建置雲端移轉的商業論證Build a business justification for cloud migration

雲端移轉可因雲端轉換工作而產生早期投資投酬率 (ROI)。Cloud migrations can generate early return on investment (ROI) from cloud transformation efforts. 但是,使用有形的相關成本和退貨來開發清楚的商業理由,可能是一種複雜的程式。But developing a clear business justification with tangible, relevant costs and returns can be a complex process. 本文將協助您思考要建立與雲端遷移結果一致的財務模型所需的資料。This article will help you think about what data you need to create a financial model that aligns with cloud migration outcomes. 首先,我們將解開關於雲端移轉的一些迷思,以避免組織陷入某些常見的錯誤。First, let's dispel a few myths about cloud migration, so your organization can avoid some common mistakes.

解開雲端移轉的迷思Dispelling cloud migration myths

迷思:雲端一律較便宜。Myth: The cloud is always cheaper. 通常會認為,在雲端中操作資料中心的成本,一律比在內部部署環境中運作。It's commonly believed that operating a datacenter in the cloud is always cheaper than operating one on-premises. 雖然此假設通常是 true,但不一定會發生這種情況。While this assumption might generally be true, it's not always the case. 有時候雲端作業成本會較高。Sometimes cloud operating costs are higher. 這些較高的成本通常是因成本管理不佳、系統架構不一致、程式重複、非典型的系統設定,或更大的人員配置成本所造成。These higher costs are often caused by poor cost governance, misaligned system architectures, process duplication, atypical system configurations, or greater staffing costs. 幸好,您可以緩和這些問題的許多,以創造初期的 ROI。Fortunately, you can mitigate many of these problems to create early ROI. 遵循組建中的指導方針,可協助您偵測及避免這些不一致。Following the guidance in Build the business justification can help you detect and avoid these misalignments. 解開這裡所述的其他誤解也可以提供協助。Dispelling the other myths described here can help too.

迷思:所有專案都應該進入雲端。Myth: Everything should go into the cloud. 事實上,有些商業驅動程式可能會導致您選擇混合式解決方案。In fact, some business drivers might lead you to choose a hybrid solution. 在您完成商務模型之前,請先完成第一次迴圈的量化分析,如數位資產文章中所述。Before you finalize a business model, it's smart to complete a first-round quantitative analysis, as described in the digital estate articles. 如需有關合理化所牽涉之個別量化驅動程式的詳細資訊,請參閱合理化的 5 RsFor more information on the individual quantitative drivers involved in rationalization, see The 5 Rs of rationalization. 兩種方法都會使用可輕易取得的清查資料和簡單的量化分析,來識別可能導致雲端中的成本較高的工作負載或應用程式。Either approach will use easily obtained inventory data and a brief quantitative analysis to identify workloads or applications that could result in higher costs in the cloud. 這些方法也可以識別哪些相依性或流量模式會使您必須使用混合式解決方案。These approaches could also identify dependencies or traffic patterns that would necessitate a hybrid solution.

迷思:鏡像我的內部部署環境可協助我節省雲端費用。Myth: Mirroring my on-premises environment will help me save money in the cloud. 在數位資產規劃過程中,不會前所未聞企業偵測超過50% 已布建環境的未使用容量。During digital estate planning, it's not unheard of for businesses to detect unused capacity of more than 50% of the provisioned environment. 如果在雲端中布建資產以符合目前的布建,就難以實現成本節約。If assets are provisioned in the cloud to match current provisioning, cost savings are hard to realize. 請考慮減少已部署的資產大小,使其符合使用模式,而不是布建模式。Consider reducing the size of the deployed assets to align with usage patterns rather than provisioning patterns.

