SharePoint Server 的搜尋架構概觀Overview of search architecture in SharePoint Server

摘要: 瞭解 SharePoint Server 搜尋架構、SharePoint Server 搜尋元件、SharePoint Server 搜尋資料庫與 SharePoint Server 搜尋拓撲。Summary: Learn about SharePoint Server search architecture, SharePoint Server search components, SharePoint Server search databases, and the SharePoint Server search topology.

搜尋架構包含搜尋元件與資料庫。如何建構搜尋架構,端看搜尋使用地點而定:企業或網站。建置搜尋架構時,您應考量以下因素:高可用性、容錯、內容容量、網頁檢視及與每秒查詢估計值。The search architecture contains search components and databases. How you structure the search architecture depends on where you intend to use search: for the enterprise or for Internet sites. When building the search architecture, you should take into account considerations such as high availability and fault tolerance, the volume of your content and the estimated amount of page views and queries per second.

如需針對不同使用案例搜尋拓撲的詳細資訊,請參閱技術圖 <SharePoint Server 2016 的企業搜尋架構>與<SharePoint Server 2016 的網際網路網站搜尋架構>。For information about search topologies for different use cases: see the technical diagrams Enterprise search architectures for SharePoint Server 2016 and Internet sites search architectures for SharePoint Server 2016.

搜尋元件與搜尋資料庫概觀Overview of search components and search databases

下表顯示所有可用的搜尋元件與搜尋資料庫概觀。如需搜尋元件與資料庫如何互動的詳細資訊,請參閱<SharePoint Server 2016 的網站架構>技術圖。The following tables show an overview of all the available search components and search databases. For more information about how search components and databases interact, see the Search architectures for SharePoint Server 2016 technical diagram.

搜尋元件Search components

搜尋元件名稱Search component name 描述Description
編目元件Crawl component 編目內容來源以從編目項目收集編目屬性與中繼資料,並將此資訊傳送到內容處理元件。Crawls content sources to collect crawled properties and metadata from crawled items and sends this information to the content processing component.
內容處理元件Content processing component 轉換編目項目,並傳送到索引元件。此元件也會將編目屬性對應至受管理的屬性。Transforms the crawled items and sends them to the index component. This component also maps crawled properties to managed properties.
分析處理元件Analytics processing component 執行搜尋分析與流量分析。Carries out search analytics and usage analytics.
索引元件Index component 接收內容處理元件的已處理項目,並寫入搜尋索引。此元件也會處理傳入的查詢、從搜尋索引擷取資訊,並將結果集傳回查詢處理元件。Receives the processed items from the content processing component and writes them to the search index. This component also handles incoming queries, retrieves information from the search index and sends back the result set to the query processing component.
查詢處理元件Query processing component 分析傳入的查詢。這樣有助於提高準確度、記憶與相關性。查詢會傳送到索引元件,索引元件會傳回該查詢的搜尋結果集。Analyzes incoming queries. This helps optimize precision, recall and relevance. The queries are sent to the index component, which returns a set of search results for the query.
搜尋管理元件Search administration component 執行搜尋的系統處理序,並且加入與初始化搜尋元件的新執行個體。Runs the system processes for search, and adds and initializes new instances of search components.

搜尋資料庫Search databases

搜尋資料庫名稱Search database name 描述Description
編目資料庫Crawl database 儲存追蹤資訊與編目項目歷程記錄資訊,例如文件與 URL,也會儲存上次編目時間、上次編目識別碼及上次編目期間的更新類型 (加入、更新、刪除) 等資訊。Stores tracking information and historical information about crawled items such as documents and URLs. It also stores information such as the last crawl time, the last crawl ID and the type of update (add, update, delete) during the last crawl.
連結資料庫Link database 儲存內容處理元件擷取的未處理資訊與搜尋次數的相關資訊。分析處理元件會分析此資訊。Stores unprocessed information that is extracted by the content processing component and information about search clicks. The analytics processing component analyzes this information.
分析報表資料庫Analytics reporting database 儲存流量分析的結果。Stores the results of usage analysis.
搜尋管理資料庫Search administration database 儲存搜尋設定資料。Stores search configuration data.

