Azure 中的區域和可用性區域Regions and Availability Zones in Azure

Microsoft Azure 服務可全域使用,以最佳層級來驅動您的雲端作業。Microsoft Azure services are available globally to drive your cloud operations at an optimal level. 您可以根據技術和法規考慮,選擇最適合您需求的區域:服務功能、資料存放區、合規性需求和延遲。You can choose the best region for your needs based on technical and regulatory considerations: service capabilities, data residency, compliance requirements, and latency.

詞彙Terminology

為了進一步瞭解 Azure 中的區域和可用性區域,它有助於瞭解主要詞彙或概念。To better understand regions and Availability Zones in Azure, it helps to understand key terms or concepts.

詞彙或概念Term or concept 描述Description
regionregion 在延遲定義的周邊內部署的一組資料中心,並透過專用的區域低延遲網路連線。A set of datacenters deployed within a latency-defined perimeter and connected through a dedicated regional low-latency network.
geographygeography 全球的一個區域,其中至少包含一個 Azure 區域。An area of the world containing at least one Azure region. 地理位置會定義可保留資料存放區和合規性界限的離散市場。Geographies define a discrete market that preserve data residency and compliance boundaries. 不同的地理區讓具有特殊資料落地與合規性需求的客戶,可以將他們的資料與應用程式存放在彼此鄰近的區域。Geographies allow customers with specific data-residency and compliance needs to keep their data and applications close. 地理位置具有容錯能力,可透過其與我們專用的高容量網路基礎結構的連線,承受完成區域失敗。Geographies are fault-tolerant to withstand complete region failure through their connection to our dedicated high-capacity networking infrastructure.
可用性區域Availability Zone 區域內的唯一實體位置。Unique physical locations within a region. 每個區域皆由一或多個配備獨立電力、冷卻系統及網路的資料中心所組成。Each zone is made up of one or more datacenters equipped with independent power, cooling, and networking.
建議的區域recommended region 提供最廣泛服務功能的區域,其設計目的是要支援現在或未來的可用性區域。A region that provides the broadest range of service capabilities and is designed to support Availability Zones now, or in the future. 建議您在 Azure 入口網站中指定這些設定。These are designated in the Azure portal as Recommended.
替代(其他)區域alternate (other) region 一個區域,可在建議區域也存在的資料常駐界限內,延伸 Azure 的使用量。A region that extends Azure's footprint within a data residency boundary where a recommended region also exists. 替代區域可協助將延遲優化,並為嚴重損壞修復需求提供第二個區域。Alternate regions help to optimize latency and provide a second region for disaster recovery needs. 它們不是設計來支援可用性區域(雖然 Azure 會定期評估這些區域,以判斷它們是否應成為建議的區域)。They are not designed to support Availability Zones (although Azure conducts regular assessment of these regions to determine if they should become recommended regions). 這些會在 Azure 入口網站中指定為其他These are designated in the Azure portal as Other.
基本服務foundational service 當區域正式推出時,可在所有區域中使用的核心 Azure 服務。A core Azure service that is available in all regions when the region is generally available.
主流服務mainstream service Azure 服務,可在區域/服務的12個月內,于替代區域的一般可用性或需求驅動的可用性中取得。An Azure service that is available in all recommended regions within 12 months of the region/service general availability or demand-driven availability in alternate regions.
專用服務specialized service 一項 Azure 服務,其為由自訂/特製化硬體支援的區域之間的需求驅動可用性。An Azure service that is demand-driven availability across regions backed by customized/specialized hardware.
區域服務regional service 已區域內部署的 Azure 服務,可讓客戶指定將部署服務的區域。An Azure service that is deployed regionally and enables the customer to specify the region into which the service will be deployed. 如需完整清單,請參閱依區域提供的產品For a complete list, see Products available by region.
非區域服務non-regional service Azure 服務,其不會相依于特定的 Azure 區域。An Azure service for which there is no dependency on a specific Azure region. 非區域服務會部署到兩個或多個區域,如果發生區域性失敗,則另一個區域中的服務實例會繼續服務客戶。Non-regional services are deployed to two or more regions and if there is a regional failure, the instance of the service in another region continues servicing customers. 如需完整清單,請參閱依區域提供的產品For a complete list, see Products available by region.

區域Regions

區域是在延遲定義的周邊內部署的一組資料中心,並透過專用的區域低延遲網路進行連線。A region is a set of datacenters deployed within a latency-defined perimeter and connected through a dedicated regional low-latency network. Azure 可讓您彈性地部署您需要的應用程式,包括跨多個區域,以提供跨區域復原。Azure gives you the flexibility to deploy applications where you need to, including across multiple regions to deliver cross-region resiliency. 如需詳細資訊,請參閱復原要件的總覽For more information, see Overview of the resiliency pillar.

