在 SharePoint Server 中規劃網站和網站集合Plan sites and site collections in SharePoint Server

摘要: 了解在 SharePoint Server 2016 和 SharePoint 2013 網站規劃程序中需要做出的重要決策。Summary: Learn the critical decisions that you need to make in your SharePoint Server 2016 and SharePoint 2013 site planning process.

每個 SharePoint Server 網站都只屬於一個網站集合,而網站集合是由一個最上層網站和其下所有網站所組成。如下圖所示,網站集合是 SharePoint Server Web 應用程式中最上層的組織。單一 Web 應用程式中可以具備的網站集合數目取決於伺服器基礎結構的容量。如需 SharePoint Server 界限的詳細資訊,請參閱<SharePoint Server 2016 的軟體界限及限制>。如需有關 SharePoint Server 網站集合的詳細資訊,請參閱<SharePoint Server 中的網站與網站集合概觀>。Every SharePoint Server site belongs to only one site collection and a site collection is made up of one top-level site and all sites below it. As shown in the following figure, a site collection is the top level of organization in a SharePoint Server web application. The number of site collections you can have in a single web application depends on the capacity of your server infrastructure. For more information about SharePoint Server boundaries, see Software boundaries and limits for SharePoint Server 2016. For more information about SharePoint Server site collections, see Overview of sites and site collections in SharePoint Server.

圖:SharePoint Server 中的網站集合結構Figure: Structure of a site collection in SharePoint Server

網站集合的圖表

網站與網站集合規劃原則Sites and site collections planning principles

建議您在規劃網站與網站集合時,請遵守下列原則:We recommend that you use these rules to plan your sites and site collections:

  • 在每個伺服器陣列只使用一個 Web 應用程式,用此方式來支援您所有的網站集合與網站。Use one web application per farm to support all your site collections and sites.

  • 將對內 (內部網路) SharePoint Server 解決方案設置在與對外 (網際網路) 解決方案不同的 SharePoint Server 伺服器陣列中。Keep your internally facing (intranet) SharePoint Server solution in a separate SharePoint Server farm from your externally facing (Internet) solution.

  • 使用主機命名型網站集合,而非路徑命名型網站集合,並將其放在預設區域。Use host-named site collections instead of path-named site collections and place them in the default zone.

  • 當您需要使用備用存取對應 (AAM) 時,請使用路徑名稱型集合。Use path-named collections when you need to use alternate access mappings (AAMs).

網站與網站集合組織方法Methods of site and site collection organization

有許多方法可以組織您的網站。準備一套計劃來協助控管網站部署,有助於避免網站沒有條理地隨機擴張、更適當地管理您的 SharePoint 基礎結構,以及提供更好的使用者體驗。There are many ways your sites can be organized. Having a plan in place to help govern your site deployments will help you avoid random, unorganized site growth, enable better management of your SharePoint infrastructure, and provide a better user experience.

了解業務需求Understand business needs

規劃網站結構的第一個步驟是清查您要使用 SharePoint Server 2016 來解決的業務問題與需求。接著,將您的業務需求對應到最能滿足它們的網站類型。此對應將告訴您所需的網站類型。整體而言,您需要的網站將會落在 [共同作業] 類別、[企業] 類別、[發佈] 類別或 [自訂] 類別下。如需網站類型和其分類方式的詳細資訊,請參閱<SharePoint Server 中的網站與網站集合概觀>。The first step in planning your site structure is to inventory the business problems and needs that you are using SharePoint Server 2016 to address. Then map your business needs to the site type best suited to meet them. This mapping will tell you the types of sites you will need. At the highest level, you will need sites that fall under the Collaboration category, the Enterprise category, the Publishing category, or the Custom category. For more information about the types of sites and how they are categorized, see Overview of sites and site collections in SharePoint Server.

