什麼是 Azure SQL Database?What is Azure SQL Database?

適用於: Azure SQL Database

Azure SQL Database 是完全受控的平台即服務 (PaaS) 資料庫引擎,其無須經過使用者,即可處理大部分的資料庫管理功能,例如升級、修補、備份及監視。Azure SQL Database is a fully managed platform as a service (PaaS) database engine that handles most of the database management functions such as upgrading, patching, backups, and monitoring without user involvement. Azure SQL Database 一律會在 SQL Server 資料庫引擎與具有 99.99% 可用性的已修補 OS 其最新穩定版本上執行。Azure SQL Database is always running on the latest stable version of the SQL Server database engine and patched OS with 99.99% availability. 內建於 Azure SQL Database 中的 PaaS 功能,可讓您專注於對企業至關重要的特定領域資料庫系統管理與最佳化活動。PaaS capabilities that are built into Azure SQL Database enable you to focus on the domain-specific database administration and optimization activities that are critical for your business.

有了 Azure SQL Database,您可為 Azure 中的應用程式與解決方案建立高度可用且高效能的資料儲存層。With Azure SQL Database, you can create a highly available and high-performance data storage layer for the applications and solutions in Azure. SQL Database 可謂是適合各種現代化雲端應用程式的選擇,因為其可供處理關聯式資料,以及非關聯式結構 (例如圖表、JSON、空間和 XML)。SQL Database can be the right choice for a variety of modern cloud applications because it enables you to process both relational data and non-relational structures, such as graphs, JSON, spatial, and XML.

Azure SQL Database 以最新穩定版本的 Microsoft SQL Server 資料庫引擎為基礎。Azure SQL Database is based on the latest stable version of the Microsoft SQL Server database engine. 您可使用進階查詢處理功能,例如高效能記憶體內部技術智慧查詢處理You can use advanced query processing features, such as high-performance in-memory technologies and intelligent query processing. 事實上,SQL Server 的最新功能會先發行至 SQL Database,然後才發行至 SQL Server 本身。In fact, the newest capabilities of SQL Server are released first to SQL Database, and then to SQL Server itself. 您可取得最新的 SQL Server 功能,無需額外的修補或升級,即可在數百萬個資料庫之間進行測試。You get the newest SQL Server capabilities with no overhead for patching or upgrading, tested across millions of databases.

SQL Database 可供輕鬆地在兩個不同的購買模型內定義和調整效能:以虛擬核心為基礎的購買模型以 DTU 為基礎的購買模型SQL Database enables you to easily define and scale performance within two different purchasing models: a vCore-based purchasing model and a DTU-based purchasing model. SQL Database 是完全受控的服務,其具有內建的高可用性、備份與其他一般維護作業。SQL Database is a fully managed service that has built-in high availability, backups, and other common maintenance operations. Microsoft 可處理 SQL 和作業系統程式碼的所有修補和更新。Microsoft handles all patching and updating of the SQL and operating system code. 您不需要管理基礎結構。You don't have to manage the underlying infrastructure.

如果您不熟悉 Azure SQL Database,請觀看我們深入的 Azure SQL 影片系列中的 Azure SQL Database 概觀影片:If you're new to Azure SQL Database, check out the Azure SQL Database Overview video from our in-depth Azure SQL video series:

部署模型Deployment models

Azure SQL Database 為資料庫提供下列部署選項:Azure SQL Database provides the following deployment options for a database:

重要

若要了解 SQL Database 和 SQL Server 之間的功能差異,以及不同 Azure SQL Database 選項之間的差異,請參閱 SQL Database 功能To understand the feature differences between SQL Database and SQL Server, as well as the differences among different Azure SQL Database options, see SQL Database features.

SQL Database 利用多種資源類型、服務層級和計算大小來提供可預測的效能。SQL Database delivers predictable performance with multiple resource types, service tiers, and compute sizes. 其提供無須停機的動態可擴縮性、內建智慧最佳化、全球可擴縮性和可用性,以及進階安全性選項。It provides dynamic scalability with no downtime, built-in intelligent optimization, global scalability and availability, and advanced security options. 這些功能可供專注於快速開發應用程式及加快上市時間,而非管理虛擬機器和基礎結構。These capabilities allow you to focus on rapid app development and accelerating your time-to-market, rather than on managing virtual machines and infrastructure. SQL Database 目前在全球 38 個資料中心提供,您可在附近的資料中心執行資料庫。SQL Database is currently in 38 datacenters around the world, so you can run your database in a datacenter near you.

可擴充的效能和集區Scalable performance and pools

您可定義指派的資源數量。You can define the amount of resources assigned.

