server 2013 中For specific numbers related to small, medium, and large farms, see Performance planning in SharePoint Server 2013.

拓撲Topology

拓撲會使用層做為模型的邏輯上排列依據所主控的元件或伺服器陣列中的角色的伺服器陣列伺服器。在 SharePoint Server 2013 伺服器陣列是在部署的一個、 兩次或三層,如下所示:Topology uses tiers as a model for logically arranging farm servers according to the components that they host or their roles in a server farm. A SharePoint Server 2013 farm is deployed on one, two, or three tiers, as follows:

  • 在只有一層的部署 SharePoint Server 2013 及資料庫伺服器安裝在一部電腦上。In a single-tier deployment, SharePoint Server 2013 and the database server are installed on one computer.

  • 在兩層的部署、 SharePoint Server 2013 元件和資料庫安裝在個別伺服器上。這類部署將對應至稱為的小型伺服器陣列。前端網頁伺服器位於第一層與資料庫伺服器位於第二層。在電腦產業中,第一層稱為 Web 層中。資料庫伺服器稱為資料庫層或資料庫後端。In a two-tier deployment, SharePoint Server 2013 components and the database are installed on separate servers. This kind of deployment maps to what is called a small farm. The front-end Web servers are on the first tier and the database server is located on the second tier. In the computer industry, the first tier is known as the Web tier. The database server is known as the database tier or database back-end.

  • 在三層式部署中,前端網頁伺服器位於第一層,應用程式伺服器位於第二層 (一般稱之為應用程式層),資料庫伺服器則位於第三層。三層式部署用於中型及大型伺服器陣列。In a three-tier deployment, the front-end Web servers are on the first tier, the application servers are on the second tier, which is known as the application tier, and the database server is located on the third tier. A three-tier deployment is used for medium and large farms.

安裝及設定Installation and configuration

完成規劃解決方案之後您可以建立 SharePoint Server 2013 伺服器陣列來架設解決方案。第一個步驟是安裝 SharePoint Server 2013 並建立伺服器陣列所需的解決方案。準備您的環境的程序包含下列階段:After you finish planning your solution you can create a SharePoint Server 2013 farm to host the solution. The first step is to install SharePoint Server 2013 and create the farm that is required for the solution. The process of preparing your environment consists of the following phases:

  1. 準備伺服器Prepare the servers

  2. 建立伺服器陣列Create the farm

  3. 設定所需設定、服務、解決方案及網站Configure settings, services, solutions, and sites

注意

建立及部署的伺服器陣列中移動到不同的部署階段圖所示的 SharePoint Server 2013 產品部署模型時、 會經歷大小、 拓撲及複雜性大幅的變更。這是一般和分階段部署的預期的結果。這就是為什麼我們建議您遵循所有本文的"的部署階段 」 一節所述的階段。The farm that you create and deploy will undergo significant changes in size, topology, and complexity as you move through the different deployment stages illustrated in the SharePoint Server 2013 Products Deployment model. This is typical and the expected result of a phased deployment. This is why we recommend that you follow all of the stages described in the "Deployment stages" section of this article.

準備伺服器Prepare the servers

在此階段中,您可以取得您準備好要主控之產品的伺服器。這包括支援的伺服器與伺服器已安裝的 SharePoint Server 2013。下列伺服器必須設定為支援並架設在伺服器陣列:In this phase, you get your servers ready to host the product. This includes the supporting servers and the servers that will have SharePoint Server 2013 installed. The following servers must be configured to support and host a farm:

  • 資料庫伺服器: 資料庫伺服器上必須安裝所需的 SQL Server,包括 service pack 及累計更新版本。安裝必須包含任何其他的功能,例如 SQL Analysis Services、 且要新增及設定適當的 SharePoint Server 2013 登入。必須強化資料庫伺服器和必要時,必須 DBA 所建立的資料庫。如需詳細資訊,請參閱:Database server: The required version of SQL Server, including service packs and cumulative updates must be installed on the database server. The installation must include any additional features, such as SQL Analysis Services, and the appropriate SharePoint Server 2013 logins have to be added and configured. The database server must be hardened and, if it is required, databases must be created by the DBA. For more information, see:

  • 應用程式伺服器和前端網頁伺服器: 已安裝的 SharePoint Server 2013 伺服器陣列的伺服器必須要準備,如下所示: 確認其符合的硬體需求、 有強化的作業系統、 具有所需的網路和設定、 安全性通訊協定具有必要軟體安裝及強化,並已設定需要的驗證的 SharePoint Server 2013。如需詳細資訊,請參閱:Application servers and front-end Web servers: The farm servers that will have SharePoint Server 2013 installed must be prepared as follows: verify that they meet the hardware requirements, have the operating system hardened, have the required networking and security protocols configured, have the SharePoint Server 2013 software prerequisites installed and hardened, and have the required authentication configured. For more information, see:

  • 網域控制台:必須針對網域設定必要伺服器帳戶,也必須設定目錄同步處理。Domain controller: The required farm accounts have to be configured for the domain and directory synchronization must be configured.