迷思:伺服器成本可推動雲端遷移的商務案例。Myth: Server costs drive business cases for cloud migration. 有時候此假設為 true。Sometimes this assumption is true. 對於某些公司而言,降低與伺服器有關的持續性資本支出,是很重要的。For some companies, it's important to reduce ongoing capital expenses related to servers. 但這取決於數個因素。But it depends on several factors. 有五年到八年硬體更新週期的公司,不太可能看到其雲端遷移的快速退貨。Companies with a five-year to eight-year hardware refresh cycle are unlikely to see fast returns on their cloud migration. 公司若採用標準化或強制執行的更新週期,則可以快速達到損益平衡點。Companies with standardized or enforced refresh cycles can hit a break-even point quickly. 不論是哪一種情況,其他費用可能是為了進行遷移而進行的財務觸發程式。In either case, other expenses might be the financial triggers that justify the migration. 以下是一些成本範例,通常會在公司採用僅限伺服器或僅限 VM 的成本觀點時被忽略:Here are a few examples of costs that are commonly overlooked when companies take a server-only or VM-only view of costs:

  • 虛擬化、伺服器和中介軟體的軟體成本可能會很龐大。Costs of software for virtualization, servers, and middleware can be extensive. 雲端提供者可消除其中某些成本。Cloud providers eliminate some of these costs. 雲端提供者的兩個範例降低虛擬化成本是Azure Hybrid BenefitAzure 保留方案。Two examples of a cloud provider reducing virtualization costs are the Azure Hybrid Benefit and Azure reservations programs.
  • 中斷所造成的業務損失,很快就會超過硬體或軟體成本。Business losses caused by outages can quickly exceed hardware or software costs. 如果您目前的資料中心不穩定,請與企業合作,根據商機成本或實際的商業成本來量化中斷的影響。If your current datacenter is unstable, work with the business to quantify the impact of outages in terms of opportunity costs or actual business costs.
  • 環境成本也非常重要。Environmental costs can also be significant. 對於「美國平均」系列而言,「家庭」是最大的投資和預算的最高成本。For the average American family, a home is the biggest investment and the highest cost in the budget. 資料中心的情況也是如此。The same is often true for datacenters. 不動產、設備和公共設施在其內部部署成本中佔了相當高的比例。Real estate, facilities, and utility costs represent a fair portion of on-premises costs. 當資料中心淘汰時,可以重新調整這些設施的用途,或者您的業務可能會完全從這些成本中釋放。When datacenters are retired, those facilities can be repurposed, or your business could potentially be released from these costs entirely.

迷思:營運費用模型優於資本支出模型。Myth: An operating expense model is better than a capital expense model. 會計結果一文所述,營運費用模型可能是件好事。As explained in the fiscal outcomes article, an operating expense model can be a good thing. 但是有些產業會對營運支出造成負面的影響。But some industries view operating expenditures negatively. 以下幾個範例會觸發與營運費用交談相關的會計和業務單位的緊密整合:Here are a few examples that would trigger tighter integration with the accounting and business units regarding the operating expense conversation:

  • 當企業將資本資產視為商業估價的驅動程式時,資本支出縮減可能是負面的結果。When a business sees capital assets as a driver for business valuation, capital expense reductions could be a negative outcome. 雖然這不是通用標準,但此情感最常出現在零售、製造和建築產業中。Though it's not a universal standard, this sentiment is most commonly seen in the retail, manufacturing, and construction industries.
  • 私人股東或尋求資本異常湧入的公司可能會考慮營運費用增加為負面結果。A private equity firm or a company that's seeking capital influx might consider operating expense increases as a negative outcome.
  • 如果企業著重于改善銷售邊界,或降低銷售的貨物成本(COGS),營運費用可能是負面的結果。If a business focuses heavily on improving sales margins or reducing cost of goods sold (COGS), operating expenses could be a negative outcome.

企業更可能看到營運費用比資本支出更有利。Businesses are more likely to see operating expense as more favorable than capital expense. 例如,嘗試改善現金流量、減少資本投資或降低資產庫存的企業,可能會收到這種方法。For example, this approach might be well received by businesses that are trying to improve cash flow, reduce capital investments, or decrease asset holdings.