可用性區域Availability Zones

可用性區域是高可用性供應專案,可保護您的應用程式和資料不受資料中心失敗的影響。An Availability Zone is a high-availability offering that protects your applications and data from datacenter failures. 「可用性區域」是 Azure 地區內獨特的實體位置。Availability Zones are unique physical locations within an Azure region. 每個區域皆由一或多個配備獨立電力、冷卻系統及網路的資料中心所組成。Each zone is made up of one or more datacenters equipped with independent power, cooling, and networking. 若要確保復原,所有已啟用的地區中至少要有三個不同的區域。To ensure resiliency, there's a minimum of three separate zones in all enabled regions. 地區內「可用性區域」的實體區隔可保護應用程式和資料不受資料中心故障影響。The physical separation of Availability Zones within a region protects applications and data from datacenter failures. 區域備援服務會將應用程式和資料複寫至所有「可用性區域」,以防出現單一失敗點。Zone-redundant services replicate your applications and data across Availability Zones to protect from single-points-of-failure. 使用「可用性區域」時,Azure 可提供業界最佳的 99.99% VM 執行時間 SLA。With Availability Zones, Azure offers industry best 99.99% VM uptime SLA. 完整 Azure SLA 說明保證的 Azure 整體可用性。The full Azure SLA explains the guaranteed availability of Azure as a whole.

Azure 區域中的可用性區域是由容錯網域和更新網域組成。An Availability Zone in an Azure region is a combination of a fault domain and an update domain. 例如,如果您在 Azure 區域中建立橫跨三個區域的三個 (或更多) VM,您的 VM 會有效地分散到三個容錯網域和三個更新網域。For example, if you create three or more VMs across three zones in an Azure region, your VMs are effectively distributed across three fault domains and three update domains. Azure 平臺會在更新網域中辨識此發佈,以確保不同區域中的 Vm 不會被排程同時更新。The Azure platform recognizes this distribution across update domains to make sure that VMs in different zones are not scheduled to be updated at the same time.

藉由將運算、儲存體、網路及資料資源共置於某個區域內並複寫至其他區域,即可讓您的應用程式架構內建高可用性。Build high-availability into your application architecture by co-locating your compute, storage, networking, and data resources within a zone and replicating in other zones. 支援「可用性區域」的 Azure 服務分成兩個類別:Azure services that support Availability Zones fall into two categories:

  • 區域服務–資源會釘選到特定區域(例如虛擬機器、受控磁片、標準 IP 位址),或Zonal services – where a resource is pinned to a specific zone (for example, virtual machines, managed disks, Standard IP addresses), or
  • 區域冗余服務– Azure 平臺會在區域間自動複寫時(例如,區域冗余儲存體、SQL Database)。Zone-redundant services – when the Azure platform replicates automatically across zones (for example, zone-redundant storage, SQL Database).

若要在 Azure 上達到全面性的商務持續性,請使用「可用性區域」與 Azure 地區配對的組合來建置您的應用程式架構。To achieve comprehensive business continuity on Azure, build your application architecture using the combination of Availability Zones with Azure region pairs. 您可以使用 Azure 地區內的「可用性區域」來同步複寫應用程式和資料以提供高可用性,並以非同步方式跨 Azure 地區複寫以提供災害復原保護。You can synchronously replicate your applications and data using Availability Zones within an Azure region for high-availability and asynchronously replicate across Azure regions for disaster recovery protection.

地區中細分至一個區域的概念性檢視

重要

可用性區域識別碼(上圖中的數位1、2和3)在邏輯上會分別對應至每個訂用帳戶的實際實體區域。The Availability Zone identifiers (the numbers 1, 2 and 3 in the picture above) are logically mapped to the actual physical zones for each subscription independently. 這表示指定訂用帳戶中的可用性區域1可能會參照不同訂用帳戶中可用性區域1以外的不同實體區域。That means that Availability Zone 1 in a given subscription might refer to a different physical zone than Availability Zone 1 in a different subscription. 因此,建議您不要依賴不同訂用帳戶的可用性區域識別碼來放置虛擬機器。As a consequence, it's recommended to not rely on Availability Zone IDs across different subscriptions for virtual machine placement.

區域和服務類別Region and service categories

Azure 對於跨區域的 Azure 服務可用性的方法,最好是藉由表示在建議區域和替代區域中提供的服務來進行說明。Azure's approach on availability of Azure services across regions is best described by expressing services made available in recommended regions and alternate regions.

