雲端管理的業務承諾Business commitment in cloud management

定義 商務承諾 用量是平衡優先順序的練習。Defining business commitment is an exercise in balancing priorities. 目標是要以可接受的營運成本來調整適當層級的作業管理。The objective is to align the proper level of operational management at an acceptable operating cost. 找出餘額需要一些資料點和計算,我們已在本文中概述。Finding that balance requires a few data points and calculations, which we've outlined in this article.


透過技術復原或其他服務等級協定 (SLA) 影響,對商務穩定性的承諾是業務理由決策。Commitments to business stability, via technical resiliency or other service-level agreement (SLA) impacts, are a business justification decision. 針對環境中大部分的工作負載,雲端管理的基準層級已足夠。For most workloads in an environment, a baseline level of cloud management is sufficient. 針對其他人,由於任何業務中斷的潛在衝擊,因此可輕鬆地調整2x 至4x 的成本。For others, a 2x to 4x cost increase is easily justified because of the potential impact of any business interruptions.

本系列的前幾篇文章可協助您瞭解各種工作負載中斷的分類和影響。The previous articles in this series can help you understand the classification and impact of interruptions to various workloads. 本文可協助您計算退貨。This article helps you calculate the returns. 如上圖所示,每個層級的雲端管理都有變化點,其中的成本可能會加快復原的速度。As illustrated in the preceding image, each level of cloud management has inflection points where cost can rise faster than increases in resiliency. 這些變化點將會提示詳細的商務決策和業務承諾。Those inflection points will prompt detailed business decisions and business commitments.

判斷企業的適當承諾Determine a proper commitment with the business

針對組合中的每個工作負載,雲端作業小組和雲端策略小組應符合雲端營運小組直接提供的管理層級。For each workload in the portfolio, the cloud operations team and cloud strategy team should align on the level of management that's provided directly by the cloud operations team.

當您建立對企業的承諾時,有幾個重要層面要配合:As you're establishing a commitment with the business, there are a few key aspects to align:

  • IT 作業必要條件。IT operations prerequisites.
  • 管理責任。Management responsibility.
  • 雲端租用。Cloud tenancy.
  • 軟成本因素。Soft-cost factors.
  • 避免遺失 ROI。Loss avoidance ROI.
  • 管理層級的驗證。Validation of management level.

為了協助您進行決策,本文的其餘部分將更詳細地說明每個層面。To aid in your decision process, the remainder of this article describes each of these aspects in greater detail.

IT 營運必要條件IT operations prerequisites

Azure 管理指南概述 azure 中可用的管理工具。The Azure Management Guide outlines the management tools that are available in Azure. 在達到企業承諾之前,它應該決定可接受的標準層級管理基準,以套用至所有受控工作負載。Before reaching a commitment with the business, IT should determine an acceptable standard-level management baseline to be applied to all managed workloads. 然後,它會根據 CPU 核心計數、磁碟空間和其他資產相關變數,計算 IT 組合中每個受管理工作負載的標準管理成本。IT would then calculate a standard management cost for each of the managed workloads in the IT portfolio, based on counts of CPU cores, disk space, and other asset-related variables. 它也會根據架構來估計每個工作負載的複合 SLA。IT would also estimate a composite SLA for each workload, based on the architecture.


IT 營運小組通常會使用初始複合 SLA 的預設最少99.9% 執行時間。IT operations teams often use a default minimum of 99.9 percent uptime for the initial composite SLA. 他們也可以選擇根據平均工作負載來正規化管理成本,特別是針對記錄和儲存體需求最低的解決方案。They might also choose to normalize management costs based on the average workload, especially for solutions with minimal logging and storage needs. 將一些中型重要性工作負載的成本平均,可提供初始交談的起點。Averaging the costs of a few medium criticality workloads can provide a starting point for initial conversations.


