規劃 SharePoint Server 中的自助網站架設Plan self-service site creation in SharePoint Server

摘要:了解在準備 SharePoint Server 2016 和 SharePoint 2013 的自助網站架設與管理時需要制定的重要決策。Summary: Learn the critical decisions that you need to make when preparing for Self Service Site creation and management in SharePoint Server 2016 and SharePoint 2013.

組織有兩種方式可以在其 Web 應用程式中建立網站集合。其中一種方式是將網站集合建立限制於伺服器陣列管理員。伺服器陣列管理員可以透過 SharePoint 管理中心網站或 SharePoint 管理命令介面建立網站集合。此種方式可提供嚴密控制。另一種方式是啟用 [自助網站架設],讓具有必要權限的使用者在預先定義的路徑之下建立網站集合。如需使用 Microsoft PowerShell 與 SPSiteMaster Cmdlet 來建立自助網站的相關資訊,請參閱Use Windows PowerShell cmdlets to manage sites in SharePoint ServerOrganizations have two ways to create site collections in their web applications. One way is to restrict site collection creation to Farm Administrators. The Farm Administrators create site collections either through the SharePoint Central Administration website or through the SharePoint Management Shell. This provides tight control. Another way is to enable Self Service Site Creation, to let users with the necessary rights create site collections under predefined paths. For information about using Microsoft PowerShell to create self-service sites with the SPSiteMaster cmdlets, see the Use Windows PowerShell cmdlets to manage sites in SharePoint Server.

注意

[!附註] 我的網站 在 SharePoint Foundation 2013 中,無法使用原則功能,且預設會停用 [自助網站架設]。My Sites and the policies feature are not available in SharePoint Foundation 2013 and Self-Service Site Creation is disabled by default.

決定可以建立網站的人員和網站架設的方法Determine who can create sites and a method for site creation

根據預設,新的網站集合只能由伺服器陣列管理員群組的成員使用 管理中心或 SharePoint 管理命令介面來建立。如果組織想要嚴密控制和管理環境,只讓少數人可以新增頂層網站,則要使用此方法。不過,如果您有任何下列需求,則您的組織最好使用自助網站架設:By default, new site collections can only be created by using Central Administration or the SharePoint Management Shell, by members of the Farm Administrators group. If your organization wants to tightly control and manage the environment so only a few people are allowed to add top-level sites, this is the method to use. However, if you have any of the following requirements, then self-service site creation might be the better choice for your organization:

  • 您希望使用者能夠輕鬆建立非正式 (甚至可任意處置) 的最上層網站,例如針對短期專案。You want users to be able to easily create informal, perhaps even disposable, top-level sites, such as for short-term projects.

  • 您想要建立非正式的空間,以利小組、群組或社群進行互動。You want to create an informal space for team, group, or community interaction.

  • 您正在代管最上層網站 (不論內部或外部),而且希望用於要求及接收最上層網站的程序能儘量加快速度和維持低廉成本。You are hosting top-level sites (either internally or externally) and want the process for requesting and receiving a top-level site to be as quick and low cost as possible.

有幾種方式可以讓使用者建立自己的網站,同時對您的環境仍保有某種程度的掌控。請考慮下列哪一種方法最適合您的組織。There are several ways to allow users to create their own sites, while still maintaining some control over your environment. Consider which of the following methods will work best for your organization.

  • 自助網站架設 [自助網站架設] 可讓使用者在特定 Web 應用程式中的 /sites 路徑 (或您指定的其他路徑) 之下建立網站集合。當您要允許群組或社群建立網站時,這適合使用這種方法。如果您正在代管網站,而且想允許使用者建立網站,而不需等待複雜的程序完成,也很適合使用這種方法。[建立網站使用者] 介面可加以自訂或以自訂表單來取代,而該自訂表單包含了要與帳單系統整合或要追蹤網站架設時相關自訂中繼資料所需的所有資訊。有大量使用者需要存取多個網站時,則不適合使用這種方法。因為 [自助網站架設] 會建立具有個別權限的網站集合,所以必須將使用者新增至不同的專屬網站集合。如果您改為使用子網站,則可以從網站集合中的父網站繼承使用者。Self-Service Site Creation Self-Service Site Creation enables users to create site collections under the /sites path (or other path you specify) within a particular web application. This method is best used when you want to allow groups or communities to create sites. This method also works well if you are hosting sites and want to allow users to create sites without waiting for a complicated process. The create a site user interface can be customized or replaced with a custom form that includes all of the information you might need to integrate with a billing system or to track custom metadata about the site at creation time. This method does not work well when large numbers of users need access to multiple sites. Because Self-Service Site Creation creates site collections, which have separate permissions, users need to be added uniquely to different site collections. If you use subsites instead, the users can be inherited from the parent site in the site collection.

