將 Windows Server 檔案和資料夾備份至 AzureBack up Windows Server files and folders to Azure

本文說明如何使用 Azure 備份 服務和 MICROSOFT AZURE 復原服務 (MARS) 代理程式來備份 Windows 機器。This article explains how to back up Windows machines by using the Azure Backup service and the Microsoft Azure Recovery Services (MARS) agent. MARS 也稱為 Azure 備份代理程式。MARS is also known as the Azure Backup agent.

在本文中,您將學會如何:In this article, you'll learn how to:

  • 確認先決條件Verify the prerequisites
  • 建立備份原則和排程。Create a backup policy and schedule.
  • 執行隨選備份。Perform an on-demand backup.

在您開始使用 Intune 之前Before you start

建立備份原則Create a backup policy

備份原則會指定何時建立資料的快照集來建立復原點。The backup policy specifies when to take snapshots of the data to create recovery points. 它也會指定保留復原點的時間長度。It also specifies how long to keep recovery points. 您可以使用 MARS 代理程式來設定備份原則。You use the MARS agent to configure a backup policy.

Azure 備份不會自動將日光節約時間 (DST) 列入考慮。Azure Backup doesn't automatically take daylight saving time (DST) into account. 此預設值可能會在實際時間和排程的備份時間之間造成某些差異。This default could cause some discrepancy between the actual time and the scheduled backup time.

若要建立備份原則:To create a backup policy:

  1. 下載並註冊 MARS 代理程式之後,請開啟代理程式主控台。After you download and register the MARS agent, open the agent console. 您可以透過在您的電腦中搜尋 Microsoft Azure 備份 來找出備份。You can find it by searching your machine for Microsoft Azure Backup.

  2. 在 [ 動作] 底下,選取 [ 排程備份]。Under Actions, select Schedule Backup.

    Windows Server 備份排程

  3. 在 [排程備份] 嚮導中,選取 [開始 使用 > ]In the Schedule Backup Wizard, select Getting started > Next.

  4. 在 [ 選取要備份的專案] 底下,選取 [ 加入專案]。Under Select Items to Back up, select Add Items.

    新增要備份的專案

  5. 在 [ 選取專案 ] 方塊中,選取要備份的專案,然後選取 [確定]In the Select Items box, select items to back up, and then select OK.

    選取要備份的項目

  6. 在 [ 選取要備份的專案 ] 頁面上,選取 [下一步]On the Select Items to Back Up page, select Next.

  7. 在 [ 指定備份排程 ] 頁面上,指定每日或每週備份的時間。On the Specify Backup Schedule page, specify when to take daily or weekly backups. 然後選取 [下一步]。Then select Next.

    • 執行備份時,會建立復原點。A recovery point is created when a backup is taken.

    • 在您的環境中建立的復原點數目取決於您的備份排程。The number of recovery points created in your environment depends on your backup schedule.

    • 您每天最多可以排程三個每天備份。You can schedule up to three daily backups per day. 在下列範例中,會進行兩個每日備份,一個在午夜,另一個在下午6:00。In the following example, two daily backups occur, one at midnight and one at 6:00 PM.

      設定每日備份排程

    • 您也可以執行每週備份。You can run weekly backups too. 在下列範例中,會在每隔星期日和星期三的上午9:30 和上午1:00 執行備份。In the following example, backups are taken every alternate Sunday and Wednesday at 9:30 AM and 1:00 AM.

      設定每週備份排程

  8. 在 [ 選取保留原則 ] 頁面上,指定如何儲存資料的歷程記錄複本。On the Select Retention Policy page, specify how to store historical copies of your data. 然後選取 [下一步]。Then select Next.

    • 保留設定會指定要儲存的復原點,以及儲存它們的時間長度。Retention settings specify which recovery points to store and how long to store them.

    • 針對每日保留設定,您表示在指定的每日保留時間內,最新的復原點會保留指定的天數。For a daily retention setting, you indicate that at the time specified for the daily retention, the latest recovery point will be retained for the specified number of days. 或者,您可以指定每月的保留原則,以指出在每個月的30日建立的復原點應儲存12個月。Or you could specify a monthly retention policy to indicate that the recovery point created on the 30th of every month should be stored for 12 months.

    • 每日和每週復原點的保留期通常會與備份排程一致。Retention for daily and weekly recovery points usually coincides with the backup schedule. 因此,當排程觸發備份時,備份所建立的復原點會儲存在每日或每週保留原則所指定的持續時間內。So when the schedule triggers a backup, the recovery point that the backup creates is stored for the duration that the daily or weekly retention policy specifies.

