打造成本重視的組織Build a cost-conscious organization
如 動機所述：為何要移至雲端？有許多原因會讓公司採用雲端。As outlined in Motivations: why are we moving to the cloud?, there are many sound reasons for a company to adopt the cloud. 當成本降低是主要驅動程式時，請務必建立符合成本的組織。When cost reduction is a primary driver, it's important to create a cost-conscious organization.
確保成本意識觀念不是一次性活動。Ensuring cost consciousness is not a one-time activity. 就像其他雲端採用主題一樣，它是反復的。Like other cloud-adoption topics, it's iterative. 下圖概述此程式以專注于三個相互依存的活動： 可見度、 責任 和 優化。The following diagram outlines this process to focus on three interdependent activities: visibility, accountability, and optimization. 這些程式會以宏和微型等級來播放，我們將在本文中詳細說明。These processes play out at macro and micro levels, which we describe in detail in this article.
的程式圖1：符合成本的組織大綱。 Figure 1: Outline of the cost-conscious organization.
一般符合成本的流程General cost-conscious processes
可見度： 為了讓組織重視成本，需要瞭解這些成本。Visibility: For an organization to be conscious of costs, it needs visibility into those costs. 符合成本的組織需要一致的報告，包括採用雲端的小組、負責管理預算的財務團隊，以及負責成本的管理小組。Visibility in a cost-conscious organization requires consistent reporting for the teams adopting the cloud, finance teams who manage budgets, and management teams who are responsible for the costs. 這項可見度的完成方式是建立：This visibility is accomplished by establishing:
- 正確的報告範圍。The right reporting scope.
- 適當的資源組織 (管理群組、資源群組、訂用帳戶) 。Proper resource organization (management groups, resource groups, subscriptions).
- 清除標記策略。Clear tagging strategies.
- Azure RBAC) (適當的存取控制。Proper access controls (Azure RBAC).
責任： 責任與可見度一樣重要。Accountability: Accountability is as important as visibility. 責任的開始是明確的採用工作預算。Accountability starts with clear budgets for adoption efforts. 預算應妥善建立、清楚溝通，並根據實際的期望。Budgets should be well established, clearly communicated, and based on realistic expectations. 責任需要反復的流程和成長思維，才能促成適當的責任層級。Accountability requires an iterative process and a growth mindset to drive the right level of accountability.
優化： 優化是建立成本降低的動作。Optimization: Optimization is the action that creates cost reductions. 在優化期間，會修改資源配置，以降低支援各種工作負載的成本。During optimization, resource allocations are modified to reduce the cost of supporting various workloads. 此程式需要反復專案和實驗。This process requires iteration and experimentation. 每個減少成本都會降低效能。Each reduction in cost reduces performance. 在成本控制與終端使用者效能預期的要求之間，找出來自多個合作物件的正確平衡。Finding the right balance between cost control and end-user performance expectations demands input from multiple parties.
下列各節說明各種小組在開發符合成本的組織時所扮演的角色。The following sections describe the roles that various teams play in developing a cost-conscious organization.
雲端策略小組Cloud strategy team
在雲端採用工作中建立成本意識觀念，從領導層級開始。Building cost consciousness into cloud-adoption efforts starts at the leadership level. 為了長期生效， 雲端策略小組 應該包含財務小組的成員。To be effective in the long term, the cloud strategy team should include a member of the finance team. 如果您的財務結構保有商務經理負責解決方案成本，則也應該受邀加入小組。If your financial structure holds business managers accountable for solution costs, they should be invited to join the team as well. 除了一般指派給雲端策略小組的核心活動之外，雲端策略小組的所有成員也應負責：In addition to the core activities that are typically assigned to the cloud strategy team, all members of the cloud strategy team should also be responsible for:
可見度： 雲端策略小組和 雲端治理小組 必須知道雲端採用工作的實際成本。Visibility: The cloud strategy team and cloud governance team need to know the actual costs of the cloud-adoption efforts. 由於此團隊的執行層級觀點，他們應該可以存取多個成本範圍來分析花費決策。Given the executive-level view of this team, they should have access to multiple cost scopes to analyze spending decisions. 一般情況下，主管需要能看到所有雲端「支出」的總成本。Typically, an executive needs visibility into the total costs across all cloud "spend." 但作為雲端策略小組的作用中成員，他們應該也能夠查看每個業務單位的成本，或每個計費單位來驗證回報、退款或其他 雲端帳戶處理模型。But as active members of the cloud strategy team, they should also be able to view costs per business unit or per billing unit to validate showback, chargeback, or other cloud accounting models.
