檢查您的計算選項Review your compute options

當您準備雲端採用時,決定裝載工作負載的計算需求是一項重要考量。Determining the compute requirements for hosting your workloads is a key consideration as you prepare for your cloud adoption. Azure 計算產品和服務支援各種不同的工作負載計算案例和功能。Azure compute products and services support a wide variety of workload computing scenarios and capabilities. 要如何設定登陸區域環境來支援計算需求,取決於您的工作負載管理、技術和商務需求。How you configure your landing zone environment to support your compute requirements depends on your workload's governance, technical, and business requirements.

識別計算服務需求Identify compute services requirements

在登陸區域的評估和準備過程中,您需要識別登陸區域必須支援的所有計算資源。As part of your landing zone evaluation and preparation, you need to identify all compute resources that your landing zone will need to support. 此程序牽涉到評估組成工作負載的每個應用程式和服務,以判斷計算和裝載需求。This process involves assessing each of the applications and services that make up your workloads to determine your compute and hosting requirements. 在您識別並記錄需求之後,您可以為登陸區域建立原則,以根據您的工作負載需求來控制允許的資源類型。After you identify and document your requirements, you can create policies for your landing zone to control what resource types are allowed based on your workload needs.

針對您要部署到登陸區域環境的每個應用程式或服務,請使用下列決策樹作為起點,以協助您判斷計算服務需求:For each application or service you'll deploy to your landing zone environment, use the following decision tree as a starting point to help you determine your compute services requirements:

Azure 計算服務決策樹的圖表。

圖1: Azure 計算服務決策樹。Figure 1: An Azure compute services decision tree.

定義:Definitions:

  • 「隨即轉移」是一種將工作負載遷移至雲端,而不需要重新設計應用程式或進行程式碼變更的策略。"Lift and shift" is a strategy for migrating a workload to the cloud without redesigning the application or making code changes. 也稱為重新裝載。Also called rehosting. 如需詳細資訊,請參閱 Azure 移轉中心。For more information, see Azure migration center.
  • 「雲端優化」是一種將應用程式重構以利用雲端原生特性和功能來遷移至雲端的策略。"Cloud-optimized" is a strategy for migrating to the cloud by refactoring an application to take advantage of cloud-native features and capabilities.

此流程圖的輸出是要考慮的起點。The output from this flowchart is a starting point for consideration. 接下來,請執行更詳細的服務評估,以查看是否符合您的需求。Next, perform a more detailed evaluation of the service to see if it meets your needs.

注意

Azure 應用程式架構指南中,深入了解如何評估每個應用程式或服務的計算選項。Learn more about how to assess compute options for each of your applications or services in the Azure application architecture guide.

重要問題Key questions

回答下列有關工作負載的問題,以協助您根據 Azure 計算服務決策樹來做出決策:Answer the following questions about your workloads to help you make decisions based on the Azure compute services decision tree:

  • 您是否正在建立全新的應用程式和服務,或從現有的內部部署工作負載遷移?Are you building net-new applications and services or migrating from existing on-premises workloads? 開發新的應用程式作為雲端採用工作的一部分,可讓您從設計階段開始,充分利用新式雲端式裝載技術。Developing new applications as part of your cloud adoption efforts allows you to take full advantage of modern cloud-based hosting technologies from the design phase moving forward.
  • 如果您要遷移現有的工作負載,可以利用新式雲端技術嗎?If you're migrating existing workloads, can they take advantage of modern cloud technologies? 遷移內部部署工作負載需要分析。Migrating on-premises workloads requires analysis. 您可以輕鬆地將現有的應用程式和服務優化以利用新式雲端技術,也可以讓您的工作負載使用隨即轉移方法更好嗎?Can you easily optimize existing applications and services to take advantage of modern cloud technologies, or will a lift-and-shift approach work better for your workloads?
  • 您的應用程式或服務可以利用容器嗎?Can your applications or services take advantage of containers? 如果您的應用程式是容器化裝載的絕佳候選項目,您可以利用 Azure 中的容器服務所提供的資源效率、擴充性和協調流程功能。If your applications are good candidates for containerized hosting, you can take advantage of the resource efficiency, scalability, and orchestration capabilities provided by container services in Azure. Azure 受控磁片azure檔案可用於容器化應用程式中的持續性儲存體。Both Azure managed disks and Azure Files can be used for persistent storage in containerized applications.
  • 您的應用程式是以 web 或 API 為基礎,而且會使用 PHP、ASP.NET、Node.js 或類似的技術嗎?Are your applications web- or API-based, and do they use PHP, ASP.NET, Node.js, or similar technologies? Web 應用程式可以部署到受控的 Azure App Service 執行個體,因此您不需要維護裝載用的虛擬機器。Web apps can be deployed to managed Azure App Service instances, so you don't have to maintain virtual machines for hosting purposes.
  • 您需要完整控制您工作負載的作業系統和裝載環境嗎?Will you require full control over the OS and hosting environment of your workload? 如果您需要控制裝載環境 (包括作業系統、磁碟、本機執行的軟體和其他設定),您可以使用 Azure 虛擬機器來裝載您的應用程式和服務。If you need to control the hosting environment, including OS, disks, locally running software, and other configurations, you can use Azure Virtual Machines to host your applications and services. 除了選擇您的虛擬機器大小和效能層級,您對於虛擬磁片儲存體的決策將會影響基礎結構即服務工作負載的相關效能和 Sla。In addition to choosing your virtual machine sizes and performance tiers, your decisions regarding virtual disk storage will affect performance and SLAs related to your infrastructure as a service workloads. 如需詳細資訊,請參閱 Azure 磁片儲存體 檔。For more information, see the Azure disk storage documentation.
  • 您的工作負載是否牽涉到高效能運算 (HPC) 功能?Will your workload involve high-performance computing (HPC) capabilities? Azure Batch 能以平台服務的形式為電腦資源提供工作排程及自動調整服務,讓您在雲端輕鬆執行大規模平行應用程式和 HPC 應用程式。Azure Batch provides job scheduling and autoscaling of compute resources as a platform service, so it's easy to run large-scale parallel and HPC applications in the cloud.
  • 您的應用程式會使用微服務架構嗎?Will your applications use a microservices architecture? 使用微服務架構的應用程式可以利用數個最佳化的計算技術。Applications that use a microservices-based architecture can take advantage of several optimized compute technologies. 由事件驅動的獨立工作負載可以使用 Azure Functions 來建立可調整的無伺服器應用程式,其不需要基礎結構。Self-contained, event-driven workloads can use Azure Functions to build scalable, serverless applications that don't need an infrastructure. 對於需要更充分掌控微服務執行所在環境的應用程式,您可以使用容器服務,例如 Azure 容器Azure Kubernetes ServiceAzure Service FabricFor applications that require more control over the environment where microservices run, you can use container services like Azure Container Instances, Azure Kubernetes Service, and Azure Service Fabric.

注意

大部分的 Azure 計算服務都會與 Azure 儲存體搭配使用。Most Azure compute services are used in combination with Azure Storage. 如需了解相關的儲存體決策,請參閱儲存體決策指引Consult the storage decisions guidance for related storage decisions.

常見計算案例Common compute scenarios

下表說明一些常見的使用案例,以及用來處理這些需求的建議計算服務:The following table illustrates a few common use scenarios and the recommended compute services for handling them:

狀況Scenario 計算服務Compute service
我需要透過選擇的設定,在幾秒內佈建 Linux 和 Windows 虛擬機器。I need to provision Linux and Windows virtual machines in seconds with the configurations of my choice. Azure 虛擬機器Azure Virtual Machines
我需要透過自動調整達到高可用性,以用幾分鐘的時間建立數千部 VM。I need to achieve high availability by autoscaling to create thousands of VMs in minutes. 虛擬機器擴展集Virtual machine scale sets
我想簡化 Kubernetes 的部署、管理與作業。I want to simplify the deployment, management, and operations of Kubernetes. Azure Kubernetes Service (AKS)Azure Kubernetes Service (AKS)
我需要使用事件驅動的無伺服器架構來加快應用程式開發的速度。I need to accelerate application development by using an event-driven serverless architecture. Azure FunctionsAzure Functions
我需要在 Windows 或 Linux 上開發微服務及協調容器。I need to develop microservices and orchestrate containers on Windows and Linux. Azure Service FabricAzure Service Fabric
我想要使用完全受控的平臺,快速建立 web 和行動裝置的雲端應用程式。I want to quickly create cloud applications for web and mobile by using a fully managed platform. Azure App ServiceAzure App Service
我想要使用單一命令來將應用程式,並輕鬆地執行容器。I want to containerize applications and easily run containers by using a single command. Azure 容器執行個體Azure Container Instances
我需要雲端規模的作業排程和計算管理可調整成數十、數百或數千部虛擬機器。I need cloud-scale job scheduling and compute management with the ability to scale to tens, hundreds, or thousands of virtual machines. Azure BatchAzure Batch
我需要建立高度可用、可擴充的雲端應用程式和 Api,以協助我專注于應用程式,而不是硬體。I need to create highly available, scalable cloud applications and APIs that can help me focus on applications instead of hardware. Azure 雲端服務Azure Cloud Services

區域可用性Regional availability

Azure 可讓您以所需的規模,將服務提供給客戶和 合作夥伴。Azure lets you deliver services at the scale you need to reach your customers and partners wherever they are. 規劃雲端部署的關鍵要素是判斷哪個 Azure 區域可託管您的工作負載資源。A key factor in planning your cloud deployment is to determine which Azure region will host your workload resources.