如果您使用 operations management 活頁簿 來規劃雲端管理,則應該更新作業管理欄位以反映這些必要條件。If you're using the operations management workbook to plan for cloud management, the operations management fields should be updated to reflect these prerequisites. 這些欄位包括 承諾用量層級複合 SLA每月費用Those fields include Commitment level, Composite SLA, and Monthly cost. 每月費用應以每月為基礎來代表新增的操作管理工具的成本。Monthly cost should represent the cost of the added operational management tools on a monthly basis.

作業管理基準可作為在下列各節中要驗證的初始起點。The operations management baseline serves as an initial starting point to be validated in each of the following sections.

管理責任Management responsibility

在傳統的內部部署環境中,通常會假設管理環境的成本是 IT 營運所擁有的 sunk 成本。In a traditional on-premises environment, the cost of managing the environment is commonly assumed to be a sunk cost that's owned by IT operations. 在雲端中,管理是具有直接預算影響的有目的決策。In the cloud, management is a purposeful decision with direct budgetary impact. 每個管理函式的成本可以更直接地以每個部署至雲端的工作負載為屬性。The costs of each management function can be more directly attributed to each workload that's deployed to the cloud. 這種方法可提供更大的控制,但它確實會建立雲端作業小組和雲端策略小組的需求,以先認可有關責任的合約。This approach allows for greater control, but it does create a requirement for cloud operations teams and cloud strategy teams to first commit to an agreement about responsibilities.

組織也可以選擇將 一些正在進行的管理功能外包給服務提供者Organizations might also choose to outsource some of their ongoing management functions to a service provider. 這些服務提供者可以使用 Azure Lighthouse ,讓組織更精確地控制對其資源的存取權,同時更清楚地瞭解服務提供者所執行的動作。These service providers can use Azure Lighthouse to give organizations more precise control in granting access to their resources, along with greater visibility into the actions performed by the service providers.

  • 委派的責任: 因為不需要集中管理和採用營運管理的額外負荷,所以許多組織的 IT 作業都會考慮採用新的方法。Delegated responsibility: Because there's no need to centralize and assume operational management overhead, IT operations for many organizations are considering new approaches. 其中一個常見的方法稱為 委派的責任One common approach is referred to as delegated responsibility. 在卓越模型的雲端中心中,平臺作業和平臺自動化提供自助管理工具,可供業務導向的營運小組使用,與集中式 IT 營運小組無關。In a cloud center of excellence model, platform operations and platform automation provide self-service management tools that can be used by business-led operations teams, independent of a centralized IT operations team. 這種方法可讓商務專案關係人完全掌控管理相關的預算。This approach gives business stakeholders complete control over management-related budgets. 它也可讓雲端的卓越 (CCoE) 小組,以確保已正確實行最少的一組護欄。It also allows the cloud center of excellence (CCoE) team to ensure that a minimum set of guardrails has been properly implemented. 在此模型中,它會作為訊息代理程式和指南,以協助企業做出明智的決策。In this model, IT acts as a broker and a guide to help the business make wise decisions. 商務營運監督相依工作負載的日常作業。Business operations oversee day to day operations of dependent workloads.

  • 集中式責任: 合規性需求、技術複雜度和某些共用服務模型可能需要 中央 IT 小組 模型。Centralized responsibility: Compliance requirements, technical complexity, and some shared service models might require a Central IT team model. 在此模型中,它會繼續執行其作業管理責任。In this model, IT continues to exercise its operations management responsibilities. 環境設計、管理控制項和治理工具可能是集中管理和控制的,這會限制商務專案關係人的角色以進行管理承諾。Environmental design, management controls, and governance tooling might be centrally managed and controlled, which restricts the role of business stakeholders in making management commitments. 但是,對雲端方法的成本和架構的可見度,讓集中式 IT 能夠更輕鬆地傳達每個工作負載的成本和管理層級。But the visibility into the cost and architecture of cloud approaches makes it much easier for centralized IT to communicate the cost and level of management for each workload.