網站集合模型Models for site collections

在您決定解決方案所需的網站類型之後,下一個步驟是規劃如何在網站集合間實作這些網站。網站集合中的網站具有共同的功能,例如:After you determine which types of sites your solution requires, the next step is to plan how these sites are implemented across site collections. A site collection is a hierarchical set of sites that can be managed together. Sites in a site collection have common features, such as:

  • 共用權限Shared permissions

  • 範本庫Galleries for templates

  • 內容類型Content types

  • 網頁組件Web Parts

  • 通常有共同的導覽配置Often share a common navigation scheme

網站集合規劃的主要目標是準備好一套結構,讓您的組織可以成長,卻不會產立不必要的管理負荷。以下是可以滿足許多需求的內部網路 SharePoint Server 2016 伺服器陣列泛用模型。The main goal of site collection planning is to put a structure in place that your organization can grow in without creating unnecessary management overhead. Here is a generic model for an intranet SharePoint Server 2016 farm that will meet many needs.

圖:內部網路 SharePoint Server 伺服器陣列的模型Figure: Model of an intranet SharePoint Server farm

網站集合的建議模型

內部共同作業和發佈 您可以建立一個網站集合來裝載內部小組網站。這些網站可以分成兩個主要類別。其中一個分支可以根據公司的內部階層來組織,其中用部門入口網站來裝載子網站,以供個別常設小組用來存放內容、共同作業以及將工作成果公開給組織其餘單位。另一個對等分支則可用於臨機操作或 v 小組或專案小組。這些小組的成員來自常設小組,需要暫時有個共同作業與發佈空間。Internal Collaboration and Publishing You can create a site collection to host your internal team sites. These can be broken down into two major categories. One branch can be organized around your company's internal hierarchy, with divisional portals hosting subsites for the individual long standing teams to use to store their content, collaborate, and publish their work out to the rest of the organization. Another peer branch can be for ad hoc or v-teams or project teams. These teams have members from across the long standing teams and need to have a collaboration and publishing space for a limited period of time.

內部企業應用程式 您可以建立一個網站集合來裝載公司中的每個人都會使用的網站與資源。例如,公司內部網路、企業搜尋、我的網站、記錄存放庫。文件中心網站和記錄中心網站彼此最好設置在不同的網站集合中。Internal Enterprise Applications You can create a site collection to host sites and resources that everyone in your company will use. For example, your company intranet, enterprise search, My Sites, and records repositories. It is best practice to keep document center sites and records center sites in separate site collections. For more information, see Configure My Sites and OneDrive for Business in SharePoint Server.

網際網路形象 公司的網際網路形象網站最好是放在不同的 SharePoint Server 伺服器陣列中。這類型的網站集合裝載可供網際網路上的匿名使用者使用的資源。例如,您可以使用網際網路形象網站來提供新聞稿或評論,並以中繼資料標記新聞稿或評論標記,好將文章分類,方便使用者搜尋或瀏覽資訊。如需如何設計網際網路形象所需之 SharePoint Server 的詳細資訊,請參閱< 在 SharePoint Server 中發佈至網際網路、內部網路及外部網路網站的功能概觀>和<規劃 SharePoint Server 跨網站發佈的邏輯架構>。Internet Presence It is best practice to place your company Internet presence in a separate SharePoint Server farm. Site collections of this type host resources that are available to anonymous users on the Internet. For example, you might use an Internet presence site to provide news articles or reviews that are tagged with metadata to categorize articles so that users can search or browse for information. For more information about how to design SharePoint Server for an Internet presence, see Overview of publishing to Internet, intranet, and extranet sites in SharePoint Server and Plan the logical architecture for cross-site publishing in SharePoint Server.

