適用于複雜企業的治理指南:改善成本管理專業領域Governance guide for complex enterprises: Improve the Cost Management discipline

本文藉由將成本控制新增至 (MVP) 治理的最小可行產品,來提升敘述的進展。This article advances the narrative by adding cost controls to the minimum viable product (MVP) governance.

前進敘述Advancing the narrative

採用規模已超越治理 MVP 中所定義的承受度指標。Adoption has grown beyond the tolerance indicator defined in the governance MVP. 增加的消費現在可證明雲端治理小組的時間,以監視和控制消費模式。The increases in spending now justifies an investment of time from the cloud governance team to monitor and control spending patterns.

做為全新創新技術的先驅,不再只是將 IT 視為成本中心。As a clear driver of innovation, IT is no longer seen primarily as a cost center. 隨著 IT 組織提供更多價值,CIO 和 CFO 也同意將該公司在公司中所扮演的角色轉移到該時間的權利。As the IT organization delivers more value, the CIO and CFO agree that the time is right to shift the role IT plays in the company. 在其他變更的情況下,CFO 想要針對其中一個業務單位的加拿大分支,測試雲端會計的直接付費方法。Among other changes, the CFO wants to test a direct pay approach to cloud accounting for the Canadian branch of one of the business units. 其中一個已淘汰的資料中心是以獨佔方式裝載該營業單位加拿大營運的資產。One of the two retired datacenters was exclusively hosted assets for that business unit's Canadian operations. 在此模型中,業務單位的加拿大子公司將會直接向您收取與託管資產相關的營運費用。In this model, the business unit's Canadian subsidiary will be billed directly for the operating expenses related to the hosted assets. 此模型可讓您更輕鬆地專注于管理他人的支出,以及更多創造價值的資訊。This model allows IT to focus less on managing someone else's spending and more on creating value. 開始進行此轉換之前,必須先備妥成本管理工具。Before this transition can begin cost management tooling needs to be in place.

處於目前狀態的變更Changes in the current state

在此敘述的上一個階段,IT 小組已主動將含有受保護資料的生產工作負載移到 Azure。In the previous phase of this narrative, the IT team was actively moving production workloads with protected data into Azure.

從那時起,某些將會影響治理的事項已經改變:Since then, some things have changed that will affect governance:

  • 已從這兩個標記為淘汰的資料中心移除了 5,000 個資產。5,000 assets have been removed from the two datacenters flagged for retirement. 採購和 IT 安全性會立即取消佈建剩餘的實體資產。Procurement and IT security are now deprovisioning the remaining physical assets.
  • 應用程式開發小組已實行 CI/CD 管線,以部署一些雲端原生應用程式,大幅影響客戶體驗。The application development teams have implemented CI/CD pipelines to deploy some cloud-native applications, significantly affecting customer experiences.
  • BI 小組已建立彙總、鑑藏、深入解析及預測流程,以便為企業營運帶來實質利益。The BI team has created aggregation, curation, insight, and prediction processes driving tangible benefits for business operations. 那些預測現在賦予了極富創意的新產品和服務。Those predictions are now empowering creative new products and services.

以累加方式改進未來的狀態Incrementally improve the future state

成本監視和報告應新增到雲端解決方案。Cost monitoring and reporting should be added to the cloud solution. 報告應該將直接操作費用系結至耗用雲端成本的功能。Reporting should tie direct operating expenses to the functions that are consuming the cloud costs. 其他報告應該可讓 IT 監視支出,並提供關於成本管理的技術指引。Additional reporting should allow IT to monitor spending and provide technical guidance on cost management. 針對加拿大分公司,該部門將直接支付費用。For the Canadian branch, the department will be billed directly.

風險變更Changes in risk

預算控制: 有一項固有的風險,自助功能會導致新的平臺產生過度且非預期的成本。Budget control: There is an inherent risk that self-service capabilities will result in excessive and unexpected costs on the new platform. 監視成本及降低持續成本風險的治理流程必須就緒,才能確保會持續與規劃的預算保持一致。Governance processes for monitoring costs and mitigating ongoing cost risks must be in place to ensure continued alignment with the planned budget.

此業務風險可能會延伸出少數技術風險:This business risk can be expanded into a few technical risks:

  • 有一個關於實際成本的風險是會超出方案。There is a risk of actual costs exceeding the plan.
  • 業務狀況變更。Business conditions change. 發生變更時,將出現業務功能必須耗用比預期還多之雲端服務的情況,因而導致支出異常狀況。When they do, there will be cases when a business function needs to consume more cloud services than expected, leading to spending anomalies. 有一項風險會將這些額外成本視為超額部分,而不是對方案所做的調整。There is a risk that these additional costs will be considered overages as opposed to a required adjustment to the plan. 如果成功,加拿大的實驗應可協助補救此風險。If successful, the Canadian experiment should help remediate this risk.
  • 過度佈建系統,因而導致超額支出也是一個風險。There is a risk of systems being overprovisioned, resulting in excess spending.

