SharePoint Server 的分析處理概觀Overview of analytics processing in SharePoint Server

摘要: 了解「分析處理元件」如何分析內容和使用者動作,以改善搜尋相關性。Summary: Learn how the Analytics Processing Component analyzes content and user actions to improve search relevance.

為了協助識別及呈現使用者認為最有用且最相關的內容,SharePoint Server 的 [分析處理元件]**** 會同時分析內容本身,以及使用者與其互動的方式。分析結果會新增至搜尋索引中的項目,以隨時間自動改善搜尋相關性。此外,這些結果可用於報表,以協助搜尋管理員了解可手動採取哪些步驟以改善搜尋系統。To help identify and surface the content that users consider to be the most useful and relevant, the Analytics Processing Component in SharePoint_Server analyzes both the content itself, and also the way that users interact with it. The results from the analysis are added to the items in the search index so that search relevance improves automatically over time. Also, the results are used in reports that help search administrators see which manual steps they can take to improve the search system.

分析架構The analytics architecture

分析架構是由下列三個主要部分所組成:The analytics architecture consists of these main parts:

  • 分析處理元件執行分析工作。如需詳細資訊,請參閱<不同分析類型>。The Analytics Processing Component runs the analytics jobs. For more information, see The different types of analyses.

  • 「Analytics 報表資料庫」 儲存來自不同分析的統計資訊,例如流量事件計數。SharePoint Server 使用此資料庫中的資訊為搜尋管理員建立 Excel 報表。如需詳細資訊,請參閱< 流量分析>及<以分析處理為基礎的報表>。The Analytics reporting database stores statistical information, such as usage event counts, from the different analyses. SharePoint Server uses the information in this database to create Excel reports for the search administrators. For more information, see Usage analytics and Reports based on analytics processing.

  • 「連結資料庫」 儲存搜尋和編目文件的資訊。此資料庫中的資料會以不同的子分析進行處理。如需詳細資訊,請參閱< 搜尋分析>。The Link database stores information about searches and crawled documents. The data in this database is processed in different sub-analyses. For more information, see Search analytics.

不同分析類型The different types of analyses

「分析處理元件」執行兩種主要分析類型:[搜尋分析]**** 及 [流量分析]*。[搜尋分析] 分析搜尋索引中的內容,而 [流量分析] 則分析使用者動作。The Analytics Processing Component runs two main types of analyses: *Search analytics and Usage analytics. Search analytics analyzes content in the search index, and usage analytics analyzes the user actions.

  • [搜尋分析]**** 分析已編目並新增至搜尋索引的內容。Search analytics analyzes content that is being crawled and added to the search index.

  • [流量分析] 分析 SharePoint Server 網站上的使用者動作或「 流量事件」 (例如點閱或已檢視的項目)。Usage analytics analyzes user actions, or usage events, such as clicks or viewed items, on the SharePoint Server site.

搜尋分析Search analytics

搜尋分析是一組分析,會在編目及處理內容並將內容儲存至搜尋索引之後,從此內容擷取連結和錨定文字等資訊。擷取的資訊會與點閱搜尋結果的相關資訊一起儲存在連結資料庫中。然後再以數個子分析進一步處理連結資料庫中的資訊。Search analytics is a set of analyses that extracts information such as links and anchor text from content as it is being crawled and processed and stored in the search index. The extracted information is stored in the Link database together with information about clicks on search results. The information in the Link database is further processed in several sub-analyses.

搜尋分析所產生的資訊可用來豐富搜尋索引中的項目,此資訊可協助改善相關性和重新叫用,並會儲存在報表資料庫及包含在報表中。Information that results from the search analyses is used to enrich items in the search index with information to help improve relevance and recall, and is stored in the Reporting database and included in reports.

搜尋分析中的分析Analyses in search analytics

分析Analysis 描述Description
錨定文字處理Anchor text processing 錨定文字處理分析內容主體中項目的連結方式,也包含與分析中的連結相關聯的錨定文字。「分析處理元件」使用此分析結果將排名分數新增至搜尋索引中的項目。Anchor text processing analyzes how items in the content corpus are interlinked. It also includes the anchor texts associated with the links in the analysis. The Analytics Processing Component uses the results of the analysis to add rank points to the items in the search index.
點閱距離Click Distance 點閱距離分析計算從代表性頁面至搜尋索引中之項目的點閱數目。代表性頁面可以是頂層網站 (例如 http://www.contoso.com 或其他視為重要的頁面。您可以在管理中心中定義代表性頁面。The Click Distance analysis calculates the number of clicks between an authoritative page and the items in the search index. An authoritative page can be a top level site, for example http://www.contoso.com, or other pages that are viewed as important. You can define Authorative pages in Central Administration.