  • 使用單一資料庫,每個資料庫都彼此隔離且可移植。With single databases, each database is isolated from others and is portable. 各自都有保證數量的計算、記憶體和儲存體資源。Each has its own guaranteed amount of compute, memory, and storage resources. 指派給資料庫的資源數量會專用於該資料庫,而不會與 Azure 中的其他資料庫共用。The amount of the resources assigned to the database is dedicated to that database, and isn't shared with other databases in Azure. 您可動態擴大和縮小單一資料庫資源You can dynamically scale single database resources up and down. 單一資料庫選項提供不同的計算、記憶體和儲存體資源,以滿足不同需求。The single database option provides different compute, memory, and storage resources for different needs. 例如,您可取得 1 到 80 個虛擬核心,或 32 GB 到 4 TB。For example, you can get 1 to 80 vCores, or 32 GB to 4 TB. 單一資料庫的超大規模資料庫服務層級可供擴充到 100 TB,且有快速備份和還原功能。The hyperscale service tier for single databases enables you to scale to 100 TB, with fast backup and restore capabilities.
  • 使用彈性集區,您可指派集區中所有資料庫所要共用的資源。With elastic pools, you can assign resources that are shared by all databases in the pool. 您可建立新的資料庫,或將現有單一資料庫移至資源集區,以充分利用資源並節省成本。You can create a new database, or move the existing single databases into a resource pool to maximize the use of resources and save money. 此選項也可供動態擴大和縮小彈性集區資源This option also gives you the ability to dynamically scale elastic pool resources up and down.

您可在一般目的服務層級中以每個月很低的費用,在一個小型單一資料庫上建置第一個應用程式。You can build your first app on a small, single database at a low cost per month in the general-purpose service tier. 然後,您可隨時以手動或程式設計方式,將其服務層級變更為業務關鍵服務層級,以符合解決方案需求。You can then change its service tier manually or programmatically at any time to the business-critical service tier, to meet the needs of your solution. 您的應用程式或客戶皆無須停機,即可調整效能。You can adjust performance without downtime to your app or to your customers. 動態延展性可讓您的資料庫以透明的方式回應快速變化的資源需求。Dynamic scalability enables your database to transparently respond to rapidly changing resource requirements. 您只需支付所需的資源費用。You pay for only the resources that you need when you need them.

「動態可擴縮性」與「自動調整」不同。Dynamic scalability is different from autoscale. 自動調整規模是指服務根據準則來自動調整規模,而動態延展性則允許在不停機的狀況下手動調整規模。Autoscale is when a service scales automatically based on criteria, whereas dynamic scalability allows for manual scaling without downtime. 單一資料庫選項支援手動的動態可擴縮性,但不支援自動調整。The single database option supports manual dynamic scalability, but not autoscale. 如需「自動」體驗,請考慮使用彈性集區,以根據個別資料庫的需求讓資料庫共用集區中的資源。For a more automatic experience, consider using elastic pools, which allow databases to share resources in a pool based on individual database needs. 另一個選項是使用可協助對單一資料庫自動調整可擴縮性的指令碼。Another option is to use scripts that can help automate scalability for a single database. 如需範例,請參閱使用 PowerShell 來監視和調整單一資料庫的規模For an example, see Use PowerShell to monitor and scale a single database.

購買模型Purchasing models

SQL Database 提供下列購買模型:SQL Database offers the following purchasing models:

  • 以虛擬核心為基礎的購買模型可供選擇虛擬核心數目、記憶體數量,以及儲存體數量和速度。The vCore-based purchasing model lets you choose the number of vCores, the amount of memory, and the amount and speed of storage. 以虛擬核心為基礎的購買模型也可讓您使用適用於 SQL Server 的 Azure Hybrid Benefit,以節省成本。The vCore-based purchasing model also allows you to use Azure Hybrid Benefit for SQL Server to gain cost savings. 如需 Azure Hybrid Benefit 的詳細資訊,請參閱本文稍後的<常見問題集>一節。For more information about the Azure Hybrid Benefit, see the "Frequently asked questions" section later in this article.
  • 以 DTU 為基礎的購買模型提供三個服務層級中的計算、記憶體和 I/O 資源混合,以支援輕量型到重量型的資料庫工作負載。The DTU-based purchasing model offers a blend of compute, memory, and I/O resources in three service tiers, to support light to heavy database workloads. 各層內的計算大小分別提供這些資源的不同混用方式,而且您可以為其新增額外的儲存體資源。Compute sizes within each tier provide a different mix of these resources, to which you can add additional storage resources.
  • 無伺服器模型可根據工作負載需求自動調整計算,並以每秒使用的計算量來計費。The serverless model automatically scales compute based on workload demand, and bills for the amount of compute used per second. 無伺服器計算層也會在只有儲存體仍在計費的資料庫非使用中期間自動暫停資料庫,並在有活動傳回時自動繼續執行資料庫。The serverless compute tier also automatically pauses databases during inactive periods when only storage is billed, and automatically resumes databases when activity returns.

