在移轉前核准架構變更Approve architecture changes before migration

在移轉的評定過程中,每個工作負載都會進行評估、建構和預估,以便為工作負載開發未來狀態方案。During the assess process of migration, each workload is evaluated, architected, and estimated to develop a future state plan for the workload. 有些工作負載可以遷移至雲端,而不需變更架構。Some workloads can be migrated to the cloud with no change to the architecture. 維護內部部署組態和架構可以降低風險並簡化移轉程序。Maintaining on-premises configuration and architecture can reduce risk and streamline the migration process. 可惜的是,並非每個應用程式都可以在雲端中執行,而不需變更架構。Unfortunately, not every application can run in the cloud without changes to the architecture. 需要變更架構時,本文可協助將變更分類,並可提供適當核准活動的一些指引。When architecture changes are required, this article can help classify the change and can provide some guidance on the proper approval activities.

業務衝擊與核准Business impact and approval

在移轉期間,某些事項可能以會影響業務的方式變更。During migration, some things are likely to change in ways that impact the business. 雖然有時無法避免變更,但公開或未記載的變更結果應該是意外的。Although change sometimes can't be avoided, surprises as a result of undisclosed or undocumented changes should be. 若要在整個遷移工作中維持專案關係人支援,請務必避免意外。To maintain stakeholder support throughout the migration effort, it's important to avoid surprises. 意外的應用程式擁有者或業務關係人可能會延緩或終止雲端採用工作。Surprising application owners or business stakeholders can slow or halt a cloud adoption effort.

在遷移之前,請務必為工作負載的業務擁有者準備任何可能會影響商務程式的變更,例如變更:Prior to migration, it is important to prepare the workload's business owner for any changes that could affect business processes, such as changes to:

  • 服務等級協定。Service-level agreements.
  • 會影響終端使用者的存取模式或安全性需求。Access patterns or security requirements that impact the end user.
  • 資料保留做法。Data retention practices.
  • 核心應用程式效能。Core application performance.

即使工作負載可以在最少變更的情況下進行遷移,但仍然可能有業務影響。Even when a workload can be migrated with minimal to no change, there could still be a business impact. 複寫程序可能會使生產系統的效能變慢。Replication processes can slow the performance of production systems. 準備進行移轉時的環境變更,有可能會造成路由或網路效能限制。Changes to the environment in preparation for migration have the potential to cause routing or network performance limitations. 複寫、預備或促銷活動可能會造成許多額外的影響。There are many additional impacts that could result from replication, staging, or promotion activities.

定期核准活動有助於將變更或效能驅動業務影響所造成的意外降到最低或加以避免。Regular approval activities can help minimize or avoid surprises as a result of change or performance-driven business impacts. 在開始移轉程序之前,雲端採用小組應在評定程序結束時執行變更核准程序。The cloud adoption team should execute a change approval process at the end of the assessment process, before beginning the migration process.

現有文化特性Existing culture

您的 IT 小組可能有現有的機制可供管理與您的內部部署資產相關的變更。Your IT teams likely have existing mechanisms for managing change involving your on-premises assets. 這些機制通常是由傳統的資訊技術基礎結構程式庫型 (ITIL) 變更管理程式所控管。Typically these mechanisms are governed by traditional Information Technology Infrastructure Library-based (ITIL-based) change management processes. 在許多企業遷移中,這些程式都牽涉到變更諮詢委員會 (CAB) ,其負責審核、記錄和核准 (RFC) 變更的所有 IT 相關要求。In many enterprise migrations, these processes involve a change advisory board (CAB) that's responsible for reviewing, documenting, and approving all IT-related requests for changes (RFC).

CAB 通常包含來自多個 IT 和業務小組的專家,可為所有 IT 相關變更提供各種不同的觀點和詳細審查。The CAB generally includes experts from multiple IT and business teams, offering a variety of perspectives and detailed review for all IT-related changes. CAB 核准程序是一種經證實的方法,可降低風險並將涉及 IT 作業所管理之穩定工作負載的變更影響降至最低。A CAB approval process is a proven way to reduce risk and minimize the business impact of changes involving stable workloads managed by IT operations.

技術核准Technical approval

組織對於技術變更核准的整備度,是雲端移轉失敗的最常見原因之一。Organizational readiness for the approval of technical change is among the most common reasons for cloud migration failure. 比起雲端平台中的任何不足,有更多專案是被一系列的技術核准所牽制。More projects are stalled by a series of technical approvals than any deficit in a cloud platform. 讓組織準備好進行技術變更核准是移轉成功的重要需求。Preparing the organization for technical change approval is an important requirement for migration success. 以下是一些最佳做法,可確保組織已準備好進行技術核准。The following are a few best practices to ensure that the organization is ready for technical approval.