網站集合中的所有網站都會一起儲存在相同的 SQL 資料庫中。視網站集合與網站的結構方式以及網站用途而定,這可能會影響網站與伺服器的效能。當您規劃如何配置內容到一或多個網站集合時,請注意下列限制:All sites in a site collection are stored together in the same SQL database. This can potentially affect site and server performance, depending on how your site collections and sites are structured, and depending on the purpose of the sites. Be aware of the following limits when you plan how to allocate your content across one or more site collections:

  • 將活動特別旺盛的網站設置在不同的網站集合中。例如,網際網路上供人匿名瀏覽的知識庫網站,就可能會產生大量資料庫活動。其他網站如果使用相同的資料庫,其效能就可能會受影響。將知識庫網站另外放在含有其專屬資料庫的網站集合中,就可以釋出資源,讓其他網站不再需要與該網站爭用資料庫資源。Keep extremely active sites in separate site collections. For example, a knowledge base site on the Internet that allows anonymous browsing could generate lots of database activity. If other sites use the same database, their performance could be affected. By putting the knowledge base site in a separate site collection with its own database, you can free up resources for other sites that no longer have to compete with it for database resources.

  • 因為網站集合中的所有內容都是儲存在相同的內容資料庫中,所以資料庫作業 (例如備份和還原內容) 的效能將取決於整個網站集合中的內容量、資料庫大小、資料庫所在伺服器的速度,以及其他因素。視內容量與資料庫組態而定,您可能需要將網站集合分成多個網站集合,以滿足服務層級協議中對於備份與還原、輸送量等等方面的需求。Because all content in a site collection is stored in the same content database, the performance of database operations — such as backing up and restoring content — will depend on the amount of content across the site collection; the size of the database; the speed of the servers hosting the database; and other factors. Depending on the amount of content and the configuration of the database, you might have to divide a site collection into multiple site collections to meet service-level agreements for backing up and restoring, throughput, or other requirements. It is beyond the scope of this article to provide prescriptive guidance about how to manage the size and performance of databases.

  • 在網站集合中的最上層網站下建立太多網站,可能會影響效能和可用性。在網站集合中,網站與子網站建議的最大數目為 250,000 個網站。我們建議每個網站集合保持低於 2000 個子網站。每個伺服器陣列的建議網站集合數目上限是 500,000 個個人網站加上 250,000 個所有其他網站範本。如需詳細資訊,請參閱<網站集合限制>。Creating too many sites below a top-level site in a site collection might affect performance and usability. The maximum recommended number of sites and subsites in a site collection is 250,000 sites. We recommend staying below 2,000 subsites per site collection. The maximum recommended number of site collections per farm is 500,000 Personal Sites plus 250,000 for all other site templates. For more information, see Site collection limits.

在準備好網站集合計劃之後,您就可以開始規劃網站集合中的網站組織。Once you have your site collection plan in place, you can move on to planning the organization of the sites in those site collections.

依組織階級來規劃網站Plan sites by organizational hierarchy

請根據組織的規模與結構,規劃所需的基本網站。有些較大型部門或專案的網站,也可能會結合所有較小型子網站 (專供負責進行限時專案的較小型常設小組或 v 小組使用) 上出現的資訊。Plan the basic sites that you need based on the scale and structure of your organization. Some sites for larger divisions or projects can also combine information that is found on all the smaller subsites that are devoted to smaller long standing teams or v-teams that are responsible for time limited projects.

當您根據組織結構來規劃網站時,請使用下列指導方針:Use the following guidelines when you plan sites that are based on your organizational structure:

部門或小組網站 請規劃在彙總性質的部門網站下,為每個小組各建立一個網站。在大型組織中,可能會好幾層的網站,而每個網站皆專心處理在本身的組織層級建立和管理的內容。Divisional or team sites Plan to create one site per team under a divisional rollup site. In large organizations, there might be several levels of sites, with each site focusing on the content that is created and managed at its level of the organization.

您可以設計一個網站,讓組織成員能夠合編與您的業務目標或組織目標相關的內容。這些網站可以有自己的發佈程序,也可以有搭配其他網站的發佈程序。這些網站上通常會同時存在內部使用的合編內容,以及要公開給觀眾的內容。You can design a site for members of your organization to collaborate on content related to your business or organizational goals. These can be self-contained or they can work with other sites as part of a publishing process. Often, these sites will have a mixture of collaborative content that is used internally and content that is intended for publication to an audience.