  • 混合模型: 分類是管理責任 混合模型 的核心。Mixed model: Classification is at the heart of a mixed model of management responsibilities. 從內部部署到雲端的轉型公司,可能需要一段時間的內部部署優先作業模型。Companies that are in the midst of a transformation from on-premises to cloud might require an on-premises-first operating model for a while. 具有嚴格合規性需求,或取決於 IT 外包廠商之長期合約的公司,可能需要集中式作業模型。Companies with strict compliance requirements, or that depend on long-term contracts with IT outsourcing vendors, might require a centralized operating model.

    無論其條件約束為何,現今的企業都必須創新。Regardless of their constraints, today's businesses must innovate. 當快速創新必須在中央 IT、集中式責任模型的過程中發展時,混合模型方法可能會提供平衡。When rapid innovation must flourish, in the midst of a central-IT, centralized-responsibility model, a mixed-model approach might provide balance. 在此方法中,中央 IT 小組會針對所有任務關鍵性或包含敏感性資訊的工作負載,提供集中的作業模型。In this approach, a central IT team provides a centralized operating model for all workloads that are mission-critical or contain sensitive information. 同時,所有其他工作負載分類都可能放在專為委派的責任而設計的雲端環境中。At the same time, all other workload classifications might be placed in a cloud environment that's designed for delegated responsibilities. 集中式責任方法可作為一般作業模型。The centralized responsibility approach serves as the general operating model. 然後,企業可根據其所需的支援和敏感度層級,彈性地採用特製化作業模型。The business then has flexibility to adopt a specialized operating model, based on its required level of support and sensitivity.

第一個步驟是承諾責任方法,然後將下列承諾成形。The first step is committing to a responsibility approach, which then shapes the following commitments.

哪些組織會負責此工作負載的日常作業管理?Which organization will be responsible for day-to-day operations management for this workload?

雲端租使用者Cloud tenancy

對於大部分的企業而言,當所有資產都位於單一租使用者時,管理就更容易。For most businesses, management is easier when all assets reside in a single tenant. 不過,某些組織可能需要維護多個租使用者。However, some organizations might need to maintain multiple tenants. 若要瞭解為何企業可能需要多租使用者 Azure 環境,請參閱 使用 Azure Lighthouse 集中化管理作業To learn why a business might require a multitenant Azure environment, see Centralize management operations with Azure Lighthouse.

此工作負載是否會與所有其他工作負載一起位於單一 Azure 租使用者?Will this workload reside in a single Azure tenant, alongside all other workloads?

軟成本因素Soft-cost factors

下一節將概述與管理程式和工具層級相關聯之比較傳回的方法。The next section outlines an approach to comparative returns that are associated with levels of management processes and tooling. 在該區段結束時,每個分析的工作負載都會測量管理成本相對於業務中斷的預測影響。At the end of that section, each analyzed workload measures the cost of management relative to the forecast impact of business disruptions. 這種方法提供了相當簡單的方法,來瞭解是否有提供更豐富管理方法的投資。That approach provides a relatively easy way to understand whether an investment in richer management approaches is warranted.

在您執行數位之前,請務必查看軟成本因素。Before you run the numbers, it's important to look at the soft-cost factors. 軟成本因素會產生報酬率,但這種情況很難透過直接的節省成本來測量,而這會在獲利和損失陳述中看到。Soft-cost factors produce a return, but that return is difficult to measure through direct hard-cost savings that would be visible in a profit-and-loss statement. 軟成本因素很重要,因為它們可能表示需要投資比且審慎更高的管理層級。Soft-cost factors are important because they can indicate a need to invest in a higher level of management than is fiscally prudent.

軟成本因素的一些範例包括:A few examples of soft-cost factors would include:

  • 面板或 CEO 的每日工作負載使用量。Daily workload usage by the board or CEO.
  • 由最高 x% 的客戶所使用的工作負載,可在其他地方產生更高的收入衝擊。Workload usage by the top x% of customers that leads to a greater revenue impact elsewhere.
  • 對員工滿意度的影響。Impact on employee satisfaction.

