雲端管理中的平臺作業Platform operations in cloud management

橫跨 清查和可見度營運合規性保護和 復原的雲端管理基準,可能會為 IT 組合中的大部分工作負載提供足夠的雲端管理層級。A cloud management baseline that spans inventory and visibility, operational compliance, and protection and recovery might provide a sufficient level of cloud management for most workloads in the IT portfolio. 不過,該基準很少可支援完整的組合。However, that baseline is seldom enough to support the full portfolio. 本文是以雲端管理中最常見的下一個步驟,也就是組合作業。This article builds on the most common next step in cloud management, portfolio operations.

快速研究 IT 組合中的資產會在支援的工作負載之間強調模式。A quick study of the assets in the IT portfolio highlights patterns across the workloads that are being supported. 在這些工作負載中,將會有通用平臺。Within those workloads, there will be common platforms. 根據公司內過去的技術決策,這些平臺可能會有很大的差異。Depending on the past technical decisions within the company, those platforms could vary widely.

對於某些組織來說,SQL Server、Oracle 或其他開放原始碼資料平臺會有很大的相依性。For some organizations, there will be a heavy dependence on SQL Server, Oracle, or other open-source data platforms. 在其他組織中,共通性可能是虛擬機器) 或容器 (Vm 的裝載平臺。In other organizations, the commonalities might be rooted in the hosting platforms for virtual machines (VMs) or containers. 但是其他人可能會對應用程式或企業資源規劃有共同的相依性 (ERP) 系統(例如 SAP 或 Oracle)。Still others might have a common dependency on applications or enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems such as SAP or Oracle.

藉由瞭解這些共通性,雲端管理小組可以針對這些優先的平臺,特殊化更高層級的支援。By understanding these commonalities, the cloud management team can specialize in higher levels of support for those prioritized platforms.

建立服務類別目錄Establish a service catalog

平臺作業的目標是要建立可靠且可重複的解決方案,雲端採用小組可以用它來提供平臺,以提供更高層級的商務承諾。The objective of platform operations is to create reliable and repeatable solutions, which the cloud adoption team can use to deliver a platform that provides a higher level of business commitment. 這項承諾可減少停機的可能性或頻率,進而改善可靠性。That commitment could decrease the likelihood or frequency of downtime, which improves reliability. 如果系統故障,承諾量也有助於減少資料遺失或修復的時間。In the event of a system failure, the commitment could also help decrease the amount of data loss or time to recovery. 這類承諾用量通常包括持續進行的集中式作業,以支援平臺。Such a commitment often includes ongoing, centralized operations to support the platform.

當雲端管理小組建立與特定平臺相關的更高程度的營運管理和特製化時,這些平臺會新增至不斷成長的服務類別目錄。As the cloud management team establishes higher degrees of operational management and specialization related to specific platforms, those platforms are added to a growing service catalog. 服務類別目錄可在特定設定中提供自助部署的平臺,以符合進行中的平臺作業。The service catalog provides self-service deployment of platforms in a specific configuration, which adheres to ongoing platform operations. 在商務一致的對話期間,雲端管理和雲端策略小組可以將服務類別目錄解決方案建議為企業,以在控制、可重複的程式中改善可靠性、執行時間和復原承諾。During the business-alignment conversation, cloud management and cloud strategy teams can propose service catalog solutions as a way for the business to improve reliability, uptime, and recovery commitments in a controlled, repeatable process.

針對參考,某些組織會將早期服務類別目錄稱為 核准清單For reference, some organizations refer to an early-stage service catalog as an approved list. 主要的差異在於,服務類別目錄包含從雲端卓越的雲端中心進行中的營運承諾 (CCoE) 。The primary difference is that a service catalog comes with ongoing operational commitments from the cloud center of excellence (CCoE). 核准的清單很類似,因為它會提供小組可在雲端中使用的 preapproved 解決方案清單。An approved list is similar, in that it provides a preapproved list of solutions that a team can use in the cloud. 不過,在核准的清單上,通常不會有與應用程式相關聯的操作權益。However, typically there isn't an operational benefit associated with applications on an approved list.