「分析處理元件」使用此分析結果將排名分數新增至搜尋索引中的項目。The Analytics Processing Component uses the results of the analysis to add rank points to the items in the search index.
搜尋點閱Search Clicks 搜尋點閱分析使用下列資訊:使用者在搜尋結果中點閱的項目,以升階或降階搜尋索引中的項目。此分析計算項目與基準相關性相較下的新排名。The Search Clicks analysis uses information about which items users click in search results to boost or demote items in the search index. The analysis calculates a new ranking of items compared to the base relevance.

點閱資料會儲存在連結資料庫中。The clicks data is stored in the Link database.
社交標記Social Tags 社交標記分析分析社交標記,社交標記是使用者可以套用至內容的字詞,以對使用者而言有意義的方式來分類資訊。The Social Tags analysis analyses social tags, which are words or phrases that users can apply to content to categorize information in ways that are meaningful to them.

在 SharePoint Server 中,預設不會使用社交標記進行精簡搜尋、排名或重新叫用。不過,您可以使用社交標記及此分析中的資訊,建立自訂搜尋體驗。In SharePoint Server, social tags are not used for refinement, ranking, or recall by default. However, you can create custom search experiences that use social tags and the information from this analysis.
關係距離Social Distance 關係距離分析計算使用 [追蹤人員] 功能的使用者之間的關係。此分析計算第一層和第二層追蹤:先分析第一層追蹤,再分析後續追蹤。The Social Distance analysis calculates the relationship between users who use the Follow person feature. The analysis calculates first and second level Followings: first level Followings first, and then Followings of Following.

此資訊可用來依關係距離排序人員搜尋結果。The information is used to sort People Search results by social distance.
搜尋報表Search Reports 搜尋報表分析彙總資料,並將資料儲存在 Analytics 報表資料庫中,以用來產生下列搜尋報表:The Search Reports analysis aggregates data and stores the data in the Analytics reporting database where it's used to generate these search reports:

查詢數Number of queries

查詢排行榜Top queries

放棄的查詢Abandoned queries

無結果查詢No result queries

查詢規則使用狀況Query rule usage

此報表資訊會儲存在 Search Service 應用程式中,而不是隨搜尋索引中的項目儲存。如果刪除 Search Service 應用程式,也會刪除報表資訊。The report information is saved in the Search service application, and not with the items in the search index. If you delete the Search service application, the report information is also deleted.
深層連結Deep Links 深層連結分析使用人員實際在搜尋結果中點閱的資訊,來計算網站上最重要的子頁面為何。這些頁面會顯示在搜尋結果中,做為對網站而言重要的捷徑,且使用者可以直接從搜尋結果存取相關的子頁面。The Deep Links analysis uses information about what people actually click in the search results to calculate what the most important sub-pages on a site are. These pages are displayed in the search results as important shortcuts for the site, and users can access the relevant sub-pages directly from the search results.

流量分析Usage analytics

流量分析是一組分析,可接收 SharePoint Server 網站上之使用者動作或「流量事件」 (例如點閱或已檢視的項目) 的相關資訊。流量分析將此資訊與來自搜尋分析的編目內容資訊合併,然後處理合併後的資訊。建議和流量事件的資訊會新增至搜尋索引。不同流量事件的統計資料會新增至搜尋索引,並傳送至 Analytics 報表資料庫。Usage analytics is a set of analyses that receive information about user actions, or usage events, such as clicks or viewed items, on the SharePoint Server site. Usage analytics combines this information with information about crawled content from the Search analyses, and processes the information. Information about recommendations and usage events is added to the search index. Statistics on the different usage events is added to the search index and sent to the Analytics reporting database.

預設會定義一組現成的流量事件。預設事件一律會透過 SharePoint Server 登錄及分析。您也可以設定自訂事件類型。如需預設流量事件的詳細資訊,請參閱<流量分析所使用的流量事件>。A default set of usage events is defined out of the box. The default events are always registered and analyzed by SharePoint Server. You can also configure custom event types. For more information about the default usage events, see The usage events used by Usage analytics.