彙總網站 彙總網站會抓出其他子網站上所儲存的內容。它讓使用者能夠跨部門尋找資訊與專家。其通常包含與整體組織資訊架構相關、而且通常與部門或專案網站結構對應的網站。Rollup sites A rollup site surfaces content that is stored on other subsites. It makes it possible for users across divisions to find information, and experts. It often contains sites that are related to the overall organizational information architecture and that are usually mapped to the structure of the divisional or project sites.

規劃應用程式網站Plan application sites

應用程式網站會組織小組程序,並提供執行這些程序的機制。應用程式網站通常包含數位儀表板和其他功能,來檢視及變更與網站用途相關的資料。應用程式網站中呈現的資訊通常來自各種來源,例如資料庫或其他 SharePoint 網站。An application site organizes team processes and provides mechanisms for running them. Application sites often include digital dashboards and other features to view and change data that is related to the site's purpose. The information that is presented in an application site usually comes from diverse sources, such as databases or other SharePoint sites.

例如,人力資源組織可以設計一個應用程式網站,讓員工能夠:For example, the human resources organization could design an application site to provide employees with:

  • 存取一般資訊,例如員工手冊和工作機會。Access to general information, such as employee handbooks and career opportunities.

  • 執行一般的工作,例如提交工時卡及支出報表。Ways to do common tasks, such as submitting timecards and expense reports.

  • 檢視個人化資訊的儀表板,例如員工的薪資及福利記錄。Dashboards to view personalized information, such as an employee's salary and benefits history.

另一個例子是,組織中的內部技術支援部門可以設計「服務台」應用程式網站,為組織成員提供技術支援。應用程式網站的功能包括:As another example, the internal technical support group in an organization could design a Help Desk application site to provide technical support to members of the organization. Features of the application site could include the following:

  • 存取過去的支援事件及最佳作法文件之知識庫。Access to a knowledge base of past support incidents and best-practices documentation.

  • 執行一般工作的方式,例如開始支援事件,或是檢閱進行中之事件的狀態。Ways to do common tasks, such as starting a support incident or reviewing the status of an ongoing incident.

  • 整合可支援線上會議及討論的通訊功能。Integration with communications features that support online meetings and discussions.

  • 個人化的資料檢視。例如,支援經理可以檢視儀表板來查看小組成員生產力和客戶滿意度評分。支援工程師則可以檢視其目前未解決的事件。Personalized views of data. For example, support managers could view dashboards that provide views of their team members' productivity and customer satisfaction ratings. Support engineers could view their current unresolved incidents.

規劃發佈網站Plan publishing sites

在發佈網站中,作者可以建立及修改網頁與文件形式的內容,而且可以使用核准程序,讓內容可供具有適當檢視權限層級的使用者取用。發佈程序包括建立內容,然後提交內容進行核准。內容一旦受到核准,就會提供 (或稱發佈) 到網站上供讀者取用。此發佈動作是按照預設排程或自訂排程 (視專案需要而定) 進行。發佈網站可以當成內部網路、外部網路或網際網路網站 (視觀眾而定) 來使用。By using a publishing site, authors can create and modify content in the form of web pages and documents, and they can use an approval process to make the content available to users who have the appropriate levels of viewing permissions. The publishing process involves creating content and then submitting it for approval. After content is approved, it is made available, or published, to the website for readers. This publishing occurs according to either a default schedule or a customized schedule, based on the needs of the project. Publishing sites can be used as intranet, extranet, or Internet sites, depending on the audience.

例如,您可以使用發佈網站作為發佈新聞稿的網際網路網站。公關小組可以建立新聞稿、使用發佈工作流程來核准新內容,並指定要公開在消費者面前的時間。另一個範例是,您可以使用發佈網站作為公司內部網路網站,讓員工在其中看到公司消息。頁面作者可以指定內容的目標觀眾,只讓所指定群組的成員檢視內容。For example, you might use a publishing site for an Internet site that publishes press releases. The public relations team creates press releases, uses the publishing workflow to approve new content, and specifies when it should be made available to consumers. As another example, you might use a publishing site for a corporate intranet site, where company news is made available to employees. Page authors can specify the target audience for their content, which makes the content viewable by only the members of the designated groups.