關於編目元件About the crawl component

編目元件負責編目內容來源。您可編目許多內容來源,例如檔案共用、SharePoint Server 內容、商務應用程式系列等等。若要擷取資訊,編目元件會叫用適當的索引連接器或通訊協定處理常式,藉以連接到內容來源。擷取內容後,編目元件會將編目項目傳送到內容處理元件。The crawl component crawls the content sources. You can crawl lots of content sources, for example file shares, SharePoint Server content, line of business applications and many more. To retrieve information, the crawl component connects to the content sources by invoking the appropriate indexing connector or protocol handler. After retrieving the content, the crawl component passes crawled items to the content processing component.

如需編目內容來源的詳細資訊,請參閱<在 SharePoint Server 中規劃編目及同盟>。For more information about crawling content sources, see Plan crawling and federation in SharePoint Server.

關於內容處理元件About the content processing component

內容處理元件負責處理編目的項目,然後傳送到索引元件。內容處理元件執行各項操作 (例如文件剖析與屬性對應),也會執行語言處理 (例如語言偵測與實體擷取)。元件將編目項目轉換為搜尋索引內含的成品。內容處理元件還會將連結與 URL 寫入連結資料庫。The content processing component processes crawled items and sends these items to the index component. The content processing component performs operations such as document parsing and property mapping. It also performs linguistics processing such as language detection and entity extraction. The component transforms crawled items into artifacts that are included in the search index. The content processing component also writes information about links and URLs to the link database.

如需內容處理的詳細資訊,請參閱<在 SharePoint Server 中規劃編目及同盟>。For more information about content processing, see Plan crawling and federation in SharePoint Server.

關於分析處理元件About the analytics processing component

分析處理元件會執行兩種類型的分析:搜尋分析與流量分析。這個元件會使用這些分析的資訊來改善 「 搜尋 」 相關性、 建立搜尋報表,並產生推薦和深層連結。The analytics processing component performs two types of analyses: search analytics and usage analytics. This component uses information from these analyses to improve search relevance, create search reports, and generate recommendations and deep links.

  • 搜尋分析會從連結資料庫擷取資訊,例如連結、按一下項目的次數、錨定文字、關於人員的資料,以及中繼資料。這些資料對於相關性很重要。Search analytics is about extracting information, such as links, the number of times an item is clicked, anchor text, data related to people, and metadata, from the link database. This information is important to relevance.

  • 流量分析會分析從前端透過事件儲存區收到的流量記錄資訊。流量分析會產生流量及統計資料報告。Usage analytics is about analyzing usage log information received from the front-end via the event store. Usage analytics generates usage and statistics reports.

分析的結果會新增至搜尋索引中的項目。此外,流量分析的結果會儲存在分析報告資料庫中。The results from the analyses are added to the items in the search index. In addition, results from usage analytics are stored in the analytics reporting database.

如需詳細資訊,請參閱<SharePoint Server 中分析處理的概觀>。For more information, see Overview of analytics processing in SharePoint Server.

關於索引元件About the index component

您可將搜尋索引分割成不連續的部分,即稱為索引分割區。搜尋索引是所有索引分割區的彙總。每個索引分割區都有一個以上的索引複本。若要達成容錯能力和備援,請建立各個索引磁碟分割的索引複本,並對於多部伺服器散發索引複本。You can divide the search index into discrete portions, called index partitions. The search index is the aggregation of all index partitions. Each index partition holds one or more index replicas that contain the same information. To achieve fault tolerance and redundancy, create additional index replicas for each index partition and distribute the index replicas over multiple servers.