流量分析中的分析Analyses in usage analytics

分析Analysis 描述Description
流量計數Usage counts 流量計數分析分析事件,例如已檢視的項目或已點閱的項目。此分析計算某個項目開啟的「 」次數,不僅限於從搜尋結果頁面開啟項目,也包括從 Word 開啟文件或在 SharePoint Server 文件庫中點閱文件的情況。 The Usage counts analysis analyzes events, such as viewed or clicked items. The analysis calculates how many times an item is opened overall , not just from the search result page, but also, for example, when a document is opened from Word or clicked in a SharePoint Server library.

此分析計算所有定義之事件類型的最近事件及所有事件。根據預設,最近事件設為過去 14 天內的事件,但是您可以將其設為 1 到 14 天 (內部部署)。統計資料會在網站層級、網站集合層級和承租人層級 (SPO) 彙總。 The analysis calculates both recent events and all time events, for all defined event types. By default, recent events is set to the last 14 days, but you can set it between 1 and 14 days (on-premises). The statistics data is aggregated on site level, on site collection level, and on tenant level (SPO).

流量事件會暫時儲存在 Web 前端,並每隔 15 分鐘推送至 Search Service 應用程式。流量事件最多可在磁碟上保留 14 天,在這之後將遭到刪除。每天會分析前一天的流量計數。 The usage events are stored temporarily on the web front end and are pushed to the Search Service Application every 15 minutes. Usage events are kept on disk for up to 14 days before they are deleted. Every day, the previous full day of Usage counts data is analyzed.

流量計數會新增至搜尋索引中的項目,以改善搜尋相關性。此資訊也會儲存在 Analytics 報表資料庫中,並且可以用來顯示網站上的常用項目。Usage counts are added to the items in the search index to improve search relevancy. The information is also stored in the Analytics reporting database, and can be used to display popular items on a site.
建議Recommendations 建議分析根據使用者與網站上項目的互動方式,來建立項目之間的建議。此分析使用與流量計數相同的事件檔案,但是會尋找使用模式。此分析計算項目對項目關係圖,並將此資訊新增至搜尋索引中的項目。The Recommendations analysis creates recommendations between items based on how users have interacted with the items on a site. The analysis uses the same event file as Usage counts, but looks for patterns in the usage. The analysis calculates an item-to-item relationship graph and adds the information to the items in the search index.

此資訊可用來顯示網站上的建議,例如「檢視此項目的人員也檢視」。The information can be used to display recommendations on a site, for example "People who viewed this also viewed".

此資料會儲存在 Analytics 報表資料庫以用於復原。與建議相關的報表是以流量計數分析為基礎。The data is stored in the Analytics reporting database for recovery purposes. Reports related to recommendations are based on the Usage counts analysis.
活動排名Activity ranking 活動排名分析使用流量事件的活動追蹤 (事件速率) 影響搜尋相關性。具有高流量活動之項目 (點閱或檢視) 的活動排名分數一般會比較不常用的項目高。 The Activity ranking analysis uses the activity tracking of usage events (the event rate) to influence search relevancy. Items that have high usage activity (clicks or views) typically get a higher activity rank score than less popular items.

此分析尋找項目活動中的「趨勢」*。如果您只計算事件數目,較舊項目的相關性一般較高,因為較舊的文件有較多時間收集活動。活動追蹤可協助具有高流量活動的較新文件取得較高的排名。The analysis looks for *trends in item activity. If you only count the number of events, older items will typically “win” in relevancy, because the older documents have had more time to collect activity. The activity tracking helps newer documents that have high usage activity get a higher rank.

流量分析所使用的流量事件The usage events used by Usage analytics

SharePoint Server 包含下列預設流量事件:SharePoint Server includes the following default usage events:

  • 檢視Views

  • 顯示的建議Recommendations displayed

  • 點閱的建議Recommendations clicked

除了預設事件之外,您最多可以新增十二個自訂事件。例如,您可以新增自訂事件,以追蹤從行動裝置平台存取項目的頻率。In addition to the default events, you can add up to twelve custom events. For example, you can add a custom event that tracks how often an item is accessed from a mobile platform.

系統會計算每個項目、網站集合及承租人 (SPO) 的所有流量事件。All usage events are counted per item, site collection, and tenant (SPO).

以分析處理為基礎的報表Reports based on analytics processing

「分析處理元件」所產生的資料可用來建立下列「流量報表」:The Analytics Processing Component generates data that is used to create the following usage reports:

  • 常用性趨勢 此 Excel 報表顯示 SharePoint 文件庫或清單中,網站集合、網站或特定項目之每個流量事件的每日及每月計數。Popularity Trends An Excel report that shows the daily and monthly count per usage event for a site collection, site, or specific item in a SharePoint library or list.