    重要

    SharePoint Server 2013 不支援在生產環境中安裝登入網域控制站。此外,SharePoint Server 2013 時不支援登入網域控制站的安裝使用開發人員、 測試或示範 (英文) 環境中的沙箱服務。> 也不支援單一標籤樹系或者單一標籤網域 (SLD) 名稱。因為使用 SLD 名不是建議的作法是,在此案例不測試 SharePoint Server 2013。因此,可能會有不相容性問題時單一標籤網域環境中實作 SharePoint Server 2013。如需詳細資訊,請參閱設定 Windows 單一標籤 DNS 名稱與網域的資訊DNS 命名空間規劃解決方案中心SharePoint Server 2013 does not support installation on to a domain controller in a production environment. Additionally, SharePoint Server 2013 does not support installation on to a domain controller when using the sandbox service in developer, test, or demo environments. > A single label domain (SLD) names or single label forests is also not supported. Because the use of SLD names is not a recommended practice, SharePoint Server 2013 is not tested in this scenario. Therefore, there may be incompatibility issues when SharePoint Server 2013 are implemented in a single label domain environment. For more information, see Information about configuring Windows for domains with single-label DNS names and the DNS Namespace Planning Solution Center.

    如需必要帳戶的資訊,請參閱:For information about required accounts, see:

建立伺服器陣列Create the farm

在此階段中,您可以安裝產品並設定其角色支援在伺服器陣列中每部伺服器。您也可以建立設定資料庫與 SharePoint 管理中心網站。下列伺服器所需的 SharePoint Server 2013 伺服器陣列:In this phase, you install the product and configure each server to support its role in the farm. You also create the configuration database and the SharePoint Central Administration Web site. The following servers are required for a SharePoint Server 2013 farm:

  • 資料庫伺服器:除非您打算使用 DBA 建立的資料庫,否則當您執行 [SharePoint 產品設定精靈] 時,即會建立設定資料庫、內容資料庫及其他必要資料庫。Database server: Unless you plan to use DBA-created databases, the configuration database, content database, and other required databases are created when you run the SharePoint Products Configuration Wizard.

  • 應用程式伺服器: 準備應用程式伺服器之後,安裝支援函數等資訊版權管理 (IRM) 及決策支援所需的任何其他元件。將架設 SharePoint 管理中心網站,然後執行 [SharePoint 產品設定精靈建立及設定伺服器陣列的伺服器上安裝 SharePoint Server 2013。Application server: After you prepare the application server, install any additional components that are required to support functions such as Information Rights Management (IRM) and decision support. Install SharePoint Server 2013 on the server that will host SharePoint Central Administration Web site and then run the SharePoint Products Configuration Wizard to create and configure the farm.

  • 前端網頁伺服器: 每個網頁伺服器上安裝 SharePoint Server 2013,安裝語言套件,然後執行 [SharePoint 產品設定精靈將網頁伺服器新增至伺服器陣列。Front-end Web server: Install SharePoint Server 2013 on each Web server, install language packs, and then run the SharePoint Products Configuration Wizard to add the Web servers to the farm.

    注意

    完成新增及設定所有前端網頁伺服器之後,您可以對伺服器陣列新增拓撲設計中的其他任何應用程式伺服器。After you add and configure all the front-end Web servers, you can add any additional application servers that are part of your topology design to the farm.

設定所需設定、服務、解決方案及網站Configure settings, services, solutions, and sites

在此階段中,您需準備讓伺服器陣列主控網站內容,請完成下列工作:In this phase, you prepare the farm to host your site content by completing the following tasks:

注意

伺服器陣列設定步驟不會在伺服器基礎結構的特定層級上單獨執行。Farm configuration steps are not isolated to a specific tier in the server infrastructure.

部署階段Deployment stages

分階段部署 SharePoint Server 2013 解決方案,您的入侵適用於系統化方法,例如收集的效能及使用狀況資料可用來評估您的解決方案所提供的優點。額外的優點包括驗證容量管理假設,以及伺服器陣列放入實際執行環境之前找出問題。By deploying a SharePoint Server 2013 solution in stages, you gain the benefits that are provided by a systematic approach, such as collecting performance and usage data that you can use to evaluate your solution. Additional benefits include verifying your capacity management assumptions and identifying issues before the farm is put into production.