進行承諾所需的下一個資料點是軟成本因素的清單。The next data point that's required to make a commitment is a list of soft-cost factors. 這些因素不需要在這個階段記錄,但商務專案關係人應留意這些因素的重要性,以及它們在下列計算方面的排除。These factors don't need to be documented at this stage, but business stakeholders should be aware of the importance of these factors and their exclusion from the following calculations.

計算避免損失的 ROICalculate loss avoidance ROI

當計算作業管理成本的相對報酬時,負責雲端作業的 IT 小組應完成先前提及的必要條件,並假設所有工作負載都有最低層級的管理。When it's calculating the relative return on operations management costs, the IT team that's responsible for cloud operations should complete the previously mentioned prerequisites and assume a minimum level of management for all workloads.

下一項承諾是由與基準管理的供應專案相關聯的成本企業所接受。The next commitment to be made is an acceptance by the business of the costs associated with the baseline-managed offering.

企業是否同意投資基準供應專案以符合雲端營運的最小標準?Does the business agree to invest in the baseline offering to meet minimum standards of cloud operations?

如果商務不同意此層級的管理,則必須設計解決方案以允許企業繼續,而不會影響其他工作負載的雲端作業。If the business does not agree to that level of management, a solution must be devised that allows the business to proceed, without materially affecting the cloud operations of other workloads.

如果企業想要比標準管理層級更多,本節的其餘部分將有助於驗證該投資,而相關聯的退貨 (以避免) 的損失形式呈現。If the business wants more than the standard management level, the remainder of this section will help validate that investment and the associated returns (in the form of loss avoidance).

提高的管理層級:設計原則和服務類別目錄Increased levels of management: Design principles and service catalog

針對受控解決方案,除了管理基準之外,還可以套用數個設計原則和範本方案。For managed solutions, several design principles and template solutions can be applied in addition to the management baseline. 可靠性和復原的每個設計原則都會增加工作負載的營運成本。Each of the design principles for reliability and resiliency adds operating cost to the workload. 為了讓 IT 和企業同意這些額外的承諾,請務必瞭解可能會因投資增加而避免的損失。For IT and the business to agree on these additional commitments, it's important to understand potential losses that can be avoided through that increased investment.

下列計算將逐步解說公式,以協助您進一步瞭解遺失和增加管理投資之間的差異。The following calculations will walk through formulas to help you better understand the differences between losses and increased management investments. 如需計算增加管理成本的指引,請參閱 工作負載自動化平臺自動化For guidance on calculating the cost of increased management, see Workload automation and Platform automation.


如果您使用 operations management 活頁簿 來規劃雲端管理,請更新作業管理欄位,以反映每個交談。If you're using the operations management workbook to plan for cloud management, update the operations management fields to reflect to reflect each conversation. 這些欄位包括 承諾用量層級複合 SLA每月費用Those fields include Commitment level, Composite SLA, and Monthly cost. 每月費用應代表新增的作業管理工具的每月費用。Monthly cost should represent the monthly cost of the added operational management tools. 更新之後,欄位將會更新 ROI 公式和下列每個欄位。After they're updated, the fields will update the ROI formulas and each of the following fields.

預估每年的中斷 (小時) Estimate outage (hours per year)

複合 SLA 是以工作負載中每個資產的部署為基礎的服務等級協定。Composite SLA is the service-level agreement that's based on the deployment of each asset in the workload. 該欄位會驅動) 的活頁簿中標示的 預估中斷 (Est.OutageThat field drives estimated outage (labeled Est.Outage in the workbook). 若要在不使用活頁簿的情況下計算每年的預估停機時間,請套用下列公式:To calculate estimated outage in hours per year without using the workbook, apply the following formula:

預估中斷 = (1-複合 SLA 百分比) × 年中的小時數Estimated outage = (1 - composite SLA percentage) × number of hours in a year

活頁簿會使用 每年8760小時 的預設值。The workbook uses the default value of 8,760 hours per year.

