了解雲端作業模型Understand cloud operating models

採用雲端可建立機會來重新審視您操作技術系統的方式。Adopting the cloud creates an opportunity to revisit how you operate technology systems. 本文系列將澄清雲端作業模式,以及影響您雲端採用策略的考量。This article series will clarify cloud operating models and the considerations that impact your cloud adoption strategy. 但首先,讓我們來澄清 雲端做業模型 這個字詞。But first, let's clarify the term cloud operating model.

定義您的作業模型Define your operating model

在部署您的雲端架構之前,請務必瞭解您要如何在雲端中作業。Before deploying your cloud architecture, it's important to understand how you want to operate in the cloud. 瞭解您的策略方向、人員組織和治理、風險和合規性 (GRC) 需求,可協助定義您的未來狀態雲端作業模型。Understanding your strategic direction, people organization, and governance, risk, and compliance (GRC) needs helps define your future state cloud operating model. 接著,Azure 登陸區域可以提供各種不同的架構和執行選項,以支援您的作業模型。Then, Azure landing zones can provide a variety of architecture and implementation options to support your operating model. 接下來的幾篇文章將分享幾個基本的字詞,並根據實際的客戶經驗提供常見作業模型的範例,這兩者共同可以引導您決定要實作的正確 Azure 登陸區域。The next few articles will share a few foundational terms and provide examples of common operating models based on actual customer experiences, which together can guide your decision about the right Azure landing zone to implement.

什麼是作業模型?What is an operating model?

在雲端技術存在之前,技術小組已建立作業模型來定義技術支援企業的方式。Prior to the existence of cloud technologies, technology teams established operating models to define how technology would support the business. 任何公司的 IT 營運模式都有幾項因素,但仍保持一致:與商務策略、人員的組織、變更管理 (或採用流程)、作業管理、治理/合規性和安全性 的一致性。Any company's IT operating model has a number of factors, but a few remain consistent: alignment to business strategy, organization of people, change management (or adoption processes), operations management, governance/compliance, and security. 每個因素都是長期技術作業不可或缺的一項。Each factor is essential to long-term technology operations.

當技術作業轉移至雲端時,這些重要的流程仍然相關,但可能會以某些方式變更。When technology operations shift to the cloud, these vital processes are still relevant, but they're likely to change in some ways. 目前的作業模型,主要著重在實際透過資本支出週期投資的實體資產。Current operating models focus heavily on physical assets in physical locations funded largely through capital expenditure cycles. 這些資產是用來支援企業維護商務營運所需的工作負載。These assets are used to support the workloads that the business needs to maintain business operations. 大部分作業模型的任務是藉由投資基礎實體資產的穩定性,為工作負載的穩定性設定優先順序。The mission of most operating models is to prioritize stability of the workloads by investing in the stability of the underlying physical assets.

雲端作業模型有何不同?How is a cloud operating model different?

硬體堆疊中的備援是永不結束的迴圈。Redundancy in the hardware stack is a never-ending cycle. 實體硬體中斷。Physical hardware breaks down. 效能降低。Performance degrades. 硬體的降低很少會與組織資本支出規劃週期的可預測預算週期一致。The degradation of hardware rarely aligns with the predictable budgetary cycles of an organization's capital expenditure planning cycles. 在雲端中作業會將焦點轉移到數位資產,藉以中斷硬體重新整理和午夜修補程式的跑步機:作業系統、應用程式和資料。Operating in the cloud breaks the treadmill of hardware refreshes and midnight patches by shifting the focus upstream to the digital assets: operating systems, applications, and data. 從實體轉換成數位也會轉移技術作業模型。This shift from physical to digital also shifts the technology operating model.

當您的作業模型轉移到雲端時,您仍然需要相同的人員和流程,但他們也會將焦點放在更高層級的作業上。As your operating model shifts to the cloud, you still need the same people and processes, but they also shift to focus on a higher level of operations. 如果您的人員不再專注於伺服器執行時間,則他們的成功計量將會變更。If your people no longer focus on server uptime, then their success metrics will change. 如果安全性不再受資料中心的四個牆保護,則您的威脅設定檔會變更。If security is no longer protected by the four walls of a datacenter, then your threat profile changes. 當採購不再是創新的絆腳石時,您管理變更的步調也會變更。When procurement is no longer a blocker to innovation, then the pace at which you manage change also changes.

「雲端作業模型」是流程和程序的集合,可定義您想要如何在雲端作業的技術。A cloud operating model is the collection of processes and procedures that define how you want to operate technology in the cloud.

雲端作業模型的用途Purpose of a cloud operating model

當硬體被當作最常見的作業單位來移除時,焦點就會轉移到數位資產及其支援的工作負載。When hardware is removed as the most common unit of operations, the focus shifts to the digital assets and the workloads they support. 因此,作業模型的目的是從保持燈的狀態轉移,以確保作業一致。As such, the purpose of the operating model shifts from keeping the lights on to ensuring consistent operations.

Microsoft Azure Well-Architected Framework 會在一組常見的架構原則中,分解工作負載考量的絕佳工作:成本最佳化、營運卓越、效能效率、可靠性及安全性。The Microsoft Azure Well-Architected Framework does a great job of decomposing workload considerations into a set of common architectural principles: cost optimization, operational excellence, performance efficiency, reliability, and security.

當移至更高層級的作業時,這些常見的架構原則有助於重構雲端作業模型的目的。When moving to a higher level of operations, these common architectural principles help reframe the purpose of the cloud operating model. 我們如何確保組合中的所有資產和工作負載都能平衡這些架構原則?How do we ensure that all assets and workloads in the portfolio balance these architecture principles? 調整這些原則的應用程式所需的流程為何?What processes are needed to scale the application of those principles?

重新構想您的作業模型Reimagine your operating model

如果您已更新作業模型,以移除實體資產的每個採購、變更、作業或保護的參考,剩下的內容為何?If you updated your operating model to remove every reference to the procurement, change, operations, or protection of physical assets, what's left? 針對某些組織,其作業模型現在是全新的平板電腦。For some organizations, their operating model is now a clean slate. 對於大部分的組織而言,過去幾年來開發的條件約束現在會縮減。For most organizations, the constraints that have developed over the years are now reduced. 不論是哪一種情況,都有機會思考您想要如何在雲端作業。In either case, there is an opportunity to think about how you would like to operate in the cloud.

為了協助您想像未來的狀態作業模型,這些文章討論了以下主題:To help you imagine your future state operating model, these articles discuss the following subjects:

後續步驟Next steps

瞭解雲端採用架構如何協助您定義作業模型。Learn how the Cloud Adoption Framework helps you define your operating model.