建議您按下列階段部署伺服器陣列:We recommend that you deploy your farm in the following stages:

  • 規劃Planning

  • 開發Development

  • 概念證明Proof of concept

  • 試驗Pilot

  • 使用者接受度測試User acceptance test

  • 生產Production

規劃Planning

部署伺服器陣列之前,您必須將規劃想要部署的解決方案,並決定基礎結構需求,例如,伺服器資源及伺服器陣列拓撲。完成規劃階段後,您應已記錄下列事項:Before you can deploy a farm, you must plan the solution that you want to deploy and determine the infrastructure requirements, such as server resources and farm topology. When you finish the planning stage, you should have documented the following:

  • 支援解決方案的基礎結構設計An infrastructure design to support your solution

  • 關於如何實作伺服器陣列及解決方案的詳細說明A detailed description of how you will implement the farm and the solution

  • 測試及驗證解決方案的計劃A plan for testing and validating the solution

  • 網站及解決方案架構A site and solution architecture

  • 對支援解決方案之監視及持續工程工作需求的認識An understanding of the monitoring and sustained engineering requirements to support the solution

  • 解決方案管理方式的記錄A record of how the solution will be governed

  • 對如何通知使用者以促使他們採用解決方案的認識An understanding of how the solution will be messaged to the user to drive adoption of the solution

我們建議您使用的規劃資源及文章規劃 SharePoint Server中所述。We recommend that you use the planning resources and articles described in Plan for SharePoint Server.

重要

資源和時間問題可能會對他們產生壓力您將在規劃階段期間使用較不嚴謹。我們建議您嘗試要以嚴儘可能因為未接或限制性觸及規劃元素可以 resurface 為重大問題後您會在生產環境中。這些問題可以建立多了其他工作、 消耗 unbudgeted 的資源,以及可能需要從您的 SharePoint Server 2013 成功。Resource and time issues may pressure you to be less rigorous during the planning stage. We recommend that you try to be as diligent as possible because missed or lightly touched planning elements can resurface as significant issues after you are in production. These issues can create much additional work, consume unbudgeted resources, and potentially take away from the success of your SharePoint Server 2013.

完成規劃階段之後,即進入下列部署階段,並在測試過程中更新及修改計劃、設定和拓撲。After the planning stage, you move through the following deployment stages, updating and revising your plans, configurations, and topologies as you test.

開發Development

開發階段的您要在單一伺服器上或來開發、 測試、 評估及調整您想要實作解決方案的多部伺服器上部署 SharePoint Server 2013。此環境根據您的需求來調整期間方案開發及可以保留為未來開發及測試的向下調整式環境。這是不穩定的環境並沒有任何服務等級協定。During the development stage you will deploy SharePoint Server 2013 on a single server or on multiple servers to develop, test, evaluate, and refine the solution that you intend to implement. This environment is scaled according to your needs during solution development and can be retained as a scaled down environment for future development and testing. This is not a stable environment and there are no service-level agreements.

概念證明Proof of concept

在階段概念證明、 期間目標是兩個摺卡: 了解 SharePoint Server 2013 與用來評估 SharePoint Server 2013 中之內容的方式就可以滿足您的業務需求。在單一伺服器上安裝所有產品元件都可都完成產品評估的第一層。您可以執行更廣泛的產品評估的驗證概念來部署。During the proof of concept stage, the objective is two-fold: to understand SharePoint Server 2013 and to evaluate SharePoint Server 2013 in the context of how it can address your business needs. The first level of product evaluation can be done by installing all of the product components on a single server. You do a more extensive product evaluation by a proof-of-concept deployment.

驗證概念來部署單一伺服器或小型伺服器陣列上可讓您依序展開 [評估的範圍。在本部署中,非 IT 人員新增至評估小組、 提供更廣泛的 SharePoint Server 2013 功能可能會如何檢視實際上是組織中使用。驗證概念來部署的優點是您可以收集資料可以用來調整您原始的計劃。此資料 — 例如頁面檢視、 使用者行為模式及伺服器資源使用率 — 也可讓您開始建立基準調整您的伺服器陣列的大小。概念證明時也很好您評估服務應用程式並決定哪些功能設定您將會提供您的使用者。A proof-of-concept deployment on a single server or on a small farm enables you to expand the scope of your evaluation. In this deployment, non-IT staff is added to the evaluation team, which provides a broader view of how SharePoint Server 2013 features might be actually be used in the organization. The benefit of a proof-of-concept deployment is that you can collect data that can be used to refine your original plan. This data—such as page views, user behavior patterns, and server resource consumption—also enables you to start to build a benchmark for sizing your farm. A proof of concept is also good when you evaluate service applications and determining what feature sets that you will offer your end users.