在您提供著重于從資本支出轉換到營運費用的商業理由之前,請先瞭解哪一個較適合您的企業。Before you provide a business justification that focuses on a conversion from capital expense to operating expense, understand which is better for your business. 會計和採購通常可以協助將訊息與財務目標保持一致。Accounting and procurement can often help align the message to financial objectives.

迷思:移至雲端就像是翻轉交換器。Myth: Moving to the cloud is like flipping a switch. 移轉是需要大量手動操作的技術性轉換。Migrations are a manually intense technical transformation. 在擬定商業論證時 (特別是具時效性的論證),請考量下列可能會拉長資產移轉所需時間的層面:When developing a business justification, especially justifications that are time sensitive, consider the following aspects that could increase the time it takes to migrate assets:

  • 頻寬限制: 目前資料中心與雲端提供者之間的頻寬量會在遷移期間驅動時程表。Bandwidth limitations: The amount of bandwidth between the current datacenter and the cloud provider will drive timelines during migration.
  • 測試時間軸: 使用企業測試應用程式,以確保準備就緒和效能可能會很耗時。Testing timelines: Testing applications with the business to ensure readiness and performance can be time consuming. 調整進階使用者與測試程序是很重要的。Aligning power users and testing processes is critical.
  • 遷移時間軸: 執行遷移所需的時間和工作量可能會增加成本並造成延遲。Migration timelines: The amount of time and effort required to implement the migration can increase costs and cause delays. 配置員工或合約合作夥伴也可能會延遲此程式。Allocating employees or contracting partners can also delay the process. 此計畫應考慮這些配置。The plan should account for these allocations.

技術和文化差異的阻礙可能會降低雲端採用率。Technical and cultural impediments can slow cloud adoption. 如果時間是商業論證的重要層面之一,妥善規劃將是最理想的因應對策。When time is an important aspect of the business justification, the best mitigation is proper planning. 在規劃期間,兩種方法可以協助減輕時程表風險:During planning, two approaches can help mitigate timeline risks:

  • 投資瞭解技術採用限制的時間和能源。Invest the time and energy in understanding technical adoption constraints. 雖然快速移動的壓力可能很高,但請務必考慮實際的時程表。Though pressure to move quickly might be high, it's important to account for realistic timelines.
  • 如果發生文化或人障礙,它們的效果會比技術限制更嚴重。If cultural or people impediments arise, they'll have more serious effects than technical constraints. 雲端的採用會帶來改變,進而產生所需的轉換。Cloud adoption creates change, which produces the desired transformation. 可惜的是,人們有時會擔心變更,而且可能需要額外的支援才能與計畫一致。Unfortunately, people sometimes fear change and might need additional support to align with the plan. 識別小組中的重要人員,而不是變更並及早進行互動。Identify key people on the team who are opposed to change and engage them early.

為了盡可能預防和緩解時間方面的風險,請事先讓高層專案關係人充分了解商業價值與業務成果的關聯。To maximize readiness and mitigation of timeline risks, prepare executive stakeholders by firmly aligning business value and business outcomes. 協助這些專案關係人瞭解轉換所要進行的變更。Help those stakeholders understand the changes that will come with the transformation. 一開始就應釐清並設定實際的預期。Be clear and set realistic expectations from the beginning. 當人員或技術的速度變慢時,登錄主管支援會比較容易。When people or technologies slow the process, it will be easier to enlist executive support.

打造商業理由Build the business justification

下列程序將定義用來擬定雲端移轉商業論證的方法。The following process defines an approach to developing the business justification for cloud migrations. 如需有關計算和財務詞彙的詳細資訊,請參閱財務模型的相關文章。For more information about the calculations and financial terms, see the article on financial models.

概括而言,商業論證的公式並不難。At the highest level, the formula for business justification is simple. 但是填入公式所需的細微資料點可能很難以對齊。But the subtle data points required to populate the formula can be difficult to align. 在基本層級中,商業理由著重于與提議的技術變更相關聯的投資報酬率(ROI)。On a basic level, the business justification focuses on the return on investment (ROI) associated with the proposed technical change. ROI 的一般公式為:The generic formula for ROI is:

ROI 等於(投資收益減去投資成本)除以投資成本

我們可以打開此方程式的包裝,針對方程式右邊的輸入變數取得公式的特定遷移觀點。We can unpack this equation to get a migration-specific view of the formulas for the input variables on the right side of the equation. 本文的其餘幾節將提供要納入考量的某些要點。The remaining sections of this article offer some considerations to take into account.