    也可以建立網站,而不是網站集合設定自助網站架設。啟用時,使用者可以建立新的網站快速又輕鬆地從其個人網站。按一下 [新增網站從 [網站] 頁面的連結會建立新的網站。網站使用小組網站範本來建立與具有不同的權限。網站建立者可以將其他使用者加入至新的網站。Self-Service Site Creation can also be configured to create sites instead of site collections. When enabled, users can create a new site quickly and easily from their personal site. Clicking the new site link from the Sites page creates a new site. The site is created by using the Team Site template and will have separate permissions. The site creator can add additional users to the new site.

  • 現有網站的子網站 限制使用者只能建立現有網站的子網站,而非建立新網站集合與最上層網站。對現有網站具有「完全控制」或「管理階層」權限層級的使用者都可以建立子網站。這種方法受限最多,因為您仍可控制有多少個網站集合。因為網站永遠會是其他網站的子網站,所以可能很容易組織 (如果只有少數網站),也可能非常難以組織和瀏覽。例如,若組織中的每個人都想要子網站,並且在網站集合階層中的不同層級建立子網站,則網站集合很快就會變得非常難以瀏覽。Subsites of existing sites Limit users to creating subsites of existing sites, instead of new site collections and top-level sites. Any user who has the Full Control or Manage Hierarchy permission level on an existing site can create a subsite. This method is the most limited, because you still control how many site collections there are. Because the sites are always subsites of other sites, they can be either easy to organize (if there are just a few) or very difficult to organize and browse. For example, if everyone in your organization wants a subsite and they create them at different levels in the site collection's hierarchy, the site collection can soon become very difficult to navigate.

    注意

    [!附註] 如果您不希望使用者具備此能力,可以在網站集合或 Web 應用程式層級移除「完全控制」和「管理階層」權限層級中的 [建立子網站] 權限。If you do not want users to have this capability, you can remove the Create Subsites right from the Full Control and Manage Hierarchy permission levels, either at the site collection or web application level.

  • 我的網站 允許使用者建立個人網站 (也稱為 我的網站)。個人網站就是儲存在 Web 應用程式的 /personal 路徑之下的網站集合。個人網站是針對個別使用者建立而成,如果您嘗試要建立群組或社群的網站,則不適合使用這種方法。[自助網站架設] 用於建立 [我的網站]。如需 [我的網站] 的詳細資訊,請參閱 在 SharePoint Server 中設定「我的網站」My Sites Allow users to create personal sites (also known as My Sites). Personal sites are site collections stored under the /personal path of the web application. Personal sites are created for individual users, so they are not the appropriate method to use if you are trying to create sites for groups or communities. Self-Service Site Creation is used to create My sites For more information on My Sites, see Configure My Sites in SharePoint Server.

注意

[!附註] 請注意,這些方法都無法控制內容資料庫中每個網站所佔用的空間。若要控制網站大小,應該使用配額並設定網站集合的大小限制。您無法設定個別子網站的大小限制。如需詳細資訊,請參閱配額Keep in mind that none of these methods can control how much space each site takes up in your content databases. To control site sizes, you should use quotas and set a size limit for site collections. You cannot set individual size limits for subsites. For more information, see Quotas.

規劃自助網站架設Plan for Self-Service Site Creation

當您讓使用者能夠建立網站集合時,他們必須在主機網站集合上擁有「使用自助網站架設」權限。當您讓使用者能夠建立網站時,他們必須在父系網站上擁有「建立子網站」權限。這項功能可能會影響 Web 伺服器的安全性。您一次只能對一個 Web 應用程式啟用「自助網站架設」。如果您想要在伺服器陣列中的所有 Web 應用程式上使用此功能,則必須分別對每個 Web 應用程式啟用此功能。When you enable users to create site collections, they must have Use Self-Service Site Creation permission on the host site collection. When you enable users to create sites, they must have Create Subsites permission on the parent site. This capability can affect the security for your web server. You enable Self-Service Site Creation for a single web application at a time. If you want to use it on all web applications in your server farm, you must enable it for every web application individually.

注意

[!附註] [自助網站架設] 只會建立以網站集合為基礎的路徑。您無法建立含自助網站集合的主機命名型網站集合。Self-service site creation only creates path based site collections. You cannot create host-named site collections with self-service site collections.