  • 建議的區域-提供最廣泛服務功能的區域,其設計是為了支援現在或未來的可用性區域。Recommended region - A region that provides the broadest range of service capabilities and is designed to support Availability Zones now, or in the future. 建議您在 Azure 入口網站中指定這些設定。These are designated in the Azure portal as Recommended.
  • 替代(其他)區域-一種區域,可在建議的區域也存在的資料存放區界限內,延伸 Azure 的使用量。Alternate (other) region - A region that extends Azure's footprint within a data residency boundary where a recommended region also exists. 替代區域可協助將延遲優化,並為嚴重損壞修復需求提供第二個區域。Alternate regions help to optimize latency and provide a second region for disaster recovery needs. 它們不是設計來支援可用性區域(雖然 Azure 會定期評估這些區域,以判斷它們是否應成為建議的區域)。They are not designed to support Availability Zones (although Azure conducts regular assessment of these regions to determine if they should become recommended regions). 這些會在 Azure 入口網站中指定為其他These are designated in the Azure portal as Other.

比較區欄位型別Comparing region types

Azure 服務分成三種類別:基本、主流和特製化服務。Azure services are grouped into three categories: foundational, mainstream, and specialized services. Azure 將服務部署到任何指定區域的一般原則主要是依區欄位型別、服務類別和客戶需求來驅動:Azure's general policy on deploying services into any given region is primarily driven by region type, service categories, and customer demand:

  • 基本–當區域正式推出,或在新的基本服務的12個月內正式推出時,所有建議和替代區域皆可使用。Foundational – Available in all recommended and alternate regions when the region is generally available, or within 12 months of a new foundational service becoming generally available.
  • 主流–適用于區域/服務公開上市12個月內的所有建議區域。替代區域中的需求驅動(許多已部署到較大的替代區域子集)。Mainstream – Available in all recommended regions within 12 months of the region/service general availability; demand-driven in alternate regions (many are already deployed into a large subset of alternate regions).
  • 專門目標的服務供應專案,通常是以產業為主或由自訂/特殊化硬體支援。Specialized – Targeted service offerings, often industry-focused or backed by customized/specialized hardware. 跨區域的需求導向可用性(許多都已經部署到較大的建議區域子集)。Demand-driven availability across regions (many are already deployed into a large subset of recommended regions).

若要查看特定區域中所部署的服務,以及在區域中預覽或正式推出服務的未來藍圖,請參閱依區域提供的產品To see which services are deployed in a given region, as well as the future roadmap for preview or general availability of services in a region, see Products available by region.

如果特定地區沒有提供服務供應專案,您可以聯絡 Microsoft 業務代表來分享您的興趣。If a service offering is not available in a specific region, you can share your interest by contacting your Microsoft sales representative.

區域類型Region type 非區域Non-regional 基礎Foundational 主流Mainstream 特製化Specialized 可用性區域Availability Zones 資料存留處Data residency
建議Recommended ✔️ ✔️ ✔️ 需求導向Demand-driven ✔️ ✔️
替代Alternate ✔️ ✔️ 需求導向Demand-driven 需求導向Demand-driven N/AN/A ✔️

依類別分類的服務Services by category

如先前所述,Azure 會將服務分類成三個類別:基本、主流和特製化。As mentioned previously, Azure classifies services into three categories: foundational, mainstream, and specialized. 服務類別會在正式推出時指派。Service categories are assigned at general availability. 服務通常會以特製化服務的形式啟動其生命週期,而隨著需求和使用率的增加,可能會提升為主流或基礎。Often, services start their lifecycle as a specialized service and as demand and utilization increases may be promoted to mainstream or foundational. 下表列出服務的類別為 [基本]、[主流] 或 [特製化]。The following table lists the category for services as foundational, mainstream, or specialized. 您應該注意下列關於資料表的事項:You should note the following about the table:

基礎Foundational 主流Mainstream 特製化Specialized
帳戶儲存體Account Storage API 管理API Management 適用於 FHIR 的 Azure APIAzure API for FHIR
應用程式閘道Application Gateway 應用程式設定App Configuration Azure 區塊鏈服務Azure Blockchain Service
Azure 備份Azure Backup App ServiceApp Service Azure 藍圖Azure Blueprints
Azure Cosmos DBAzure Cosmos DB 自動化Automation 適用於 MariaDB 的 Azure 資料庫Azure Database for MariaDB
Azure Data Lake Storage Gen2Azure Data Lake Storage Gen2 Azure Active Directory Domain ServicesAzure Active Directory Domain Services Azure 專用 HSMAzure Dedicated HSM
Azure ExpressRouteAzure ExpressRoute Azure Analysis ServicesAzure Analysis Services Azure Dev SpacesAzure Dev Spaces
Azure SQL DatabaseAzure SQL Database Azure BastionAzure Bastion Azure Digital TwinsAzure Digital Twins
雲端服務Cloud Services Azure Cache for RedisAzure Cache for Redis Azure 實驗室服務Azure Lab Services
雲端服務: Av2 系列Cloud Services: Av2-Series Azue 認知搜尋Azure Cognitive Search Azure NetApp FilesAzure NetApp Files
雲端服務: Dv2 系列Cloud Services: Dv2-Series Azure 資料總管Azure Data Explorer Azure 量子Azure Quantum
雲端服務: Dv3 系列Cloud Services: Dv3-Series Azure Data ShareAzure Data Share Azure Time Series InsightsAzure Time Series Insights
雲端服務: Ev3 系列Cloud Services: Ev3-Series 適用於 MySQL 的 Azure 資料庫Azure Database for MySQL 由 CloudSimple 提供的 Azure VMware 解決方案Azure VMware Solution by CloudSimple
雲端服務:實例層級 IpCloud Services: Instance Level IPs 適用於 PostgreSQL 的 Azure 資料庫Azure Database for PostgreSQL 雲端服務: A8-A11 (需要大量計算)Cloud Services: A8 - A11 (Compute Intensive)
雲端服務:保留的 IPCloud Services: Reserved IP Azure 資料庫移轉服務Azure Database Migration Service 雲端服務: G 系列Cloud Services: G-Series
磁碟儲存體Disk Storage Azure DatabricksAzure Databricks 雲端服務: H 系列Cloud Services: H-Series
事件中樞Event Hubs Azure DDoS 保護Azure DDoS Protection 認知服務:異常偵測器Cognitive Services: Anomaly Detector
Key VaultKey Vault Azure DevTest LabsAzure DevTest Labs 認知服務:自訂視覺Cognitive Services : Custom Vision
負載平衡器Load balancer Azure 防火牆管理員Azure Firewall Manager 認知服務:說話者辨識Cognitive Services : Speaker Recognition
服務匯流排Service Bus Azure 防火牆Azure Firewall Data Box HeavyData Box Heavy
Service FabricService Fabric Azure FunctionsAzure Functions 資料目錄Data Catalog
虛擬機器擴展集Virtual Machine Scale Sets Azure HPC CacheAzure HPC Cache Data Factory: Data Factory V1Data Factory : Data Factory V1
虛擬機器Virtual Machines Azure IoT 中樞Azure IoT Hub Data Lake AnalyticsData Lake Analytics
虛擬機器: Av2 系列Virtual Machines: Av2-Series Azure Kubernetes Service (AKS)Azure Kubernetes Service (AKS) Machine Learning StudioMachine Learning Studio
虛擬機器: Bs 系列Virtual Machines: Bs-Series Azure Machine LearningAzure Machine Learning Microsoft GenomicsMicrosoft Genomics
虛擬機器: DSv2 系列Virtual Machines: DSv2-Series Azure Private LinkAzure Private Link 遠端轉譯Remote Rendering
虛擬機器: DSv3 系列Virtual Machines: DSv3-Series Azure Red Hat OpenShiftAzure Red Hat OpenShift Spatial AnchorsSpatial Anchors
虛擬機器: Dv2 系列Virtual Machines: Dv2-Series Azure Site RecoveryAzure Site Recovery StorSimpleStorSimple
虛擬機器: Dv3 系列Virtual Machines: Dv3-Series Azure 春季雲端服務Azure Spring Cloud Service 影片索引器Video Indexer
虛擬機器: ESv3 系列Virtual Machines: ESv3-Series Azure Stack HubAzure Stack Hub 虛擬機器: A8-A11 (需要大量計算)Virtual Machines: A8 - A11 (Compute Intensive)
虛擬機器: Ev3 系列Virtual Machines: Ev3-Series Azure 串流分析Azure Stream Analytics 虛擬機器: DASv4 系列Virtual Machines: DASv4-Series
虛擬機器: F 系列Virtual Machines: F-Series Azure Synapse AnalyticsAzure Synapse Analytics 虛擬機器: DAv4 系列Virtual Machines: DAv4-Series
虛擬機器: FS 系列Virtual Machines: FS-Series Azure SignalR 服務Azure SignalR Service 虛擬機器: DCsv2 系列Virtual Machines: DCsv2-series
虛擬機器:實例層級 IpVirtual Machines: Instance Level IPs BatchBatch 虛擬機器: EASv4 系列Virtual Machines: EASv4-Series
虛擬機器:保留的 IPVirtual Machines: Reserved IP 雲端服務: M 系列Cloud Services: M-series 虛擬機器: EAv4 系列Virtual Machines: EAv4-Series
虛擬網路Virtual Network 認知服務Cognitive Services 虛擬機器: G 系列Virtual Machines: G-Series
VPN 閘道VPN Gateway 認知服務:電腦視覺Cognitive Services: Computer Vision 虛擬機器: GS 系列Virtual Machines: GS-Series
認知服務:內容仲裁Cognitive Services: Content Moderator 虛擬機器: HBv1 系列Virtual Machines: HBv1-Series
認知服務:臉部Cognitive Services: Face 虛擬機器: HBv2 系列Virtual Machines: HBv2-Series
認知服務: Language UnderstandingCognitive Services: Language Understanding 虛擬機器: HCv1 系列Virtual Machines: HCv1-Series
認知服務:語音服務Cognitive Services: Speech Services 虛擬機器: H 系列Virtual Machines: H-Series
認知服務:QnA MakerCognitive Services: QnA Maker 虛擬機器: LS 系列Virtual Machines: LS-Series
容器執行個體Container Instances 虛擬機器: LSv2 系列Virtual Machines: LSv2-Series
Container RegistryContainer Registry 虛擬機器: Mv2 系列Virtual Machines: Mv2 -series
Data FactoryData Factory 虛擬機器: NC 系列Virtual Machines: NC-Series
事件方格Event Grid 虛擬機器: NCv2 系列Virtual Machines: NCv2-Series
HDInsightHDInsight 虛擬機器: NCv3 系列Virtual Machines: NCv3-Series
Logic AppsLogic Apps 虛擬機器: NDs 系列Virtual Machines: NDs-Series
媒體服務Media Services 虛擬機器: NDv2 系列Virtual Machines: NDv2-Series
網路監看員Network Watcher 虛擬機器: NV 系列Virtual Machines: NV-Series
通知中樞Notification Hubs 虛擬機器: NVv3 系列Virtual Machines: NVv3-Series
Power BI EmbeddedPower BI Embedded 虛擬機器: NVv4 系列Virtual Machines: NVv4-Series
Premium Blob 儲存體Premium Blob Storage 虛擬機器: Azure 上的 SAP HANA 大型執行個體Virtual Machines: SAP HANA on Azure Large Instances
Premium 檔案儲存體Premium Files Storage Visual Studio App CenterVisual Studio App Center
儲存體:封存儲存體Storage: Archive Storage
Ultra 磁碟儲存體Ultra Disk Storage
虛擬機器: Fsv2 系列Virtual Machines: Fsv2-Series
虛擬機器: M 系列Virtual Machines: M-Series
Virtual WANVirtual WAN