    • 在下例中︰In the following example:

      • 午夜和下午6:00 的每日備份都會保留七天。Daily backups at midnight and 6:00 PM are kept for seven days.
      • 在星期六午夜和下午6:00 執行的備份會保留四周。Backups taken on a Saturday at midnight and 6:00 PM are kept for four weeks.
      • 在當月的最後一個星期六午夜和下午6:00 的備份會保留12個月。Backups taken on the last Saturday of the month at midnight and 6:00 PM are kept for 12 months.
      • 在3月最後一個星期六所進行的備份會保留10年。Backups taken on the last Saturday in March are kept for 10 years.

      保留原則的範例

  9. 在 [ 選擇初始備份類型 ] 頁面上,決定您要透過網路進行初始備份,或使用離線備份。On the Choose Initial Backup Type page, decide if you want to take the initial backup over the network or use offline backup. 若要透過網路進行初始備份,請選取 [自動透過網路 > ]To take the initial backup over the network, select Automatically over the network > Next.

    如需離線備份的詳細資訊,請參閱 使用 Azure 資料箱進行離線備份For more information about offline backup, see Use Azure Data Box for offline backup.

    選擇初始備份類型

  10. 在 [ 確認 ] 頁面上,檢查資訊,然後選取 [完成]On the Confirmation page, review the information, and then select Finish.

    確認備份類型

  11. 當精靈建立好備份排程時,請選取 [關閉] 。After the wizard finishes creating the backup schedule, select Close.

    查看備份排程進度

在安裝代理程式的每部電腦上建立原則。Create a policy on each machine where the agent is installed.

離線備份初始備份Do the initial backup offline

您可以透過網路自動執行初始備份,也可以離線備份。You can run an initial backup automatically over the network, or you can back up offline. 如果您有大量資料需要傳輸大量的網路頻寬,則初始備份的離線植入將會很有用。Offline seeding for an initial backup is useful if you have large amounts of data that will require a lot of network bandwidth to transfer.

若要進行離線傳輸:To do an offline transfer:

  1. 將備份資料寫入至暫存位置。Write the backup data to a staging location.

  2. 使用 AzureOfflineBackupDiskPrep 工具,將資料從暫存位置複製到一或多個 SATA 磁片。Use the AzureOfflineBackupDiskPrep tool to copy the data from the staging location to one or more SATA disks.

    此工具會建立 Azure 匯入作業。The tool creates an Azure Import job. 如需詳細資訊,請參閱 什麼是 Azure 匯入/匯出服務For more information, see What is the Azure Import/Export service.

  3. 將 SATA 磁片傳送至 Azure 資料中心。Send the SATA disks to an Azure datacenter.

    在資料中心,磁片資料會複製到 Azure 儲存體帳戶。At the datacenter, the disk data is copied to an Azure storage account. Azure 備份會將資料從儲存體帳戶複製到保存庫,並排程增量備份。Azure Backup copies the data from the storage account to the vault, and incremental backups are scheduled.

如需離線植入的詳細資訊,請參閱 使用 Azure 資料箱進行離線備份For more information about offline seeding, see Use Azure Data Box for offline backup.

啟用網路節流Enable network throttling

您可以藉由啟用網路節流,來控制 MARS 代理程式如何使用網路頻寬。You can control how the MARS agent uses network bandwidth by enabling network throttling. 如果您需要在工作時間內備份資料,但想要控制備份和還原活動所使用的頻寬量,則節流會很有説明。Throttling is helpful if you need to back up data during work hours but you want to control how much bandwidth the backup and restore activity uses.

Azure 備份中的網路節流會使用本機作業系統上的 服務品質 (QoS) Network throttling in Azure Backup uses Quality of Service (QoS) on the local operating system.

您可以在 Windows Server 2012 和更新版本,以及 Windows 8 和更新版本上,取得備份的網路節流。Network throttling for backups is available on Windows Server 2012 and later, and on Windows 8 and later. 作業系統應執行最新的 service pack。Operating systems should be running the latest service packs.

若要啟用網路節流:To enable network throttling:

  1. 在 MARS 代理程式中,選取 [ 變更屬性]。In the MARS agent, select Change Properties.

  2. 在 [節流] 索引標籤上,選取 [啟用備份作業的網際網路頻寬使用節流功能]。On the Throttling tab, select Enable internet bandwidth usage throttling for backup operations.