責任： 您應根據預期的採用活動，在雲端策略、 雲端治理和 雲端採用 小組之間建立預算。Accountability: Budgets should be established between the cloud strategy, cloud governance, and cloud adoption teams based on expected adoption activities. 當產生預算的偏差時，雲端策略小組和雲端治理小組必須夥伴，以快速判斷補救偏差的最佳動作。When deviations from budget occur, the cloud strategy team and the cloud governance team must partner to quickly determine the best course of action to remediate the deviations.
優化： 在優化工作期間，雲端策略小組可以代表特定工作負載的投資和傳回值。Optimization: During optimization efforts, the cloud strategy team can represent the investment and return value of specific workloads. 如果工作負載有策略性的價值或對企業的財務衝擊，應密切監控成本優化工作。If a workload has strategic value or financial impact on the business, cost-optimization efforts should be monitored closely. 如果對組織不具策略性影響，而且沒有針對工作負載效能不佳的固有成本，則雲端策略小組可能會核准過度優化。If there's no strategic impact on the organization and no inherent cost for poor performance of a workload, the cloud strategy team may approve over-optimization. 若要推動這些決策，小組必須能夠在每個專案的範圍內查看成本。To drive these decisions, the team must be able to view costs on a per-project scope.
雲端採用小組Cloud adoption team
雲端採用小組是所有採用活動的中心。The cloud adoption team is at the center of all adoption activities. 因此，這些是超支的第一道防線。So, they're the first line of defense against overspending. 在意識觀念的三個階段中，這個小組都有作用中的角色。This team has an active role in all three phases of cost-consciousness.
- 認知： 雲端採用小組必須能夠掌握工作的節省成本目標，這點很重要。Awareness: It's important for the cloud adoption team to have visibility into the cost-saving goals of the effort. 簡單地說，雲端採用工作將有助於降低成本，這是失敗的配方。Simply stating that the cloud-adoption effort will help reduce costs is a recipe for failure. 特定 可見度很重要。Specific visibility is important. 例如，如果目標是要將資料中心 TCO 減少3% 或年度營運費用7%，請及早且清楚地公開這些目標。For example, if the goal is to reduce datacenter TCO by 3 percent or annual operating expenses by 7 percent, disclose those targets early and clearly.
- 遙測： 此小組需要瞭解其決策的影響。Telemetry: This team needs visibility into the impact of their decisions. 在遷移或創新活動期間，他們的決策對成本和效能有直接的影響。During migration or innovation activities, their decisions have a direct effect on costs and performance. 小組必須平衡這兩個競爭因素。The team needs to balance these two competing factors. 針對小組的作用中專案設定效能監視和成本監視，對於提供必要的可見度相當重要。Performance monitoring and cost monitoring that's scoped to the team's active projects are important to provide the necessary visibility.
責任： 雲端採用小組必須留意與其採用工作相關聯的任何預設預算。Accountability: The cloud adoption team needs to be aware of any preset budgets that are associated with their adoption efforts. 當實際成本與預算不一致時，就有機會建立責任。When real costs don't align with the budget, there's an opportunity to create accountability. 責任並不等同于 penalizing 採用小組來超過預算，因為超額的預算可能會因為必要的效能決策而產生。Accountability doesn't equate to penalizing the adoption team for exceeding budget, because budget excess can result from necessary performance decisions. 相反地，責任表示教育團隊有關目標及其決策如何影響這些目標。Instead, accountability means educating the team about the goals and how their decisions affect those goals. 此外，責任包括提供一個對話方塊，讓小組可以在其中傳達導致超支的決策。Additionally, accountability includes providing a dialog in which the team can communicate about decisions that led to overspending. 如果這些決策與專案的目標不一致，這項工作可讓您與雲端策略小組合作，以做出更佳的決策。If those decisions are misaligned with the goals of the project, this effort provides a good opportunity to partner with the cloud strategy team to make better decisions.
優化： 這項工作是一項平衡動作，因為資源的優化可以降低其支援的工作負載效能。Optimization: This effort is a balancing act, as optimization of resources can reduce the performance of the workloads that they support. 有時可能會因為工作負載無法充分執行預算資源，而無法為工作負載實現預期或預算的節省金額。Sometimes anticipated or budgeted savings can't be realized for a workload because the workload doesn't perform adequately with the budgeted resources. 在這些情況下，雲端採用小組必須做出明智的決策，並向雲端策略小組和雲端治理小組報告變更，以便更正預算或優化決策。In those cases, the cloud adoption team has to make wise decisions and report changes to the cloud strategy team and the cloud governance team so that budgets or optimization decisions can be corrected.