服務層Service tiers

Azure SQL Database 提供三個專為不同應用程式類型所設計的服務層級:Azure SQL Database offers three service tiers that are designed for different types of applications:

  • 一般目的/標準服務層級,專為一般工作負載所設計。General Purpose/Standard service tier designed for common workloads. 其提供以預算為導向且平衡的計算與儲存體選項。It offers budget-oriented balanced compute and storage options.
  • 業務關鍵/進階服務層級,專為具有高交易率和最低延遲 I/O 的 OLTP 應用程式所設計。Business Critical/Premium service tier designed for OLTP applications with high transaction rate and lowest-latency I/O. 其藉由使用數個隔離的複本來提供最高失敗復原能力。It offers the highest resilience to failures by using several isolated replicas.
  • 超大規模資料庫服務層級,專為超大型 OLTP 資料庫所設計,且能夠自動調整儲存體並流暢地調整計算。Hyperscale service tier designed for very large OLTP database and the ability to autoscale storage and scale compute fluidly.

可將資源使用量最大化的彈性集區Elastic pools to maximize resource utilization

對於許多企業和應用程式而言,只要能夠建立單一資料庫,並依需求調高或調低的效能即可,尤其是當使用模式相當容易預測時更是如此。For many businesses and applications, being able to create single databases and dial performance up or down on demand is enough, especially if usage patterns are relatively predictable. 無法預測的使用模式可能會使得難以管理成本和商務模型。Unpredictable usage patterns can make it hard to manage costs and your business model. 彈性集區的設計可解決此問題。Elastic pools are designed to solve this problem. 您可將效能資源配置給集區,而非個別資料庫。You allocate performance resources to a pool rather than an individual database. 然後針對集區的整體效能資源 (而非單一資料庫效能) 付費。You pay for the collective performance resources of the pool rather than for single database performance.

顯示基本、標準和進階版彈性集區的圖表

使用彈性集區,您就不必隨著資源的需求波動而專注於調高或調低資料庫效能。With elastic pools, you don't need to focus on dialing database performance up and down as demand for resources fluctuates. 集區資料庫會視需要取用彈性集區的效能資源。The pooled databases consume the performance resources of the elastic pool as needed. 集區資料庫會取用集區的資源,但不會超過其限制,因此成本可在個別資料庫使用情形無法預測的狀況下維持可預測性。Pooled databases consume but don't exceed the limits of the pool, so your cost remains predictable even if individual database usage doesn't.

您可將資料庫新增至集區並從中移除,並將應用程式從數個資料庫擴充至數千個,且全都在可掌控的預算內。You can add and remove databases to the pool, scaling your app from a handful of databases to thousands, all within a budget that you control. 您也可以控制集區中資料庫可用的資源下限和上限,以確保集區中不會有任一資料庫使用所有的集區資源,且每個集區資料庫都有保證的最低資源數量。You can also control the minimum and maximum resources available to databases in the pool, to ensure that no database in the pool uses all the pool resources, and that every pooled database has a guaranteed minimum amount of resources. 若要深入了解使用彈性集區的軟體即服務 (SaaS) 應用程式設計模式,請參閱採用 SQL Database 的多租用戶 SaaS 應用程式設計模式To learn more about design patterns for software as a service (SaaS) applications that use elastic pools, see Design patterns for multi-tenant SaaS applications with SQL Database.

指令碼可協助您監視及調整彈性集區的規模。Scripts can help with monitoring and scaling elastic pools. 如需範例,請參閱使用 PowerShell 在 Azure SQL Database 中監視和調整彈性集區For an example, see Use PowerShell to monitor and scale an elastic pool in Azure SQL Database.

混合使用單一資料庫與集區資料庫Blend single databases with pooled databases

您可混合使用單一資料庫與彈性集區,並變更單一資料庫和彈性集區的服務層級來適應情況。You can blend single databases with elastic pools, and change the service tiers of single databases and elastic pools to adapt to your situation. 您也可以使用 SQL Database 來混合並搭配其他 Azure 服務,以滿足獨特應用程式的設計需求、有效運用成本和資源,且產生新的商機。You can also mix and match other Azure services with SQL Database to meet your unique app design needs, drive cost and resource efficiencies, and unlock new business opportunities.

廣泛的監視和警示功能Extensive monitoring and alerting capabilities

Azure SQL Database 提供進階監視和疑難排解功能,可協助更深入解析工作負載特性。Azure SQL Database provides advanced monitoring and troubleshooting features that help you get deeper insights into workload characteristics. 這些功能和工具包括:These features and tools include:

  • 最新版的 SQL Server 資料庫引擎所提供的內建監視功能。The built-in monitoring capabilities provided by the latest version of the SQL Server database engine. 這些功能可供尋找即時效能深入解析。They enable you to find real-time performance insights.
  • Azure 提供的 PaaS 監視功能,可供監視大量的資料庫執行個體並為其進行疑難排解。PaaS monitoring capabilities provided by Azure that enable you to monitor and troubleshoot a large number of database instances.