您有兩種方式可以將發佈的內容提供給使用者:就地編寫,或跨網站發佈。使用就地編寫方法時,您可以使用單一網站集合來編寫內容,並直接提供給網站的讀者。使用跨網站發佈方法時,您可以使用一或多個網站集合來編寫內容,並使用一或多個網站集合來控制網站設計與內容顯示。如需詳細資訊,請參閱<在 SharePoint Server 中發佈至網際網路、內部網路及外部網路網站的功能概觀>。You can use one of two ways to make published content available to users: author-in-place, or cross-site publishing. With the author-in-place method, you use a single site collection to author content and make it available to readers of your site. With the cross-site publishing method, you use one or more site collections to author content, and one or more site collections to control the design of the site and the display of the content. For more information, see Overview of publishing to Internet, intranet, and extranet sites in SharePoint Server.

規劃其他網站Plan other sites

您可以規劃讓網站使用者建立其他網站。例如,您可以規劃向每個使用網站的小組成員各提供一個我的網站。我的網站是一種以 SharePoint Server 為基礎的小組網站,具有公用和私人檢視。您也可以讓小組成員建立其他網站 (例如例如文件工作區網站),以便他們合編文件及合作處理其他專案。同樣地,您可以讓網際網路網站的使用者存取共同作業網站,作為 Web 型服務的一部分。例如,您可以給他們權限來建立會議工作區網站,並參與線上會議,作為網站使用體驗的一部分。You can plan to make it possible for site users to create additional sites. For example, you can plan to give a My Site to each team member who uses a site. A My Site is a team site that is based on SharePoint Server and has public and private views. You can also make it possible for team members to create other sites, such as Document Workspace sites, when they collaborate on documents and other projects. Similarly, you can give users of an Internet site access to collaboration sites as part of a web-based service. For example, you can give them permissions to create Meeting Workspace sites and participate in online meetings as part of their experience of using your site.

如需您可建立之網站類型的詳細資訊,請參閱 SharePoint Server 的網站和網站集合概觀For information about the kinds of sites that you can create, see Overview of sites and site collections in SharePoint Server.

清查您的伺服器陣列Inventory your farm

為了協助您規劃網站與網站集合,Microsoft PowerShell 命令列可清查您整個 SharePoint Server 伺服器陣列,並取得每個網站集合與網站的屬性。它會將結果儲存成逗號分隔檔案 (CSV)。請使用這項清查動作,找出每個 Web 應用程式中的網站集合與網站階層,然後規劃要新增網站的位置。To help you with site and site collection planning, the Microsoft PowerShell command-line will inventory your entire SharePoint Server farm and get the properties of each site collection and site. It saves the results in a comma separated file (CSV). Use this inventory to identify what your site collection and site hierarchy are in each web application, and then plan where you want to add new sites.

使用 Windows PowerShell 清查 SharePoint 伺服器陣列To inventory a SharePoint farm by using Windows PowerShell

  1. 確認您具備下列成員身分:Verify that you have the following memberships:

    • SQL Server 執行個體上的 Securityadmin 固定伺服器角色。Securityadmin fixed server role on the SQL Server instance.

    • 所有要更新之資料庫上的 db_owner 固定資料庫角色。db_owner fixed database role on all databases that are to be updated.

    • 正在執行 PowerShell Cmdlet 之所在伺服器上的系統管理員群組。Administrators group on the server on which you are running the PowerShell cmdlets.

    • 在伺服器陣列管理員群組中In the Farm Administrators group

      系統管理員可以使用 Add-SPShellAdmin Cmdlet 授與使用 SharePoint Server Cmdlet 的權限。An administrator can use the Add-SPShellAdmin cmdlet to grant permissions to use SharePoint Server cmdlets.