與集中式 IT 和 CCoE 之間的爭論很類似,差別在於其中一個優先順序。Much like the debate between centralized IT and CCoE, the difference is one of priorities. 服務類別目錄採用良好的意圖,但提供可加速創新的營運、治理和安全性護欄。A service catalog assumes good intent but provides operational, governance, and security guardrails that accelerate innovation. 核准清單會阻礙創新,直到可以針對解決方案傳遞作業、合規性和安全性管制為止。An approved list hinders innovation until operations, compliance, and security gates can be passed for a solution. 這兩種解決方案都是可行的,但需要公司進行微妙的優先順序決策,以投資創新或合規性。Both solutions are viable, but they require the company to make subtle prioritization decisions to invest more in innovation or compliance.

建立服務類別目錄Build the service catalog

在定址接收器中傳遞服務類別目錄時,雲端管理幾乎不會成功。Cloud management is seldom successful at delivering a service catalog in a silo. 目錄的正確開發需要跨中央 IT 小組或 CCoE 的合作關係。Proper development of the catalog requires a partnership across the central IT team or the CCoE. 當 IT 組織達到 CCoE 等級的成熟度時,此方法最成功,但可以更快實行。This approach tends to be most successful when an IT organization reaches a CCoE level of maturity, but could be implemented sooner.

當它在 CCoE 模型內建立服務類別目錄時,雲端平臺小組會建立所需的狀態平臺。When it's building the service catalog within a CCoE model, the cloud platform team builds out the desired-state platform. 雲端治理和雲端安全性小組會驗證部署內的治理和合規性。The cloud governance and cloud security teams validate governance and compliance within the deployment. 雲端管理小組會為該平臺建立進行中的作業。The cloud management team establishes ongoing operations for that platform. 雲端自動化小組會封裝平臺,以進行可調整且可重複的部署。And the cloud automation team packages the platform for scalable, repeatable deployment.

封裝平臺之後,雲端管理小組可以將它新增至不斷成長的服務類別目錄。After the platform is packaged, the cloud management team can add it to the growing service catalog. 從該處開始,雲端採用小組可以在部署期間使用套件或類別目錄中的其他專案。From there, the cloud adoption team can use the package or others in the catalog during deployment. 在解決方案進入生產階段之後,企業會發現更多的作業管理優點,而且可能會降低業務中斷。After the solution goes to production, the business realizes the extra benefits of improved operational management and potentially reduced business disruptions.

注意

建立服務類別目錄需要多個小組的大量投入時間和時間。Building a service catalog requires a great deal of effort and time from multiple teams. 使用服務類別目錄或核准的清單作為管制機制,將會減緩創新的速度。Using the service catalog or approved list as a gating mechanism will slow innovation. 當創新成為優先考慮時,應該平行開發服務類別目錄,以進行其他採用工作。When innovation is a priority, service catalogs should be developed parallel to other adoption efforts.

定義您自己的平臺作業Define your own platform operations

雖然管理工具和程式可以協助改善平臺作業,但這通常不足以達到穩定性和可靠性的期望狀態。Although management tools and processes can help improve platform operations, that is often not enough to achieve the desired states of stability and reliability. 真正的平臺作業需要專注于卓越的架構要素。True platform operations requires a focus on pillars of architecture excellence. 當平臺在營運方面提供更深入的投資時,請考慮下列五個要素,平臺才能成為任何服務類別目錄的一部分:When a platform justifies a deeper investment in operations, consider the following five pillars before the platform becomes a part of any service catalog:

  • 成本最佳化: 管理成本以將傳遞的價值最大化。Cost optimization: Manage costs to maximize the value delivered.
  • 卓越的營運績效: 追隨讓系統在生產環境中順利運作的作業流程。Operational excellence: Follow operational processes that keep a system running in production.
  • 效能效率: 調整系統以適應負載中的變更。Performance efficiency: Scale systems to adapt to changes in load.
  • 可靠性: 設計系統以從失敗中復原並繼續運作的能力。Reliability: Design systems to recover from failures and continue to function.
  • 安全性: 保護應用程式和資料,使其免於威脅。Security: Protect applications and data from threats.

Microsoft Azure Well-Architected Framework提供一種方法來評估特定工作負載,以遵循這些要素,以改善整體作業。The Microsoft Azure Well-Architected Framework provides an approach to evaluating specific workloads for adherence to these pillars, in an effort to improve overall operations. 這些要素可以套用至平臺作業和工作負載作業。These pillars can be applied to both platform operations and workload operations.

開始使用特定平臺Get started with specific platforms

下一節所討論的平臺是一般的 Azure 客戶,而且可以輕鬆地證明平臺營運的投資。The platforms discussed in the next sections are common to typical Azure customers, and they can easily justify an investment in platform operations. 雲端管理小組在建立平臺作業需求或完整服務類別目錄時,通常會開始使用它們。Cloud management teams tend to start with them when they're building out platform operations requirements or a full service catalog.