查詢存放區是內建的 SQL Server 監視功能,可即時記錄查詢效能,並可供找出潛在的效能問題和最耗用資源的資源取用者。Query Store, a built-in SQL Server monitoring feature, records the performance of your queries in real time, and enables you to identify the potential performance issues and the top resource consumers. 自動調整和建議為效能迴歸以及索引遺漏或重複的查詢提供相關建議。Automatic tuning and recommendations provide advice regarding the queries with the regressed performance and missing or duplicated indexes. SQL Database 中的自動調整可供手動套用指令碼來修正問題,或讓 SQL Database 套用修正程式。Automatic tuning in SQL Database enables you to either manually apply the scripts that can fix the issues, or let SQL Database apply the fix. SQL Database 也可測試並驗證修正程式是否提供一些好處,並根據結果保留或還原變更。SQL Database can also test and verify that the fix provides some benefit, and retain or revert the change depending on the outcome. 除了查詢存放區和自動調整功能以外,您還可使用標準 DMV 和 XEvent 來監視工作負載效能。In addition to Query Store and automatic tuning capabilities, you can use standard DMVs and XEvent to monitor the workload performance.

Azure 提供內建的效能監視警示工具,並搭配使用效能分級,其可供監視數千個資料庫的狀態。Azure provides built-in performance monitoring and alerting tools, combined with performance ratings, that enable you to monitor the status of thousands of databases. 使用這些工具,即可根據目前或所預計效能需求來快速評定擴大或縮小的影響。Using these tools, you can quickly assess the impact of scaling up or down, based on your current or projected performance needs. 此外,SQL Database 可發出計量和資源記錄,以供更輕鬆地進行監視。Additionally, SQL Database can emit metrics and resource logs for easier monitoring. 您可以將 SQL Database 設定為將資源使用量、背景工作與工作階段及連線儲存到下列其中一項 Azure 資源:You can configure SQL Database to store resource usage, workers and sessions, and connectivity into one of these Azure resources:

  • Azure 儲存體:用於封存大量遙測,價格實惠。Azure Storage: For archiving vast amounts of telemetry for a small price.
  • Azure 事件中樞:用於整合 SQL Database 遙測與自訂監視解決方案或經常性管線。Azure Event Hubs: For integrating SQL Database telemetry with your custom monitoring solution or hot pipelines.
  • Azure 監視器記錄:用於具有報告、警示及風險降低功能的內建監視解決方案。Azure Monitor logs: For a built-in monitoring solution with reporting, alerting, and mitigating capabilities.

Azure 監視架構的圖表

可用性功能Availability capabilities

Azure SQL Database 可讓企業在面臨中斷時持續運作。Azure SQL Database enables your business to continue operating during disruptions. 在傳統的 SQL Server 環境中,您通常會在本機設定至少兩部電腦。In a traditional SQL Server environment, you generally have at least two machines locally set up. 這些電腦具有完全保持同步的資料複本,以提供保護來防止單一電腦或元件失敗。These machines have exact, synchronously maintained, copies of the data to protect against a failure of a single machine or component. 此環境提供高可用性,但無法提供保護來防止自然災害損毀資料中心。This environment provides high availability, but it doesn't protect against a natural disaster destroying your datacenter.

災害復原假設在災難性事件遠端設置了具有資料複本的另一部電腦或另一組電腦。Disaster recovery assumes that a catastrophic event is geographically localized enough to have another machine or set of machines with a copy of your data far away. 在 SQL Server 中,您可使用在非同步模式下執行的 Always On 可用性群組來取得這項功能。In SQL Server, you can use Always On Availability Groups running in async mode to get this capability. 使用者通常不想要等候複寫在那麼遠的地方出現再認可交易,因此當執行非計劃性容錯移轉時,可能會遺失資料。People often don't want to wait for replication to happen that far away before committing a transaction, so there's potential for data loss when you do unplanned failovers.

進階和業務關鍵服務層級中的資料庫已執行與可用性群組的同步處理類似的功能Databases in the Premium and Business Critical service tiers already do something similar to the synchronization of an availability group. 較低服務層級中資料庫則使用不同但對等的機制,以透過儲存體提供備援。Databases in lower service tiers provide redundancy through storage by using a different but equivalent mechanism. 內建邏輯有助於提供保護來防止單一電腦失敗。Built-in logic helps protect against a single machine failure. 主動式異地複寫功能可供提供保護來防止整個區域損毀的災害。The active geo-replication feature gives you the ability to protect against disaster where a whole region is destroyed.

