不適當的具現化反模式Improper Instantiation antipattern

有些物件只需建立一次並分享即可,持續為此類物件建立新的執行個體會傷害效能。It can hurt performance to continually create new instances of an object that is meant to be created once and then shared.

問題說明Problem description

許多程式庫都提供對外部資源的抽象功能。Many libraries provide abstractions of external resources. 就內部而言,這些類別通常會管理自己的資源連線,並作為用戶端可用來存取資源的代理程式。Internally, these classes typically manage their own connections to the resource, acting as brokers that clients can use to access the resource. 以下是一些與 Azure 應用程式相關的代理程式類別範例:Here are some examples of broker classes that are relevant to Azure applications:

  • System.Net.Http.HttpClient.System.Net.Http.HttpClient. 使用 HTTP 與 Web 服務通訊。Communicates with a web service using HTTP.
  • Microsoft.ServiceBus.Messaging.QueueClient.Microsoft.ServiceBus.Messaging.QueueClient. 發佈和接收服務匯流排佇列的訊息。Posts and receives messages to a Service Bus queue.
  • Microsoft.Azure.Documents.Client.DocumentClient.Microsoft.Azure.Documents.Client.DocumentClient. 連線至 Cosmos DB 執行個體。Connects to a Cosmos DB instance.
  • StackExchange.Redis.ConnectionMultiplexer.StackExchange.Redis.ConnectionMultiplexer. 連線至 Redis,包括 Azure Cache for Redis。Connects to Redis, including Azure Cache for Redis.

這些類別的用意是只需具現化一次,並在應用程式的整個存留期間重複使用。These classes are intended to be instantiated once and reused throughout the lifetime of an application. 不過,人們往往誤以為這些類別只應在需要時取得,取得後還要快速發行。However, it's a common misunderstanding that these classes should be acquired only as necessary and released quickly. (雖然此處列出的剛好都是 .NET 程式庫的項目,但並非只有 .NET 才會出現這種模式)。下列 ASP.NET 範例會建立 HttpClient 的執行個體,以便與遠端服務進行通訊。(The ones listed here happen to be .NET libraries, but the pattern is not unique to .NET.) The following ASP.NET example creates an instance of HttpClient to communicate with a remote service. 您可以在這裡找到完整的範例。You can find the complete sample here.

public class NewHttpClientInstancePerRequestController : ApiController
    // This method creates a new instance of HttpClient and disposes it for every call to GetProductAsync.
    public async Task<Product> GetProductAsync(string id)
        using (var httpClient = new HttpClient())
            var hostName = HttpContext.Current.Request.Url.Host;
            var result = await httpClient.GetStringAsync(string.Format("http://{0}:8080/api/...", hostName));
            return new Product { Name = result };

由於在 Web 應用程式中,此技術無法進行調整,In a web application, this technique is not scalable. 因此系統會為各個使用者要求建立新的 HttpClient 物件。A new HttpClient object is created for each user request. 如果負載過重,網頁伺服器可能會耗盡可用的通訊端,導致出現 SocketException 錯誤。Under heavy load, the web server may exhaust the number of available sockets, resulting in SocketException errors.

此問題不限定於 HttpClient 類別。This problem is not restricted to the HttpClient class. 其他包裝資源或建立成本高的類別也可能會造成類似問題。Other classes that wrap resources or are expensive to create might cause similar issues. 下列範例會建立 ExpensiveToCreateService 類別的執行個體。The following example creates an instance of the ExpensiveToCreateService class. 此處的問題不一定是通訊端耗盡,有可能只是與建立每個執行個體的所需時間有關。Here the issue is not necessarily socket exhaustion, but simply how long it takes to create each instance. 持續建立和終結此類別的執行個體可能會對系統延展性有不好的影響。Continually creating and destroying instances of this class might adversely affect the scalability of the system.

public class NewServiceInstancePerRequestController : ApiController
    public async Task<Product> GetProductAsync(string id)
        var expensiveToCreateService = new ExpensiveToCreateService();
        return await expensiveToCreateService.GetProductByIdAsync(id);

public class ExpensiveToCreateService
    public ExpensiveToCreateService()
        // Simulate delay due to setup and configuration of ExpensiveToCreateService
        Thread.SpinWait(Int32.MaxValue / 100);

如何修正問題How to fix the problem

如果包裝外部資源的類別可共用且是安全執行緒,請為該類別的可重複使用執行個體,建立共用的單一執行個體或集區。If the class that wraps the external resource is shareable and thread-safe, create a shared singleton instance or a pool of reusable instances of the class.

下列範例使用靜態 HttpClient 執行個體,因此可在所有要求間共用連線。The following example uses a static HttpClient instance, thus sharing the connection across all requests.

public class SingleHttpClientInstanceController : ApiController
    private static readonly HttpClient httpClient;

    static SingleHttpClientInstanceController()
        httpClient = new HttpClient();

    // This method uses the shared instance of HttpClient for every call to GetProductAsync.
    public async Task<Product> GetProductAsync(string id)
        var hostName = HttpContext.Current.Request.Url.Host;
        var result = await httpClient.GetStringAsync(string.Format("http://{0}:8080/api/...", hostName));
        return new Product { Name = result };


  • 此反模式的重點是會重複建立和終結 可共用 物件的執行個體。The key element of this antipattern is repeatedly creating and destroying instances of a shareable object. 如果類別不可共用 (不安全的執行緒),則不適用此反模式。If a class is not shareable (not thread-safe), then this antipattern does not apply.