服務復原Services resiliency

所有 Azure 管理服務的架構都可以從區域層級失敗中復原。All Azure management services are architected to be resilient from region-level failures. 在失敗的範圍中,區域內的一個或多個可用性區域失敗,與整個區域失敗相比,其失敗半徑較小。In the spectrum of failures, one or more Availability Zone failures within a region have a smaller failure radius compared to an entire region failure. Azure 可以從區域內或從另一個 Azure 區域中的管理服務區域層級失敗中復原。Azure can recover from a zone-level failure of management services within the region or from another Azure region. Azure 會在區域內一次執行一個區域的重要維護,以避免影響在某個區域內可用性區域部署之客戶資源的任何失敗。Azure performs critical maintenance one zone at a time within a region, to prevent any failures impacting customer resources deployed across Availability Zones within a region.

可用性區域中的 Vm 定價Pricing for VMs in Availability Zones

針對部署在「可用性區域」中的虛擬機器並不會產生額外費用。There is no additional cost for virtual machines deployed in an Availability Zone. 有兩部 (或以上) VM 部署在 Azure 區域內兩個以上的「可用性區域」中時,即可提供 99.99% VM 執行時間 SLA。99.99% VM uptime SLA is offered when two or more VMs are deployed across two or more Availability Zones within an Azure region. 在可用性區域之間將額外產生 VM 對 VM 的資料傳輸費用。There will be additional inter-Availability Zone VM-to-VM data transfer charges. 如需詳細資訊,請檢閱頻寬定價頁面。For more information, review the Bandwidth pricing page.

開始使用可用性區域Get started with Availability Zones

後續步驟Next steps