Azure 可用性區域會嘗試提供保護來防止單一區域內單一資料中心建築物的中斷。Azure Availability Zones tries to protect against the outage of a single datacenter building within a single region. 其可協助提供保護來防止建築物的電源或網路中斷。It helps you protect against the loss of power or network to a building. 在 SQL Database 中,您會將不同複本放在不同的可用性區域中 (實際不同的建築物)。In SQL Database, you place the different replicas in different availability zones (different buildings, effectively).

事實上,由 Microsoft 受控資料中心全球網路提供的 Azure 服務等級協定 (SLA),可協助讓應用程式 24 小時全年無休地運作。In fact, the service level agreement (SLA) of Azure, powered by a global network of Microsoft-managed datacenters, helps keep your app running 24/7. Azure 平台可完全管理每個資料庫,並保證任何資料都不會遺失及高度的資料可用性。The Azure platform fully manages every database, and it guarantees no data loss and a high percentage of data availability. Azure 會自動處理修補、備份、複寫、失敗偵測,基礎潛在硬體、軟體或網路失敗、部署錯誤修正、容錯移轉、資料庫升級和其他維護工作。Azure automatically handles patching, backups, replication, failure detection, underlying potential hardware, software or network failures, deploying bug fixes, failovers, database upgrades, and other maintenance tasks. 隔離計算和儲存圖層可達成標準可用性。Standard availability is achieved by a separation of compute and storage layers. 整合單一節點上的計算和儲存體以獲取效能,然後實作類似 Always On 可用性群組的技術,則可達成進階可用性。Premium availability is achieved by integrating compute and storage on a single node for performance, and then implementing technology similar to Always On Availability Groups. 如需 Azure SQL Database 高可用性功能的完整討論,請參閱 SQL Database 可用性For a full discussion of the high availability capabilities of Azure SQL Database, see SQL Database availability.

此外,SQL Database 還提供內建的商務持續性和全球可擴縮性功能。In addition, SQL Database provides built-in business continuity and global scalability features. 其中包括:These include:

  • 自動備份Automatic backups:

    SQL Database 會自動執行資料庫的完整、差異及交易記錄備份,以供您還原至任何時間點。SQL Database automatically performs full, differential, and transaction log backups of databases to enable you to restore to any point in time. 針對單一資料庫和集區資料庫,您可設定 SQL Database 將完整資料庫備份儲存至 Azure 儲存體,以供長期備份保留。For single databases and pooled databases, you can configure SQL Database to store full database backups to Azure Storage for long-term backup retention. 對於受控執行個體,您也可以對僅複製備份執行長期備份保留。For managed instances, you can also perform copy-only backups for long-term backup retention.

  • 時間點還原Point-in-time restores:

    所有 SQL Database 部署選項均支援復原到任何資料庫自動備份保留期間內的任何時間點。All SQL Database deployment options support recovery to any point in time within the automatic backup retention period for any database.

  • 主動式異地複寫Active geo-replication:

    單一資料庫和集區資料庫選項可供在相同或分散於全球的 Azure 資料中心最多設定四個可讀取的次要資料庫。The single database and pooled databases options allow you to configure up to four readable secondary databases in either the same or globally distributed Azure datacenters. 例如,如果 SaaS 應用程式的目錄資料庫具有大量並行唯讀交易,請使用主動式異地複寫功能來啟用全球讀取級別。For example, if you have a SaaS application with a catalog database that has a high volume of concurrent read-only transactions, use active geo-replication to enable global read scale. 這會移除主要資料庫上因為讀取工作負載所造成的瓶頸。This removes bottlenecks on the primary that are due to read workloads. 對於受控執行個體,請使用自動容錯移轉群組。For managed instances, use auto-failover groups.

  • 自動容錯移轉群組Auto-failover groups:

    所有 SQL Database 部署選項均可供使用容錯移轉群組來啟用全球規模的高可用性和負載平衡。All SQL Database deployment options allow you to use failover groups to enable high availability and load balancing at global scale. 這包括大型資料庫、彈性集區和受控執行個體集合的透明異地複寫和容錯移轉。This includes transparent geo-replication and failover of large sets of databases, elastic pools, and managed instances. 容錯移轉群組可供建立分散於全球的 SaaS 應用程式,其管理負擔最小。Failover groups enable the creation of globally distributed SaaS applications, with minimal administration overhead. 這可讓 SQL Database 處理所有複雜的監視、路由傳送及容錯移轉協調流程。This leaves all the complex monitoring, routing, and failover orchestration to SQL Database.

  • 區域備援資料庫Zone-redundant databases:

    SQL Database 可讓您跨多個可用性區域佈建進階或業務關鍵資料庫或彈性集區。SQL Database allows you to provision Premium or Business Critical databases or elastic pools across multiple availability zones. 由於這些資料庫和彈性集區有多個備援複本可提供高可用性,因此將這些複本放入多個可用性區域即可提供更高的復原能力。Because these databases and elastic pools have multiple redundant replicas for high availability, placing these replicas into multiple availability zones provides higher resilience. 這包括能夠從資料中心規模的失敗自動復原,而不會遺失任何資料。This includes the ability to recover automatically from the datacenter scale failures, without data loss.