      注意

      如果您不具備上述權限,請連絡安裝程式系統管理員或 SQL Server 系統管理員要求權限。如需 PowerShell 權限的其他資訊,請參閱 Add-SPShellAdminIf you do not have permissions, contact your Setup administrator or SQL Server administrator to request permissions. For additional information about PowerShell permissions, see Add-SPShellAdmin.

  2. 開啟 [SharePoint 管理命令介面]*Open the *SharePoint Management Shell.

  3. 在 PowerShell 命令提示字元中,輸入下列命令:At the PowerShell command prompt, type the following command:

    Get-SPWebApplication -IncludeCentralAdministration | Get-SPSite -Limit All | Get-SPWeb -Limit All | Select-Object URL, Title, Description, ParentWeb, AssociatedOwnerGroup, SiteAdministrators, WebTemplate, UIVersion, QuickLaunchEnabled, TreeViewEnabled, Language, Locale, Author, HasUniquePerm | Sort URL | export-csv <file location and name.csv>
    

    其中:Where:

    • URL 是網站的位址。URL is the address of the site.

    • Title 是網站設定中所設定並顯示在網站標題列上的網站名稱。Title is name of the site as configured in site settings and displayed on the title bar of the site.

    • Description 是網站屬性的描述欄位中的值。Description is the value in the description field in the sites properties.

    • ParentWeb 是所清查網站在階層中直屬的上一層網站。ParentWeb is the site immediately above the inventoried site in the hierarchy.

    • AssociatedOwnerGroup 是擁有該網站的群組。AssociatedOwnerGroup is the group that owns the site.

    • Site Administrations 是目前列為網站之主要與次要網站管理員的使用者。Site Administrations are the current users who are listed as the sites primary and secondary site administrators.

    • Web Template 是當初用來建立網站的網站範本類型。Web Template is the type of site template that the site was created from.

    • UIVersion 是網站的 SharePoint Server 版本。UIVersion is the SharePoint Server version of the site.

    • QuickLaunchEnabled 指出網站的垂直導覽中是否已啟用 [快速啟動]。QuickLaunchEnabled indicates if the site has the Quick Launch enabled in the vertical navigation.

    • TreeViewEnabled 指出網站的樹狀檢視是否已啟用 [快速啟動]。TreeViewEnabled indicates if the site has the tree view enabled for the Quick Launch.

    • Language 是當初用來建立網站的語言。Language is the language the site was created in.

    • Locale 是網站的地區設定。Locale is the locale of the site.

    • Author 是網站建立者。Author is who created the site.

    • HasUniquePerm 指出網站是繼承上層網站的權限,還是實作獨特的權限。HasUniquePerm indicates if the site inherits permissions from its parent site or implements unique permissions.

    • <file location and name.csv> 是您要用來儲存 csv 檔案的位置,以及您要位該檔案指定的名稱。例如,'C:\FarmReports\1.csv'。<file location and name.csv> is the location where you want to save the csv file and the name you want to give it. For example, 'C:\FarmReports\1.csv'.

如需詳細資訊,請參閱適用於 SharePoint Server 的 Windows PowerShell 參考資料For more information, see Windows PowerShell for SharePoint Server reference.

注意

建議您在執行命令列管理工作時使用 Windows PowerShell。Stsadm 命令列工具已過時,但為與舊版產品相容,仍會隨附提供。We recommend that you use Microsoft PowerShell when performing command-line administrative tasks. The Stsadm command-line tool has been deprecated, but is included to support compatibility with previous product versions.

另請參閱See also

概念Concepts

SharePoint Server 2016 的軟體界限及限制Software boundaries and limits for SharePoint Server 2016

在 SharePoint Server 中發佈至網際網路、內部網路及外部網路網站的功能概觀Overview of publishing to Internet, intranet, and extranet sites in SharePoint Server

其他資源Other Resources

SharePoint 網站集合概觀Overview of SharePoint site collections