標準損失影響Standard loss impact

在活頁簿中標示 (標準損失影響 Standard Impact) 預測任何中斷的財務影響,並假設 預估的中斷 預測可證明正確。Standard loss impact (labeled Standard Impact in the workbook) forecasts the financial impact of any outage, assuming that the estimated outage prediction proves accurate. 若要在不使用活頁簿的情況下計算此預測,請套用下列公式:To calculate this forecast without using the workbook, apply the following formula:

標準影響 = 預估停機時間是三個9的執行時間 × 時間值影響Standard impact = estimated outage @ three 9s of uptime × time-value impact

如果商務專案關係人選擇投資更高層級的管理,這就是成本的基準。This serves as a baseline for cost, should the business stakeholders choose to invest in a higher level of management.

複合-SLA 影響Composite-SLA impact

(在活頁簿中標示的 複合 SLA 影響 Commitment level impact ,) 根據執行時間 SLA 的變更,提供更新的會計影響。Composite-SLA impact (labeled Commitment level impact in the workbook) provides updated fiscal impact, based on the changes to the uptime SLA. 這項計算可讓您比較這兩個選項的預期財務影響。This calculation allows you to compare the projected financial impact of both options. 若要計算沒有試算表的預測影響,請套用下列公式:To calculate this forecast impact without the spreadsheet, apply the following formula:

複合-SLA 影響 = 預估中斷 × 時間值影響Composite-SLA impact = estimated outage × time-value impact

此值代表變更的承諾用量層級和新的複合 SLA 可避免的可能損失。The value represents the potential losses to be avoided by the changed commitment level and new composite SLA.

比較基礎Comparison basis

比較基礎 會評估標準影響和複合 SLA 的影響,以判斷哪一個最適合傳回的資料行。Comparison basis evaluates standard impact and composite SLA impact to determine which is most appropriate in the return column.

避免在遺失時返回Return on loss avoidance

如果管理工作負載的成本超過可能的損失,則可能無法豐富雲端管理的建議投資。If the cost of managing a workload exceeds the potential losses, the proposed investment in cloud management might not be fruitful. 若要比較 遺失規避 的結果,請參閱標示為 [年度 ROI] 的資料行 * * * * *。To compare the Return on Loss Avoidance, see the column labeled *Annual ROI*****. 若要自行計算此資料行,請使用下列公式:To calculate this column on your own, use the following formula:

因遺失而無法避免 = (比較- (每月成本 × 12) ) ÷ (每月成本 × 12) )Return on loss avoidance = (comparison basis - (monthly cost × 12) ) ÷ (monthly cost × 12) )

除非有其他需要考慮的軟成本因素,所以這項比較可以快速地建議雲端作業、復原能力、可靠性或其他領域是否應有更深入的投資。Unless there are other soft-cost factors to consider, this comparison can quickly suggest whether there should be a deeper investment in cloud operations, resiliency, reliability, or other areas.

驗證承諾用量Validate the commitment

在此程式中,已做出承諾:集中式或委派的責任、Azure 租使用者,以及承諾用量層級。By this point in the process, commitments have been made: centralized or delegated responsibility, Azure tenancy, and level of commitment. 每個承諾都應經過驗證並記載,以確保雲端營運小組、雲端策略小組和商務專案關係人都能以這項承諾來管理工作負載。Each commitment should be validated and documented to ensure that the cloud operations team, the cloud strategy team, and the business stakeholders are aligned on this commitment to manage the workload.

下一步Next steps

做出承諾之後,負責的作業小組就可以開始設定有問題的工作負載。After the commitments are made, the responsible operations teams can begin configuring the workload in question. 若要開始使用,請評估各種 清查和可見度的方法。To get started, evaluate various approaches to inventory and visibility.