    注意

    [單獨使用者]**** 顯示每天的單獨使用者數,而「每月」[單獨使用者]** 則顯示每月的 SUM (UU/日)。Unique Users shows the number of unique users per day, while Unique Users per month shows SUM(UU/Day) for the month.

  • [最常用的項目]**** 顯示文件庫或清單中「所有項目」** 的每個流量事件排名;例如,文件庫或清單中最常檢視的項目。此排名可依 [最近]**** 或 [至今]**** 排序。Most Popular Items Shows ranking per usage event for all items in a library or list, for example the most viewed items in the library or list. The ranking can be sorted by Recent or Ever.

分析處理元件所收集資料的隱私權保護Privacy protection of the data collected by the Analytics Processing Component

「分析處理元件」收集的資料有一部份與個人識別資訊相關。SharePoint Server 提供多項功能來保護這些資訊的隱私權。Parts of the data that the Analytics Processing Component collects are related to personally identifiable information. SharePoint Server has different features to protect the privacy of this information.

對於每個流量事件,「分析處理元件」會記錄下列資訊:For each usage event, the Analytics Processing Component logs the following information:

  • 流量事件發生的項目 URL。The URL of the item where the usage event occurred.

  • 流量事件發生的 SiteID、WebID 和 TenantID。The SiteID, the WebID, and the TenantID where the usage event occurred.

  • 流量事件發生的日期和時間。The time and the date when the usage event occurred.

  • 造成流量事件發生之人員的模糊化使用者識別碼。The obfuscated user ID of the person who caused the usage event to occur.

這些資料會先儲存在 Search Service 應用程式中,再由「分析處理元件」處理。30 天後會自動移除這些資料。下列清單顯示資料處理後得出的結果:This data is stored in the Search service application before it is processed by the Analytics Processing Component. The data is automatically removed after 30 days. The following list shows the results of the data processing:

  • 流量事件總數。 The total number of usage events.

  • 唯一流量事件的總數。The total number of unique usage events.

  • 逐項目式建議。Item-to-item recommendations.

  • 相關性功能。Relevance features.

這些結果會儲存在分析報告資料庫中,位於搜尋索引中。進行資料處理並不會儲存任何使用者資訊。模糊化的使用者識別碼只用於計算唯一流量事件計數,以及用於計算逐項目建議。These results are stored in the analytics reporting database, and in the search index. No user information is stored as a result of the data processing. The obfuscated user ID is only used when calculating the unique usage event counts, and calculating item-to-item recommendations.

您可以在兩個流量報表中檢視結果。如需詳細資訊,請參閱<在 SharePoint Server 中檢視使用狀況報告>。You can view the results in two usage reports. For more information, see View usage reports in SharePoint Server.

具有匿名使用者之網站的 CookieUsage cookies for sites that have anonymous users

SharePoint Server Web 應用程式預設未啟用流量 Cookie。若要為具有匿名使用者的網站產生唯一使用者計數和逐項目式建議,SharePoint Server 可讓您對 SharePoint Web 應用程式啟用流量 Cookie。啟用流量 Cookie,將會產生唯一 GUID,以在資料處理期間當成使用者識別碼使用。GUID 在 Cookie 存在期間都會維持可用,並且在資料處理期間當成使用者識別碼使用。Cookie 的持續期間是 14 天。By default, usage cookies are not enabled for a SharePoint Server web application. To generate unique user counts and item-to-item recommendations for sites that have anonymous users, SharePoint Server enables you to use usage cookies for a SharePoint web application. When you enable usage cookies, this generates a unique GUID that is used as a user ID when data is being processed. The GUID is available for the lifetime of the cookie, and it is used as a user ID when data is being processed. The lifetime of the cookie is 14 days.

重要

當地法律可能會有關於在具有匿名使用者的網站上啟用 Cookie 的限制。Local legal restrictions might apply when you enable cookies on sites that have anonymous users.

若要對 SharePoint Web 應用程式啟用流量 Cookie,請參閱<編輯 SharePoint Server 中的 web 應用程式的一般設定>。此文章也適用於 SharePoint Server 2016。To enable usage cookies for a SharePoint web application, see Edit general settings on a web application in SharePoint Server. This article also applies to SharePoint Server 2016.