內建智慧Built-in intelligence

採用 SQL Database,您可取得內建智慧來協助大幅降低執行和管理資料庫的成本,並將應用程式的效能和安全性提到最高。With SQL Database, you get built-in intelligence that helps you dramatically reduce the costs of running and managing databases, and that maximizes both performance and security of your application. SQL Database 隨時執行數以百萬計的客戶工作負載,並收集和處理大量的遙測資料,同時完全尊重客戶隱私權。Running millions of customer workloads around the clock, SQL Database collects and processes a massive amount of telemetry data, while also fully respecting customer privacy. 各種演算法會持續評估遙測資料,讓服務能夠了解應用程式並隨其調整。Various algorithms continuously evaluate the telemetry data so that the service can learn and adapt with your application.

自動的效能監視和微調Automatic performance monitoring and tuning

SQL Database 會提供您需要監視之查詢的詳細解析。SQL Database provides detailed insight into the queries that you need to monitor. SQL Database 會了解資料庫模式,並可供根據自己的工作負載調整資料庫結構描述。SQL Database learns about your database patterns, and enables you to adapt your database schema to your workload. SQL Database 提供效能微調建議,您可以在其中檢閱微調動作並加以套用。SQL Database provides performance tuning recommendations, where you can review tuning actions and apply them.

不過,持續監視資料庫是冗長乏味的艱辛工作,尤其是在處理許多資料庫時。However, constantly monitoring a database is a hard and tedious task, especially when you're dealing with many databases. Intelligent Insights 會自動大規模監視 SQL Database 效能來替您代勞。Intelligent Insights does this job for you by automatically monitoring SQL Database performance at scale. 其會通知效能降低的問題、識別每個問題的根本原因,然後盡可能提供效能改善建議。It informs you of performance degradation issues, it identifies the root cause of each issue, and it provides performance improvement recommendations when possible.

即使使用 SQL Database 和 Azure 提供的所有可用工具和報表,都可能無法有效率地管理大量資料庫。Managing a huge number of databases might be impossible to do efficiently even with all available tools and reports that SQL Database and Azure provide. 除了手動監視和調整資料庫,您也可以考慮使用自動調整,將一些監視和調整動作委派給 SQL Database。Instead of monitoring and tuning your database manually, you might consider delegating some of the monitoring and tuning actions to SQL Database by using automatic tuning. SQL Database 會自動套用建議、測試及驗證每個調整動作,以確保持續改善效能。SQL Database automatically applies recommendations, tests, and verifies each of its tuning actions to ensure the performance keeps improving. 如此一來,SQL Database 會以受控制且安全的方式自動根據工作負載進行調整。This way, SQL Database automatically adapts to your workload in a controlled and safe way. 自動調整表示在每個調整動作前後,資料庫效能都會受到仔細的監控和比較。Automatic tuning means that the performance of your database is carefully monitored and compared before and after every tuning action. 如果效能沒有改善,則會還原調整動作。If the performance doesn't improve, the tuning action is reverted.

在 SQL Database 上執行 SaaS 多租用戶應用程式的許多合作夥伴都依賴自動效能調整來確保其應用程式始終擁有穩定且可預測效能。Many of our partners that run SaaS multi-tenant apps on top of SQL Database are relying on automatic performance tuning to make sure their applications always have stable and predictable performance. 對他們而言,這項功能可大幅降低夜間發生效能事件的風險。For them, this feature tremendously reduces the risk of having a performance incident in the middle of the night. 此外,由於其部分客戶也使用 SQL Server,因此合作夥伴會使用 SQL Database 所提供的相同索引建議來協助其 SQL Server 客戶。In addition, because part of their customer base also uses SQL Server, they're using the same indexing recommendations provided by SQL Database to help their SQL Server customers.

SQL Database 中可用的自動調整層面有兩個:Two automatic tuning aspects are available in SQL Database:

  • 自動索引管理:識別應該在資料庫中新增的索引,以及應該移除的索引。Automatic index management: Identifies indexes that should be added in your database, and indexes that should be removed.
  • 自動計劃修正:識別有問題的計劃並修正 SQL 計劃效能問題。Automatic plan correction: Identifies problematic plans and fixes SQL plan performance problems.

自適性查詢處理Adaptive query processing

您可使用自適性查詢處理,包括交錯執行多重陳述式資料表值函式、批次模式記憶體授與回饋,以及批次模式自適性聯結。You can use adaptive query processing, including interleaved execution for multi-statement table-valued functions, batch mode memory grant feedback, and batch mode adaptive joins. 每個自適性查詢處理功能都會應用類似的「了解並適應」技術,協助進一步解決與過去很棘手的查詢最佳化問題相關效能問題。Each of these adaptive query processing features applies similar "learn and adapt" techniques, helping further address performance issues related to historically intractable query optimization problems.