某些計算選項(例如 Azure App Service)已在大部分的 Azure 區域中正式運作,而其他計算服務僅在特定區域中受到支援。Some compute options such as Azure App Service are generally available in most Azure regions while other compute services are supported only in certain regions. 某些虛擬機器類型及其相關聯儲存體類型的區域可用性有限。Some virtual machine types and their associated storage types have limited regional availability. 在您決定要部署計算資源的區域之前,建議您先參閱 [區域] 頁面 ,以檢查區域可用性的最新狀態。Before you decide the regions to which you will deploy your compute resources, we recommend that you refer to the regions page to check the latest status of regional availability.

若要深入瞭解 Azure 全球基礎結構,請參閱 azure 區域頁面To learn more about the Azure global infrastructure, see the Azure regions page. 您也可以查看 依區域提供的產品 ,以取得每個 Azure 區域中可用之整體服務的特定詳細資料。You can also view products available by region for specific details about the overall services that are available in each Azure region.

資料落地和合規性需求Data residency and compliance requirements

您的工作負載中通常會有與資料儲存體相關的法律和合約需求。Legal and contractual requirements related to data storage often will apply to your workloads. 這些需求可能會因為您組織的位置、存放和處理檔案和資料的管轄權,以及您適用的商務部門而有所不同。These requirements might vary based on the location of your organization, the jurisdiction where files and data are stored and processed, and your applicable business sector. 需要考量的資料責任包括資料分類、資料位置,以及共同責任模式下的個別資料保護責任。Components of data obligations to consider include data classification, data location, and the respective responsibilities for data protection under the shared responsibility model. 許多計算解決方案取決於連結的儲存體資源。Many compute solutions depend on linked storage resources. 這項需求也可能會影響您的計算決策。This requirement also might influence your compute decisions. 如需瞭解這些需求的協助,請參閱 使用 Azure 達成符合規範的資料落地和安全性的白皮書。For help with understanding these requirements, see the white paper achieving compliant data residency and security with Azure.

合規性工作的一部分可能包括控計算資源實際所在的位置。Part of your compliance efforts might include controlling where your compute resources are physically located. Azure 區域會在稱為 geographies 的群組中進行排列。Azure regions are organized into groups called geographies. Azure 地理可確保符合地理及政治界限內的資料落地、主權、合規性及復原需求。An Azure geography ensures that data residency, sovereignty, compliance, and resiliency requirements are honored within geographical and political boundaries. 如果您的工作負載受限於資料主權或其他合規性需求,您必須將儲存體資源部署到合規 Azure 地理位置中的區域。If your workloads are subject to data sovereignty or other compliance requirements, you must deploy your storage resources to regions in a compliant Azure geography.

建立計算服務的控制項Establish controls for compute services

當您準備登陸區域環境時,您可以建立控制項來限制每位使用者可以部署的資源。When you prepare your landing zone environment, you can establish controls that limit what resources each user can deploy. 控制項可協助您管理成本並限制安全性風險,同時仍可讓開發人員和 IT 小組部署及設定支援您工作負載所需的資源。The controls can help you manage costs and limit security risks while still allowing developers and IT teams to deploy and configure resources that are needed to support your workloads.

識別並記下登陸區域的需求之後,您可以使用 Azure 原則來控制允許使用者建立的計算資源。After you identify and document your landing zone's requirements, you can use Azure Policy to control the compute resources that you allow users to create. 控制項可以採用允許或拒絕建立計算資源類型的形式。Controls can take the form of allowing or denying the creation of compute resource types. 例如,您可能會限制使用者只能建立 Azure App Service 或 Azure Functions 資源。For example, you might restrict users to creating only Azure App Service or Azure Functions resources. 您也可以在建立資源時使用原則來控制允許的選項,例如限制可以佈建的虛擬機器 SKU,或是只允許特定 VM 映像You also can use policy to control the allowable options when a resource is created, like restricting what virtual machine SKUs can be provisioned or allowing only specific VM images.

原則的範圍可以設定為資源、資源群組、訂用帳戶和管理群組。Policies can be scoped to resources, resource groups, subscriptions, and management groups. 您可以將原則包含在 Azure 藍圖 定義中,並在整個雲端資產中重複套用。You can include your policies in Azure blueprint definitions and apply them repeatedly throughout your cloud estate.