  • 所共用的資源類型可能會決定您應使用單一執行個體或建立集區。The type of shared resource might dictate whether you should use a singleton or create a pool. HttpClient 類別的設計主要用於共用,而非用於集區。The HttpClient class is designed to be shared rather than pooled. 其他物件可能支援集區,可讓系統將工作負載分散到多個執行個體。Other objects might support pooling, enabling the system to spread the workload across multiple instances.

  • 您在多個要求間共用的物件「必須」 是安全執行緒。Objects that you share across multiple requests must be thread-safe. HttpClient 類別是為使用此方法而設計,但其他類別可能不支援並行要求,因此請查看相關文件。The HttpClient class is designed to be used in this manner, but other classes might not support concurrent requests, so check the available documentation.

  • 在共用物件上設定屬性時請小心,因為這可能會導致競爭條件。Be careful about setting properties on shared objects, as this can lead to race conditions. 例如,在每個要求之前先於 HttpClient 上設定 DefaultRequestHeaders 類別,才能建立競爭條件。For example, setting DefaultRequestHeaders on the HttpClient class before each request can create a race condition. 如果您需要配置不同的設定,請設定這類屬性一次 (例如,在啟動期間),並建立個別的執行個體。Set such properties once (for example, during startup), and create separate instances if you need to configure different settings.

  • 某些資源類型十分稀缺,不應久佔。Some resource types are scarce and should not be held onto. 資料庫連線就是個例子。Database connections are an example. 保留不需要的開放式資料庫連線,可能會阻止其他並行使用者存取資料庫。Holding an open database connection that is not required may prevent other concurrent users from gaining access to the database.

  • 在.NET Framework 中,許多與外部資源建立連線的物件,皆是在管理這些連線的其他類別上使用靜態 Factory 方法所建立的。In the .NET Framework, many objects that establish connections to external resources are created by using static factory methods of other classes that manage these connections. 這些物件的用途是儲存和重複使用,而不是處置和重新建立。These objects are intended to be saved and reused, rather than disposed and re-created. 例如,在 Azure 服務匯流排中,QueueClient 物件是透過 MessagingFactory 物件建立的。For example, in Azure Service Bus, the QueueClient object is created through a MessagingFactory object. 就內部而言,MessagingFactory 會管理連線。Internally, the MessagingFactory manages connections. 如需詳細資訊,請參閱使用服務匯流排傳訊的效能改進最佳做法For more information, see Best Practices for performance improvements using Service Bus Messaging.

如何偵測問題How to detect the problem

此問題的徵兆包括輸送量降低或錯誤率增加,以及以下一個或多個狀況:Symptoms of this problem include a drop in throughput or an increased error rate, along with one or more of the following:

  • 例外狀況增加,這表示通訊端、資料庫連線或檔案控制代碼等資源耗盡。An increase in exceptions that indicate exhaustion of resources such as sockets, database connections, file handles, and so on.
  • 記憶體使用量和記憶體回收量增加。Increased memory use and garbage collection.
  • 網路、磁碟或資料庫活動增加。An increase in network, disk, or database activity.

您可以執行下列步驟來協助識別此問題:You can perform the following steps to help identify this problem:

  1. 執行生產系統的處理程序監視,以識別回應時間變慢的時間點,或系統因缺少資源而失敗的時間點。Performing process monitoring of the production system, to identify points when response times slow down or the system fails due to lack of resources.
  2. 請檢查從這些點上擷取到的遙測資料,以判斷哪些作業可能正在建立或終結資源耗用物件。Examine the telemetry data captured at these points to determine which operations might be creating and destroying resource-consuming objects.
  3. 在受控制的測試環境中 (不要使用生產系統),對每個可疑作業進行負載測試。Load test each suspected operation, in a controlled test environment rather than the production system.
  4. 檢閱原始碼,並檢查代理程式物件的管理方式。Review the source code and examine the how broker objects are managed.

針對負載系統上執行緩慢或產生例外狀況的作業,查看堆疊追蹤。Look at stack traces for operations that are slow-running or that generate exceptions when the system is under load. 這項資訊可協助識別這些作業使用資源的方式。This information can help to identify how these operations are using resources. 例外狀況可以協助判斷錯誤是否是因為共用資源即將耗盡所致。Exceptions can help to determine whether errors are caused by shared resources being exhausted.

範例診斷Example diagnosis

下列各節會將這些步驟套用到稍早所述的範例應用程式。The following sections apply these steps to the sample application described earlier.