進階安全性與合規性Advanced security and compliance

SQL Database 提供了各式各樣的內建安全性與合規性功能,協助您的應用程式符合各種安全性與合規性需求。SQL Database provides a range of built-in security and compliance features to help your application meet various security and compliance requirements.

重要

Azure SQL Database (所有部署選項) 已通過許多合規性標準的 Microsoft 認證。Microsoft has certified Azure SQL Database (all deployment options) against a number of compliance standards. 如需詳細資訊,請參閱 Microsoft Azure 信任中心,您可在當中找到 SQL Database 合規性認證的最新清單。For more information, see the Microsoft Azure Trust Center, where you can find the most current list of SQL Database compliance certifications.

進階威脅防護Advance threat protection

適用於 SQL 的 Azure Defender 是進階 SQL 安全性功能的整合套件。Azure Defender for SQL is a unified package for advanced SQL security capabilities. 其功能包括管理資料庫弱點,以及偵測可能表示對資料庫造成威脅的異常活動。It includes functionality for managing your database vulnerabilities, and detecting anomalous activities that might indicate a threat to your database. 此套件可讓您從單一點位置啟用及管理前述功能。It provides a single location for enabling and managing these capabilities.

  • 弱點評量Vulnerability assessment:

    這個服務可以探索、追蹤並協助您修復潛在的資料庫弱點。This service can discover, track, and help you remediate potential database vulnerabilities. 可讓您檢視安全性狀態,且包含解決安全性問題和增強資料庫防護性的可行步驟。It provides visibility into your security state, and includes actionable steps to resolve security issues, and enhance your database fortifications.

  • 威脅偵測Threat detection:

    這項功能可偵測異常活動,指出有不尋常及可能有害的活動試圖存取或惡意探索資料庫。This feature detects anomalous activities that indicate unusual and potentially harmful attempts to access or exploit your database. 進階威脅防護會持續監視您的資料庫是否有可疑活動,並在發現潛在弱點、SQL 插入式攻擊和異常資料庫存取模式時提供即時安全性警示。It continuously monitors your database for suspicious activities, and provides immediate security alerts on potential vulnerabilities, SQL injection attacks, and anomalous database access patterns. 威脅防護警示會提供可疑活動的詳細資料,以及如何調查並降低威脅的建議。Threat detection alerts provide details of the suspicious activity, and recommend action on how to investigate and mitigate the threat.

合規性和安全性稽核Auditing for compliance and security

稽核會追蹤資料庫事件,並將它們寫入至您 Azure 儲存體帳戶中的稽核記錄。Auditing tracks database events and writes them to an audit log in your Azure storage account. 稽核可協助您保持法規合規性、了解資料庫活動,以及取得可能指出商務考量或疑似安全違規的不一致和異常見解。Auditing can help you maintain regulatory compliance, understand database activity, and gain insight into discrepancies and anomalies that might indicate business concerns or suspected security violations.

資料加密Data encryption

SQL Database 透過提供加密來協助保護您的資料。SQL Database helps secure your data by providing encryption. 針對移動中的資料,其會使用傳輸層安全性For data in motion, it uses transport layer security. 針對待用資料,其會使用透明資料加密For data at rest, it uses transparent data encryption. 針對使用中的資料,會使用 Always EncryptedFor data in use, it uses Always Encrypted.

資料探索與分類Data discovery and classification

資料探索與分類提供內建於 Azure SQL Database 中的功能,可用來探索、分類、標記及保護資料庫中的敏感資料。Data discovery and classification provides capabilities built into Azure SQL Database for discovering, classifying, labeling, and protecting the sensitive data in your databases. 可供檢視資料庫分類狀態、追蹤對資料庫內敏感性資料的存取,並具有其他多方面的用途。It provides visibility into your database classification state, and tracks the access to sensitive data within the database and beyond its borders.

Azure Active Directory 整合和多重要素驗證Azure Active Directory integration and multi-factor authentication

SQL Database 可讓您透過 Azure Active Directory 整合,集中管理資料庫使用者和其他 Microsoft 服務的身分識別。SQL Database enables you to centrally manage identities of database user and other Microsoft services with Azure Active Directory integration. 這項功能簡化了權限管理並增強安全性。This capability simplifies permission management and enhances security. Azure Active Directory 支援多重要素驗證,以提高資料和應用程式安全性,同時支援單一登入程序。Azure Active Directory supports multi-factor authentication to increase data and application security, while supporting a single sign-in process.