原則語句的變更Changes to the policy statements

下列原則變更將有助於補救新的風險和指南的實施。The following changes to policy will help remediate the new risks and guide implementation.

  • 雲端治理小組應以每週為基礎來監視所有雲端成本。All cloud costs should be monitored against plan on a weekly basis by the cloud governance team. 雲端成本與方案之間的偏差報告,每月都要與 IT 主管和財務部門分享。Reporting on deviations between cloud costs and plan is to be shared with IT leadership and finance monthly. 所有雲端成本和方案更新,每月都應該與 IT 主管和財務部門一起檢閱。All cloud costs and plan updates should be reviewed with IT leadership and finance monthly.
  • 所有成本必須針對權責目的配置給業務功能。All costs must be allocated to a business function for accountability purposes.
  • 應該針對最佳化商機持續監視雲端資產。Cloud assets should be continually monitored for optimization opportunities.
  • 雲端治理工具必須將資產調整大小選項限制在已核准的設定清單中。Cloud governance tooling must limit asset sizing options to an approved list of configurations. 此工具必須確保所有資產都可探索且可透過成本監視解決方案來追蹤。The tooling must ensure that all assets are discoverable and tracked by the cost monitoring solution.
  • 在部署規劃期間,應該記載與裝載生產工作負載相關聯的任何必要雲端資源。During deployment planning, any required cloud resources associated with the hosting of production workloads should be documented. 這份檔可協助您精簡預算,並準備額外的自動化工具,以避免使用較昂貴的選項。This documentation will help refine budgets and prepare additional automation tools to prevent the use of more expensive options. 在此過程中,應考慮雲端提供者所提供的不同折扣工具,例如 Azure 保留的 VM 實例或授權成本降低。During this process consideration should be given to different discounting tools offered by the cloud provider, such as Azure Reserved VM Instances or license cost reductions.
  • 所有應用程式擁有者都必須參加將工作負載最佳化的實務訓練,以更好的方式來控制雲端成本。All application owners are required to attend trained on practices for optimizing workloads to better control cloud costs.

最佳做法的累加式改進Incremental improvement of best practices

本文的這一節將改進治理 MVP 設計,以包含新的 Azure 原則和 Azure 成本管理 + 計費的實施。This section of the article will improve the governance MVP design to include new Azure policies and an implementation of Azure Cost Management + Billing. 這兩個設計變更將共同實現新的公司原則聲明。Together, these two design changes will fulfill the new corporate policy statements.

  1. 在 Azure EA 入口網站中進行變更,以為加拿大部署的部門系統管理員收費。Make changes in the Azure EA portal to bill the Department Administrator for the Canadian deployment.
  2. 執行 Azure 成本管理 + 計費。Implement Azure Cost Management + Billing.
    1. 建立正確層級的存取範圍,以便與訂用帳戶模式和資源群組模式保持一致。Establish the right level of access scope to align with the subscription pattern and resource grouping pattern. 假設您與先前文章中定義的治理 MVP 保持一致,這會需要在高階報告上執行的雲端治理小組的 註冊帳戶範圍 存取權。Assuming alignment with the governance MVP defined in prior articles, this would require enrollment account scope access for the cloud governance team executing on high-level reporting. 治理以外的其他小組(如加拿大採購團隊)將需要 資源群組範圍 的存取權。Additional teams outside of governance, like the Canadian procurement team, will require resource group scope access.
    2. 在 Azure 成本管理 + 計費中建立預算。Establish a budget in Azure Cost Management + Billing.
    3. 檢閱初始建議並採取動作。Review and act on initial recommendations. 建立週期性程式以支援報告程式。Create a recurring process to support the reporting process.
    4. 設定及執行 Azure 成本管理 + 帳單報告(初始和週期性)。Configure and execute Azure Cost Management + Billing reporting, both initial and recurring.
  3. 更新 Azure 原則。Update Azure Policy.
    1. 稽核標記、管理群組、訂用帳戶及資源群組值,以識別任何偏差。Audit tagging, management group, subscription, and resource group values to identify any deviation.
    2. 建立 SKU 大小選項,以限制對於部署規劃文件中列出之 SKU 的部署。Establish SKU size options to limit deployments to SKUs listed in deployment planning documentation.

結論Conclusion

將上述的流程和變更新增至治理 MVP,有助於補救與成本治理相關的許多風險。Adding the above processes and changes to the governance MVP helps remediate many of the risks associated with cost governance. 它們會建立控制成本所需的可見度、責任歸屬和最佳化。Together, they create the visibility, accountability, and optimization needed to control costs.

下一步Next steps

隨著雲端採用成長並提供額外的商業價值,風險和雲端治理需求也會改變。As cloud adoption grows and delivers additional business value, risks and cloud governance needs will also change. 針對此虛構公司,下一個步驟是使用此治理投資來管理多個雲端。For this fictional company, the next step is using this governance investment to manage multiple clouds.