ITIL 變更諮詢委員會挑戰ITIL change advisory board challenges

每種變更管理方法都有自己的一組控制項和核准程序。Every change management approach has its own set of controls and approval processes. 移轉是一系列的連續變更,一開始高度不明確,而後在執行過程中更清楚地發展。Migration is a series of continuous changes that start with a high degree of ambiguity and develop additional clarity through the course of execution. 因此,移轉最適合以敏捷式變更管理方法來控管,並以雲端策略小組當作產品擁有者。As such, migration is best governed by agile-based change management approaches, with the cloud strategy team serving as a product owner.

不過,雲端移轉期間的變更規模和頻率,並不適合 ITIL 程序的本質。However, the scale and frequency of change during a cloud migration doesn't fit well with the nature of ITIL processes. CAB 核准的需求可能會以移轉成功作為賭注,並減緩或停止工作。The requirements of a CAB approval can risk the success of a migration, slowing or stopping the effort. 此外,在移轉的初期階段中,高度不明確,且專業領域知識往往很低。Further, in the early stages of migration, ambiguity is high and subject matter expertise tends to be low. 在前幾個工作負載移轉或發行中,雲端採用小組通常處於學習模式。For the first several workload migrations or releases, the cloud adoption team is often in a learning mode. 因此,小組可能難以提供通過 CAB 核准所需的資料類型。As such, it could be difficult for the team to provide the types of data needed to pass a CAB approval.

下列最佳做法可協助 CAB 在移轉期間保持舒適度,而不會成為令人頭痛的阻礙者。The following best practices can help the CAB maintain a degree of comfort during migration without become a painful blocker.

標準化變更Standardize change

雲端採用小組禁不住針對要遷移至雲端的每個工作負載,考慮詳細的架構決策。It is tempting for a cloud adoption team to consider detailed architectural decisions for each workload being migrated to the cloud. 同樣地,使用雲端移轉作為催化劑來重構過去的架構決策也相當吸引人。It is equally tempting to use cloud migration as a catalyst to refactor past architectural decisions. 對於正在移轉數百個 VM 或數十個工作負載的組織而言,這兩種方法均可受到適度管理。For organizations that are migrating a few hundred VMs or a few dozen workloads, either approach can be properly managed. 在遷移包含 1000 個或更多資產的資料中心時,上述每個方法都會被視為高風險的反面模式,其會大幅降低成功的可能性。When migrating a datacenter consisting of 1,000 or more assets, each of these approaches is considered a high-risk antipattern that significantly reduces the likelihood of success. 現代化、重構及重新架構每個應用程式都需要各式各樣的技能,以及各種不同的變更,而這些工作會大規模地建立人類工作的相依性。Modernizing, refactoring, and rearchitecting every application requires a diverse skill set and a wide variety of changes, and these tasks create dependencies on human efforts at scale. 這些相依性會對移轉工作帶來風險。Each of these dependencies injects risk into the migration effort.

數位資產合理化一文討論在將數位資產合理化時,基本假設的靈活度和省時影響。The article on digital estate rationalization discusses the agility and time-saving impact of basic assumptions when rationalizing a digital estate. 標準化變更還有額外的好處。There is an additional benefit of standardized change. 藉由選擇預設合理化方法來管理遷移工作,雲端諮詢委員會或產品擁有者可以檢查並核准將一項變更變更為長清單工作負載的應用程式。By choosing a default rationalization approach to govern the migration effort, the cloud advisory board or product owner can review and approve the application of one change to a long list of workloads. 這將每個工作負載的技術核准,減少為需要重大架構變更才能與雲端相容的項目。This reduces technical approval of each workload to those that require a significant architecture change to be cloud compatible.

釐清核准者的期望和角色Clarify expectations and roles of approvers

在評定第一個工作負載之前,雲端策略小組應記載並傳達核准變更相關人員的期望。Before the first workload is assessed, the cloud strategy team should document and communicate the expectations of anyone involved in the approval of change. 這項簡單的活動可避免雲端採用小組完全參與時代價高昂的延遲。This simple activity can avoid costly delays when the cloud adoption team is fully engaged.

及早尋求核准Seek approval early

可能的話,應在評定過程中偵測並記載技術變更。When possible, technical change should be detected and documented during the assessment process. 不論核准程序為何,雲端採用小組都應該及早與核准者接洽。Regardless of approval processes, the cloud adoption team should engage approvers early. 變更核准很快越快開始,核准程序就不太可能阻止移轉活動。The sooner that change approval can begin, the less likely an approval process is to block migration activities.

下一步Next steps

在這些最佳做法的協助下,您可更輕鬆地將適當的低風險核准整合到移轉工作中。With the help of these best practices, it should be easier to integrate proper, low-risk approval into migration efforts. 核准工作負載變更之後,雲端採用小組便準備好遷移工作負載。After workload changes are approved, the cloud adoption team is ready to migrate workloads.