注意

[!附註] 在 SharePoint Foundation 2013 中,預設會停用 [自助網站架設]。當您啟用 [自助網站架設] 時,使用者可以使用網站建立頁面 (http://<server>/_layouts/15/scsignup.aspx) 來建立新網站或網站集合。In SharePoint Foundation 2013, Self-Service Site Creation is disabled by default. When you enable Self-Service Site Creation, users can use the site creation page (http://<server>/_layouts/15/scsignup.aspx) to create a new site or site collection.

注意

[!附註] 如果您要將 /sites 以外的路徑使用於 [自助網站架設],則必須以包含相對路徑的方式新增此路徑。If you want to use a path other than /sites for Self-Service Site Creation, you must add the path as a wildcard inclusion.

如果啟用 [自助網站架設],則應考量下列各項:If you enable Self-Service Site Creation, you should consider the following:

  • 我們會建議您要求次要網站連絡人。但系統管理警示 (例如超出配額時的警示,或檢查未使用網站的警示) 則會傳送給主要和次要系統管理員。有一個以上的連絡人即可減少系統管理員處理這些網站的時間,因為次要連絡人可以在主要連絡人沒空時執行必要的工作。We recommend that you should require a secondary site contact. Administrative alerts, such as those for when quotas are exceeded, or checking for unused websites, go to the primary and secondary administrators. Having more than one contact reduces administrator involvement with these sites because the secondary contact can perform required tasks even if the primary contact is not available.

  • 定義儲存配額,並將它設為 Web 應用程式的預設配額。Define a storage quota and set it as the default quota for the web application.

    注意

    [!附註] 您也可以將 [自助網站架設] 設定為將配額範本套用至所建立的任何網站集合。You can also configure Self-Service Site Creation to apply a quota template to any site collections that are created.

  • 請考慮要求保留原則。當使用者建立網站或網站集合時,他們必須選取要套用的原則。如需網站原則的詳細資訊,請參閱 SharePoint Server 的網站原則概觀Consider requiring a retention policy. When users create a site or site collection, they must select a policy to apply. For more information on site policies see, Overview of site policies in SharePoint Server.

  • 檢閱每個內容資料庫允許的網站數目。與配額合併使用,將有助於限制您系統中資料庫的大小。Review the number of sites allowed per content database. Combined with quotas, this will help you limit the size of the databases in your system.

  • 啟用未使用的網站通知,以便找出被遺忘或不再具有價值的網站。Enable unused website notifications, so that sites that are forgotten or no longer of value can be identified.

因為 [自助網站架設] 可在現有的 Web 應用程式上建立新的最上層網站,所以所有新網站都會自動符合 Web 應用程式的預設配額設定、未使用的網站通知設定及其他系統管理原則。Because Self-Service Site Creation creates new top-level websites on an existing web application, any new sites automatically conform to the web application's default quota settings, unused website notification settings, and other administrative policies.

您可以設定自助網站架設在各種以符合您需求的方式。例如如果您有專用的 web 應用程式 「 我的網站,您可以啟用 [自助網站架設但選取 [隱藏 [新網站] 連結,讓任何人可以使用它來建立新的網站或網站集合。您也可以建立自訂表單的使用者用來建立網站或網站集合。You can configure Self-Service Site Creation in a variety of ways to meet your needs. For example, if you have a web application dedicated to My Sites, you can enable Self-Service Site Creation but select to hide the new site link so that no one can use it to create new sites or site collections. You can also create a custom form that users utilize to create a site or site collection.

規劃自訂網站架設程序Plan for custom site creation processes

您也可以使用自訂表單來建立自己的網站架設程序,要求與後端帳單系統整合的網站向客戶的信用卡或公司成本中心收費。如果您想要在架設網站時納入複雜的系統或程序,則應建立自訂應用程式來呼叫網站建立介面及執行您所需的任何其他工作。但是,如果您只是要將一些自訂欄位新增至網站建立頁面 (例如,用以追蹤貴公司哪一個部門要求有特定網站),您應考慮使用 [自助網站架設] 並自訂註冊頁面以納入您所需的資訊。您可以自訂網站定義中的 scsignup.aspx 頁面,不需開發整個應用程式,即可納入您所需的中繼資料。You can also create your own process for site creation by using a custom form to request a site that integrates with a back-end billing system to charge a customer's credit card or a corporate cost center. If you have a complicated system or process that you want to include as part of site creation, you should create a custom application to call the site creation interface and perform any other tasks that you require. However, if you simply want to add a few custom fields to the site creation page (for example, to track which department in your company is requesting a particular site), you should consider using Self-Service Site Creation and customize the sign-up page to include the information that you need. You can customize the scsignup.aspx page in the site definition to include the metadata that you need without having to develop an entire application.

另請參閱See also