雲端治理小組Cloud governance team
一般而言， 雲端治理小組 會負責整個雲端採用工作的成本管理。Generally, the cloud governance team is responsible for cost management across the entire cloud-adoption effort. 如同雲端採用架構治理方法的「 成本管理專業領域 」主題所述，「成本管理」是雲端治理的五個專業領域中的第一個。As outlined in the Cost Management discipline topic of the Cloud Adoption Framework's Govern methodology, cost management is the first of the Five Disciplines of Cloud Governance. 這些文章概述雲端治理小組的一系列更深層責任。Those articles outline a-series of deeper responsibilities for the cloud governance team.
這項工作著重于下列與成本相關組織開發相關的活動：This effort focuses on the following activities that are related to the development of a cost-conscious organization:
可見度： 雲端治理小組會以雲端策略小組的對等方式，來規劃雲端採用預算。Visibility: The cloud governance team works as a peer of the cloud strategy team to plan cloud-adoption budgets. 這兩個小組也會一起運作，以定期審核實際的費用。These two teams also work together to regularly review actual expenses. 雲端治理小組負責確保一致、可靠的成本報告和效能遙測。The cloud governance team is responsible for ensuring consistent, reliable cost reporting and performance telemetry.
責任： 發生預算偏差時，雲端策略小組和雲端治理小組必須夥伴，以快速判斷補救偏差的最佳動作。Accountability: When budget deviations occur, the cloud strategy team and the cloud governance team must partner to quickly determine the best course of action to remediate the deviations. 一般而言，雲端治理小組會根據這些決策採取行動。Generally, the cloud governance team will act on those decisions. 有時動作可能會對受影響的 雲端採用小組進行簡單的重新訓練。Sometimes the action may be simple retraining for the affected cloud adoption team. 雲端治理小組也可以協助優化已部署的資產、變更折扣選項，或甚至執行自動化的成本控制選項，例如封鎖非計畫的資產部署。The cloud governance team can also help optimize deployed assets, change discounting options, or even implement automated cost-control options like blocking deployment of unplanned assets.
優化： 將資產遷移至雲端或在雲端中建立之後，您就可以使用監視工具來評估這些資產的效能和使用量。Optimization: After assets are migrated to or created in the cloud, you can employ monitoring tools to assess performance and utilization of those assets. 適當的監視和效能資料可以識別應優化的資產。Proper monitoring and performance data can identify assets that should be optimized. 雲端治理小組負責確保一致地部署監視和成本報告工具。The cloud governance team is responsible for ensuring that the monitoring and cost-reporting tools are consistently deployed. 它們也可以協助採用小組找出機會根據效能和成本遙測進行優化。They can also help the adoption teams identify opportunities to optimize based on performance and cost telemetry.
雲端卓越中心Cloud center of excellence
雖然通常不會對成本管理造成影響，但 CCoE 對符合成本的組織可能會有顯著的影響。While not typically responsible for cost management, the CCoE can have a significant impact on cost-conscious organizations. 許多基本的 IT 決策會大規模地影響成本。Many foundational IT decisions affect costs at scale. 當 CCoE 執行其部分時，可以減少多個雲端採用工作的成本。When the CCoE does their part, costs can be reduced for multiple cloud-adoption efforts.
可見度： CCoE 小組應該可以看到任何裝載核心 IT 資產的管理群組或資源群組。Visibility: Any management group or resource group that houses core IT assets should be visible to the CCoE team. 小組可以使用此資料來使伺服器陣列的機會優化。The team can use this data to farm opportunities to optimize.
責任： 雖然通常不會對成本產生任何責任，但 CCoE 可能會負責建立可重複的解決方案，以將成本降至最低並將效能最大化。Accountability: While not typically accountable for cost, the CCoE can hold itself accountable for creating repeatable solutions that minimize cost and maximize performance.
優化： 由於 CCoE 對多個部署的可見度，小組是建議優化秘訣的理想位置，可協助採用小組更妥善地調整資產。Optimization: Given the CCoE's visibility to multiple deployments, the team is in an ideal position to suggest optimization tips and to help adoption teams better tune assets.
在每個企業層級練習這些責任有助於推動符合成本的組織。Practicing these responsibilities at each level of the business helps drive a cost-conscious organization. 若要開始進行此指導方針，請參閱 組織就緒的簡介 ，以協助找出正確的團隊結構。To begin acting on this guidance, review the organizational readiness introduction to help identify the right team structures.