務必階段的概念證明因為此了解可協助您定義整體拓撲瞭解的唯一的特性和功能這些功能。請注意驗證概念來部署需要的其他資源和延伸至 SharePoint Server 2013 放入實際執行環境所需的時間。It is important during the proof-of-concept stage that you understand the unique characteristics and functionality of these features because this understanding will help you define your overall topology. Be aware that a proof-of-concept deployment requires additional resources and extends the time required to put SharePoint Server 2013 into production.

提示

虛擬化提供良好平台評估 SharePoint Server 2013 因為虛擬環境可提供彈性、 快速部署能力,且能夠虛擬機器回復到之前的狀態。Virtualization provides a good platform for evaluating SharePoint Server 2013 because a virtual environment provides flexibility, rapid deployment capability, and the ability to roll back virtual machines to previous states.

試驗Pilot

試驗階段的目的是在小規模環境內對解決方案進行測試。使用試驗部署有兩種作法。第一個作法,主要目的是進行功能測試,但不使用實際資料。第二個作法,則使用實際資料測試實際執行特性,並要求您的試驗使用者進行其他工作。建議您使用第二種作法,因為您可以收集較大範圍且實際環境中的資料,並用以調整解決方案設計。A pilot is used to test your solution on a small scale. There are two approaches to using a pilot deployment. In the first approach, the focus is on functional testing without using real data. By using the second approach you test for production characteristics by using real data and have your pilot users test different kinds of tasks. We recommend the second approach because of the broader scope and real-world data that you can collect and use to refine your solution design.

試驗部署有許多好處,它可讓您收集資料以驗證伺服器陣列設計中的下列層面:A pilot deployment provides many benefits. It enables you to collect data that you can use to validate the following aspects of your farm design:

  • 基礎結構設計Infrastructure design

  • 容量管理假設Capacity management assumptions

  • 網站及解決方案架構Site and solution architecture

  • 解決方案使用狀況假設Solution usage assumptions

試驗階段也可讓您決定還應收集其他哪些資料,以提高您測試標竿的廣度與深度。這點對於您在進入使用者接受度測試之前,若想對新增至伺服器陣列的額外功能評估其可能影響性來說,非常重要。The pilot stage also enables you to determine additional data that should be collected to increase the breadth and depth of your benchmarks. This is important if you want to assess the potential effect of additional features or services that you want to add to the farm before the user acceptance test.

在試驗部署階段的最後,您可以使用收集的資料調整解決方案及其支援基礎結構的各式元件。At the conclusion of the pilot deployment, you can use the data that you collect to adjust the various components of the solution and its supporting infrastructure.

使用者接受度測試 (UAT)User acceptance test (UAT)

使用者接受度測試部署 (一般稱之為實際執行前環境) 是做為組織從試驗部署到實際執行部署之間的過渡步驟。使用者接受度測試的範圍、規模及時間長度取決於組織的營運流程。A user acceptance test deployment—also known as a pre-production environment—is used by organizations as a transitional step from the pilot deployment to a production deployment. An organization's business processes determine the scope, scale, and duration of user accept testing.

實際執行前環境的拓撲應相同,或非常類似的計劃的實際執行拓撲。使用者接受度測試,在 SharePoint Server 2013 解決方案測試子集或搭配實際執行資料的完整複本。此部署階段提供效能調整和驗證例如備份作業的程序的最後一個機會並還原。The topology of the pre-production environment should be the same as, or very similar to the planned production topology. During user acceptance testing, the SharePoint Server 2013 solution is tested against a subset or a complete copy of production data. This deployment stage provides a final opportunity for performance tuning and validating operational procedures such as backups and restores.

生產Production

最後一個階段即是將伺服器陣列放入實際執行環境。在此階段,您即已採行必要解決方案及使用者接受度測試階段中所發現的基礎結構調整。The final stage is rolling your farm into a production environment. At this stage, you will have incorporated the necessary solution and infrastructure adjustments that were identified during the user acceptance test stage.

要將伺服器陣列放入實際執行環境,您需完成下列工作:Putting the farm into production requires you to complete the following tasks:

  • 部署伺服器陣列。Deploy the farm.

  • 部署解決方案。Deploy the solution.

  • 實作運作計劃。Implement the operations plan.

  • 若有必要,部署其他環境,例如,製作及臨時伺服器陣列,與服務伺服器陣列。If required, deploy additional environments such as authoring and staging farms, and services farms.