容易使用Easy-to-use tools

SQL Database 讓應用程式的建置及維護更簡易也更有生產力。SQL Database makes building and maintaining applications easier and more productive. SQL Database 讓您將精力集中於拿手項目:建置絕佳的應用程式。SQL Database allows you to focus on what you do best: building great apps. 您可使用已經擁有的工具和技能,在 SQL Database 中進行管理和開發。You can manage and develop in SQL Database by using tools and skills you already have.

工具Tool 描述Description
Azure 入口網站The Azure portal Web 應用程式,用於管理所有 Azure 服務。A web-based application for managing all Azure services.
Azure Data StudioAzure Data Studio 可在 Windows、macOS 和 Linux 上執行的跨平台資料庫工具。A cross-platform database tool that runs on Windows, macOS, and Linux.
Transact-SQLSQL Server Management Studio 可下載的免費用戶端應用程式,其用於管理任何 SQL 基礎結構 (從 SQL Server 到 SQL Database)。A free, downloadable client application for managing any SQL infrastructure, from SQL Server to SQL Database.
Visual Studio 中的 SQL Server Data ToolsSQL Server Data Tools in Visual Studio 可供下載的免費用戶端應用程式,可用來開發 SQL Server 關聯式資料庫、Azure SQL Database 中的資料庫、Integration Services 套件、Analysis Services 資料模型及 Reporting Services 報告。A free, downloadable client application for developing SQL Server relational databases, databases in Azure SQL Database, Integration Services packages, Analysis Services data models, and Reporting Services reports.
Visual Studio Code (英文)Visual Studio Code 可下載的免費開放原始碼程式碼編輯器,其適用於 Windows、macOS 和 Linux。A free, downloadable, open-source code editor for Windows, macOS, and Linux. 其支援延伸模組,包括可供查詢 Microsoft SQL Server、Azure SQL Database 和 Azure Synapse Analytics (先前稱為 SQL 資料倉儲) 的 mssql 延伸模組It supports extensions, including the mssql extension for querying Microsoft SQL Server, Azure SQL Database, and Azure Azure Synapse Analytics (formerly SQL Data Warehouse).

SQL Database 支援在 macOS、Linux 和 Windows 上使用 Python、Java、Node.js、PHP、Ruby 和 .NET 建置應用程式。SQL Database supports building applications with Python, Java, Node.js, PHP, Ruby, and .NET on macOS, Linux, and Windows. SQL Database 支援與 SQL Server 相同的連線庫SQL Database supports the same connection libraries as SQL Server.

使用 Azure 入口網站來建立及管理 Azure SQL 資源Create and manage Azure SQL resources with the Azure portal

Azure 入口網站提供單一頁面,您可以在其中管理 所有的 Azure SQL 資源,包括 SQL 虛擬機器。The Azure portal provides a single page where you can manage all of your Azure SQL resources including your SQL virtual machines.

若要存取 [Azure SQL] 頁面,請從 Azure 入口網站功能表中選取 [Azure SQL],或在任何頁面中搜尋並選取 [Azure SQL]。To access the Azure SQL page, from the Azure portal menu, select Azure SQL or search for and select Azure SQL in any page.

注意

Azure SQL 可讓您以輕鬆快速的方式存取您在 Azure 入口網站中的所有 SQL 資源,包括 Azure SQL Database 中的單一和集區資料庫,以及其裝載所在的邏輯 SQL 伺服器、SQL 受控執行個體和 SQL 虛擬機器。Azure SQL provides a quick and easy way to access all of your SQL resources in the Azure portal, including single and pooled database in Azure SQL Database as well as the logical SQL server hosting them, SQL Managed Instances, and SQL virtual machines. Azure SQL 不是服務或資源,而是一系列的 SQL 相關服務。Azure SQL is not a service or resource, but rather a family of SQL-related services.

若要管理現有的資源,請在清單中選取所需的項目。To manage existing resources, select the desired item in the list. 若要建立新的 Azure SQL 資源,請選取 ****[+ 新增]。To create new Azure SQL resources, select + Add.

Azure SQL 入口網站頁面

選取 [+ 新增]**** 後,您可在任意檔案上選取 [顯示詳細資料]**** 以檢視關於不同選項的其他資訊。After selecting + Add, view additional information about the different options by selecting Show details on any tile.

資料庫圖格詳細資料

如需詳細資料,請參閱:For details, see:

SQL Database 常見問題集SQL Database frequently asked questions

我能否控制修補停機時間何時發生?Can I control when patching downtime occurs?

不可以。No. 如果您在應用程式中採用重試邏輯,修補的影響通常不明顯。The impact of patching is generally not noticeable if you employ retry logic in your app. 如需詳細資訊,請參閱規劃 Azure SQL Database 的 Azure 維護事件For more information, see Planning for Azure maintenance events in Azure SQL Database.

洽詢 SQL Server 工程團隊Engage with the SQL Server engineering team

後續步驟Next steps