索引元件是索引複本的邏輯表示法。在搜尋拓撲中,您必須為各個索引複本佈建一個索引元件。The index component is the logical representation of an index replica. In the search topology, you have to provision one index component for each index replica.

索引元件:The index component:

  • 從內容處理元件接收已處理的項目,並將這些項目寫入索引檔案。索引檔案會儲存在裝載索引元件的伺服器之中的磁碟上。Receives processed items from the content processing component and writes those items to an index file. Index files are stored on a disk in the server that hosts the index component.

  • 從查詢處理元件接收查詢,並傳回結果集。Receives queries from the query processing component and returns result sets.

如需搜尋結構描述與搜尋索引的詳細資訊,請參閱<SharePoint Server 的搜尋結構描述概觀>。For more information about the search schema and the search index, see Overview of the search schema in SharePoint Server.

關於查詢處理元件About the query processing component

查詢元件負責分析並處理查詢與結果。它會執行語言學處理,例如斷詞和字詞功能。查詢處理元件接收查詢時,會分析並處理查詢,以提高準確度、記憶與相關性。已處理的查詢會送交索引元件。索引元件會根據已處理的查詢將結果集傳回查詢處理元件,查詢處理元件進而處理該結果集,然後將結果集送到前端。The query component analyzes and processes queries and results. It performs linguistics processing such as word breaking and stemming. When the query processing component receives a query from the search front-end, it analyzes and processes the query to optimize precision, recall and relevance. The processed query is submitted to the index component. The index component returns a result set based on the processed query to the query processing component, which in turn processes that result set, before returning it to the search front-end.

如需詳細資訊,請參閱<在 SharePoint Server 中規劃轉換查詢和順序結果>。For more information, see Plan to transform queries and order results in SharePoint Server.

關於搜尋管理元件About the search administration component

搜尋管理元件負責執行搜尋的系統處理序。此元件執行佈建,也就是加入並初始化其他搜尋元件的執行個體。The search administration component runs the system processes for search. This component performs provisioning, which is to add and initialize instances of the other search components.

關於編目資料庫About the crawl database

編目資料庫儲存追蹤資訊與編目項目歷程記錄資訊,例如儲存上次編目時間、上次編目識別碼及上次編目期的更新類型 (加入、更新、刪除) 等資訊。The crawl database stores tracking information and historical information about crawled items. For example, it stores information about the last crawl time, the last crawl ID and the type of update during the last crawl.

連結資料庫負責儲存內容處理元件擷取的資訊。此外,它會儲存與搜尋點選相關的資訊;人員按一下搜尋結果頁面之中搜尋結果的次數。這項資訊會在未處理的狀態下直接儲存,往後將由分析處理元件進行分析。The link database stores information extracted by the content processing component. In addition, it stores information about search clicks; the number of times people click on a search result from the search result page. This information is stored unprocessed, to be analyzed by the analytics processing component.

關於分析報表資料庫About the analytics reporting database

分析報表資料庫負責儲存流量分析結果。此外,它會儲存分析的統計資料資訊。SharePoint Server 會使用這些資訊來建立顯示不同統計資料的 Excel 報表。The analytics reporting database stores the results of usage analytics. In addition, it stores statistics information from the analyses. SharePoint Server uses this information to create Excel reports that show different statistics.

關於搜尋管理資料庫About the search administration database

搜尋管理資料庫負責儲存搜尋組態資料,例如拓樸、編目規則、查詢規則,以及編目和已管理屬性之間的對應。它也會儲存編目元件的存取控制清單 (ACL)。每個 Search Service 應用程式只能有一個搜尋管理資料庫。The search administration database stores search configuration data, such as the topology, crawl rules, query rules, and the mappings between crawled and managed properties. It also stores the access control list (ACL) for the crawl component. There can be only one search administration database per search service application.

另請參閱See also

在 SharePoint Server 中管理搜尋拓撲Manage the search topology in SharePoint Server