識別速度變慢或失敗的點Identify points of slowdown or failure

下圖顯示使用 New Relic APM 產生的結果,其中顯示回應時間不佳的作業。The following image shows results generated using New Relic APM, showing operations that have a poor response time. 在此情況下,NewHttpClientInstancePerRequest 控制器中的 GetProductAsync 方法值得您深入調查。In this case, the GetProductAsync method in the NewHttpClientInstancePerRequest controller is worth investigating further. 請注意,當這些作業正在執行時,錯誤率也會增加。Notice that the error rate also increases when these operations are running.

顯示範例應用程式為每個要求建立新 HttpClient 物件執行個體的 New Relic 監視器儀表板

檢查遙測資料並尋找相互關聯Examine telemetry data and find correlations

下圖顯示使用執行緒分析擷取的資料,使用的期間與上一張圖相同。The next image shows data captured using thread profiling, over the same period corresponding as the previous image. 系統會花很長的時間來開啟通訊端連線,且甚至花更多時間來關閉這些連線並處理通訊端例外狀況。The system spends a significant time opening socket connections, and even more time closing them and handling socket exceptions.

顯示範例應用程式為每個要求建立新 HttpClient 物件執行個體的 New Relic 執行緒分析工具

執行負載測試Performing load testing

使用負載測試來模擬使用者可能會執行的一般作業。Use load testing to simulate the typical operations that users might perform. 這有助於識別系統中的哪些組件,會在不同負載下受到資源耗盡問題的影響。This can help to identify which parts of a system suffer from resource exhaustion under varying loads. 請在受控制的環境執行這些測試,而不是在生產系統中執行。Perform these tests in a controlled environment rather than the production system. 下圖顯示當使用者負載增加至 100 位並行使用者時,NewHttpClientInstancePerRequest 控制器處理的要求輸送量。The following graph shows the throughput of requests handled by the NewHttpClientInstancePerRequest controller as the user load increases to 100 concurrent users.

範例應用程式為每個要求建立新 HttpClient 物件執行個體的輸送量

首先,工作負載增加時,每秒處理的要求數量就會增加。At first, the volume of requests handled per second increases as the workload increases. 但是,在大約有 30 位使用者時,成功的要求數量達到限制,而且系統開始產生例外狀況。At about 30 users, however, the volume of successful requests reaches a limit, and the system starts to generate exceptions. 從那時起,例外狀況的數量會隨著使用者負載量增加而逐漸增加。From then on, the volume of exceptions gradually increases with the user load.

負載測試會將這些失敗回報為 HTTP 500 (內部伺服器) 錯誤。The load test reported these failures as HTTP 500 (Internal Server) errors. 檢閱遙測資料後顯示,造成這些錯誤的原因是系統即將用完通訊端資源,因為建立了越來越多的 HttpClient 物件。Reviewing the telemetry showed that these errors were caused by the system running out of socket resources, as more and more HttpClient objects were created.

下圖會顯示類似的測試,但測試對象是建立自訂 ExpensiveToCreateService 物件的控制器。The next graph shows a similar test for a controller that creates the custom ExpensiveToCreateService object.

範例應用程式為每個要求建立新 ExpensiveToCreateService 物件執行個體的輸送量

這次,控制器不會產生任何例外狀況,但輸送量仍在平均回應時間增加到 20 時達到平穩狀態。This time, the controller does not generate any exceptions, but throughput still reaches a plateau, while the average response time increases by a factor of 20. (圖表使用對數刻度作為回應時間與輸送量。)遙測資料顯示,建立 ExpensiveToCreateService 的新執行個體是此問題的主要原因。(The graph uses a logarithmic scale for response time and throughput.) Telemetry showed that creating new instances of the ExpensiveToCreateService was the main cause of the problem.

實作解決方案並確認結果Implement the solution and verify the result

GetProductAsync 方法替換為共用單一 HttpClient 執行個體後,第二個負載測試結果顯示效能已獲改善。After switching the GetProductAsync method to share a single HttpClient instance, a second load test showed improved performance. 沒有任何錯誤回報,且系統能夠處理增加的負載 (每秒最多 500 個要求)。No errors were reported, and the system was able to handle an increasing load of up to 500 requests per second. 相較於先前的測試,平均回應時間已減半。The average response time was cut in half, compared with the previous test.

範例應用程式為每個要求重新使用相同 HttpClient 物件執行個體的輸送量

為方便比較,下圖顯示堆疊追蹤遙測資料。For comparison, the following image shows the stack trace telemetry. 這次,系統會花費大部分時間執行實際工作,而不是開啟和關閉通訊端。This time, the system spends most of its time performing real work, rather than opening and closing sockets.

顯示範例應用程式為所有要求建立單一 HttpClient 物件執行個體的 New Relic 執行緒分析工具

下圖顯示使用 ExpensiveToCreateService 物件的共用執行個體所進行的類似測試。The next graph shows a similar load test using a shared instance of the ExpensiveToCreateService object. 同樣地,已處理的要求數量會隨著使用者負載量增加而增加,但平均回應時間仍然很低。Again, the volume of handled requests increases in line with the user load, while the average response time remains low.

圖表顯示使用 ExpensiveToCreateService 物件的共用執行個體所進行的類似測試。