PaaS 資料作業PaaS data operations

資料通常是保證平臺作業投資的第一個平臺。Data is often the first platform to warrant platform operations investments. 當資料裝載于平臺即服務 (PaaS) 環境中時,商務專案關係人通常會要求 () RPO 的低復原點目標,以將資料遺失降至最低。When data is hosted in a platform as a service (PaaS) environment, business stakeholders tend to request a reduced recovery point objective (RPO) to minimize data loss. 視應用程式的本質而定,可能也會要求減少復原時間目標 (RTO) 。Depending on the nature of the application, they might also request a reduction in recovery time objective (RTO). 無論是哪一種情況,支援 PaaS 型資料解決方案的架構都可以輕鬆地容納一些更高層級的管理支援。In either case, the architecture that supports PaaS-based data solutions can easily accommodate some increased level of management support.

在大部分的情況下,即使應用程式不是關鍵性的應用程式,改善管理承諾的成本也很容易對齊。In most scenarios, the cost of improving management commitments is easily justified, even for applications that are not mission critical. 這種平臺作業的改進很常見,因為許多雲端管理小組會將其視為增強的基準,而不是真正的平臺作業改進。This platform operations improvement is so common that many cloud management teams see it more as an enhanced baseline, rather than as a true platform operations improvement.

IaaS 資料作業IaaS data operations

當資料裝載于傳統基礎結構即服務 (IaaS) 解決方案時,改善 RPO 和 RTO 的工作可能會大幅增加。When data is hosted in a traditional infrastructure as a service (IaaS) solution, the effort to improve RPO and RTO can be significantly higher. 但商務專案關係人想要達成更好的管理承諾,很少會受到 PaaS 和 IaaS 決策的影響。Yet the business stakeholders' desire to achieve better management commitments is seldom affected by a PaaS versus IaaS decision. 如果有任何問題,瞭解架構中的基本差異,可能會提示企業要求 PaaS 解決方案或符合 PaaS 解決方案可用的承諾。If anything, an understanding of the fundamental differences in architecture might prompt the business to ask for PaaS solutions or commitments that match what's available on PaaS solutions. 您應該將任何 IaaS 資料平臺的現代化視為平臺作業的第一步。Modernization of any IaaS data platforms should be considered as a first step into platform operations.

當現代化無法選擇時,雲端管理小組通常會優先處理以 IaaS 為基礎的資料平臺,作為服務類別目錄中的第一個必要服務。When modernization isn't an option, cloud management teams commonly prioritize IaaS-based data platforms as a first required service in the service catalog. 將獨立資料伺服器和叢集化、高可用性、資料解決方案的選擇提供給企業,讓商務承諾的對話更加容易。Providing the business with a choice between standalone data servers and clustered, high-availability, data solutions makes the business commitment conversation much easier to facilitate. 對營運改進和增加成本有基本的瞭解,可協助企業對商務程式和支援工作負載做出最佳決策。A basic understanding of the operational improvements and the increased costs will help the business make the best decision for the business processes and supporting workloads.

其他常見的平臺作業Other common platform operations

除了資料平臺之外,虛擬機器主機通常也是作業改善的通用平臺。In addition to data platforms, virtual machine hosts tend to be a common platform for operations improvements. 最常見的雲端平臺和雲端管理小組會投資 VMware 主機或容器解決方案的增強功能。Most commonly, cloud platform and cloud management teams invest in improvements to VMware hosts or container solutions. 這類投資可改善主機的穩定性和可靠性,進而支援 Vm,進而增強工作負載。Such investments can improve the stability and reliability of the hosts, which support the VMs, which in turn power the workloads. 單一主機或容器上的適當作業可以改善數個工作負載的 RPO 或 RTO。Proper operations on one host or container can improve the RPO or RTO of several workloads. 這種方法能創造出更好的商務承諾,但會散佈投資。This approach creates improved business commitments, but distributes the investment. 結合了改進的承諾和降低成本,讓您更輕鬆地證明雲端管理和平臺作業的改進。Improved commitments and reduced costs combine to make it much easier to justify improvements to cloud management and platform operations.

下一步Next steps

除了平臺作業的增強功能,雲端管理小組也致力於改善前20% 或更少生產工作負載的 工作負載作業In parallel with improvements to platform operations, cloud management teams also focus on improving workload operations for the top 20 percent or less of production workloads.