    設定備份作業的網路節流

  3. 指定工作時間與非時允許的頻寬。Specify the allowed bandwidth during work hours and nonwork hours. 頻寬值的開始時間為 512 Kbps,最高可達 1023 Mbps。Bandwidth values begin at 512 Kbps and go up to 1,023 Mbps. 然後選取 [確定] 。Then select OK.

執行隨選備份Run an on-demand backup

  1. 在 MARS 代理程式中,選取 [ 立即備份]。In the MARS agent, select Back Up Now.

    立即在 Windows Server 中備份

  2. 如果 MARS 代理程式版本是2.0.9169.0 或更新版本,您可以設定自訂保留日期。If the MARS agent version is 2.0.9169.0 or newer, then you can set a custom retention date. 在 [ 保留備份 到] 區段中,從行事曆選擇日期。In the Retain Backup Till section, choose a date from the calendar.

    使用行事曆自訂保留日期

  3. 在 [ 確認 ] 頁面上,檢查設定,然後選取 [ 備份]。On the Confirmation page, review the settings, and select Back Up.

  4. 選取 [關閉] 即可關閉精靈。Select Close to close the wizard. 如果您在備份完成之前關閉嚮導,則嚮導會繼續在背景執行。If you close the wizard before the backup finishes, the wizard continues to run in the background.

初始備份完成後,[ 工作已完成 ] 狀態就會出現在備份主控台中。After the initial backup finishes, the Job completed status appears in the Backup console.

設定隨選備份原則保留行為Set up on-demand backup policy retention behavior

注意

此資訊只適用于早于2.0.9169.0 的 MARS 代理程式版本。This information applies only to MARS agent versions that are older than 2.0.9169.0.

備份排程選項Backup-schedule option 資料保留期間Duration of data retention
Day 預設保留:相當於「每日備份的保留天數」。Default retention: Equivalent to the "retention in days for daily backups."

例外 狀況:如果針對長期保留設定的每日排程備份 (周、月或年) 失敗,則在失敗之後所觸發的隨選備份會被視為長期保留。Exception: If a daily scheduled backup that's set for long-term retention (weeks, months, or years) fails, an on-demand backup that's triggered right after the failure is considered for long-term retention. 否則,會將下一個排定的備份視為長期保留。Otherwise, the next scheduled backup is considered for long-term retention.

範例案例:星期四上午8:00 的排程備份失敗。Example scenario: The scheduled backup on Thursday at 8:00 AM failed. 這份備份被視為每週、每月或每年保留。This backup was to be considered for weekly, monthly, or yearly retention. 因此,第一個隨選備份會在下星期五上午8:00 執行之前的排程備份時,自動標記為每週、每月或每年保留。So the first on-demand backup triggered before the next scheduled backup on Friday at 8:00 AM is automatically tagged for weekly, monthly, or yearly retention. 這種備份替代于星期四上午8:00 的備份。This backup substitutes for the Thursday 8:00 AM backup.
Week 預設保留期:一天。Default retention: One day. 針對具有每週備份原則的資料來源所執行的隨選備份,會在下一天刪除。On-demand backups that are taken for a data source that has a weekly backup policy are deleted the next day. 即使它們是資料來源的最新備份,也會被刪除。They're deleted even if they're the most recent backups for the data source.

例外 狀況:如果針對長期保留設定的每週排程備份 (周、月或年) 失敗,則在失敗後立即觸發的隨選備份會被視為長期保留。Exception: If a weekly scheduled backup that's set for long-term retention (weeks, months, or years) fails, an on-demand backup that's triggered right after the failure is considered for long-term retention. 否則,會將下一個排定的備份視為長期保留。Otherwise, the next scheduled backup is considered for long-term retention.

範例案例:星期四上午8:00 的排程備份失敗。Example scenario: The scheduled backup on Thursday at 8:00 AM failed. 這是要考慮每月或每年保留的備份。This backup was to be considered for monthly or yearly retention. 因此,在下一次排程備份于上午8:00 點之前觸發的第一個隨選備份會自動標記為每月或每年保留。So the first on-demand backup that's triggered before the next scheduled backup on Thursday at 8:00 AM is automatically tagged for monthly or yearly retention. 這種備份替代于星期四上午8:00 的備份。This backup substitutes for the Thursday 8:00 AM backup.

如需詳細資訊,請參閱 建立備份原則For more information, see Create a backup policy.

後續步驟Next steps