移轉特定的初始投資Migration-specific initial investment

  • 雲端提供者(例如 Azure)提供計算機來預估雲端投資。Cloud providers like Azure offer calculators to estimate cloud investments. Azure 定價計算機是其中一個範例。The Azure pricing calculator is one example.
  • 有些雲端提供者也會提供成本差異計算機。Some cloud providers also provide cost-delta calculators. Azure 擁有權總成本(TCO)計算機就是其中一個範例。The Azure Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) Calculator is one example.
  • 如需更精細的成本結構,請考慮數位資產規劃練習。For more refined cost structures, consider a digital estate planning exercise.
  • 估計移轉的成本。Estimate the cost of migration.
  • 估計任何預期訓練機會的成本。Estimate the cost of any expected training opportunities. Microsoft Learn可能可以協助降低這些成本。Microsoft Learn might be able to help mitigate those costs.
  • 在某些公司中,現有員工成員所投入的時間可能需要納入初始成本。At some companies, the time invested by existing staff members might need to be included in the initial costs. 如需相關指引,請洽詢財務人員。Consult the finance office for guidance.
  • 對於任何額外成本或間接費用成本,均應與財務人員討論並釐清。Discuss any additional costs or burden costs with the finance office for validation.

移轉特定的收益差異Migration-specific revenue deltas

策略人員建立要遷移的商業理由,通常會忽略這個層面。This aspect is often overlooked by strategists creating a business justification for migration. 在某些區域中,雲端可以降低成本。In some areas, the cloud can cut costs. 但是任何轉換的最終目標,都是要在一段時間後產生更好的結果。But the ultimate goal of any transformation is to yield better results over time. 請考慮下游效果,以瞭解長期的收益改進。Consider the downstream effects to understand long-term revenue improvements. 在無法立即使用的遷移之後,您的企業將可使用哪些新技術?What new technologies will be available to your business after the migration that can't be used today? 哪些專案或營運目標受制於對舊有技術的依賴?What projects or business objectives are blocked by dependencies on legacy technologies? 哪些程式已暫止,針對技術提供了高資本支出?What programs are on hold, pending high capital expenditures for technology?

在您考慮雲端解除鎖定的機會之後,請與企業合作來計算可能來自商機的收益增加。After you consider the opportunities unlocked by the cloud, work with the business to calculate the revenue increases that could come from those opportunities.

移轉特定的成本差異Migration-specific cost deltas

計算任何因建議的移轉所將產生的成本變更。Calculate any changes to costs that will come from the proposed migration. 如需成本差異類型的詳細資訊,請參閱財務模型一文。See the financial models article for details about the types of cost deltas. 雲端提供者通常會提供成本差異計算的工具。Cloud providers often offer tools for cost-delta calculations. Azure 擁有權總成本(TCO)計算機就是其中一個範例。The Azure Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) Calculator is one example.

雲端遷移可能降低的其他成本範例:Other examples of costs that might be reduced by a cloud migration:

  • 資料中心終止或減少(環境成本)Datacenter termination or reduction (environmental costs)
  • 降低耗電量(環境成本)Reduction in power consumed (environmental costs)
  • 機架終止(實體資產復原)Rack termination (physical asset recovery)
  • 硬體重新整理避免(成本規避)Hardware refresh avoidance (cost avoidance)
  • 避免軟體更新(營運成本降低或成本規避)Software renewal avoidance (operational cost reduction or cost avoidance)
  • 廠商匯總(營運成本降低和可能的軟成本降低)Vendor consolidation (operational cost reduction and potential soft-cost reduction)

ROI 結果不符預期時When ROI results are surprising

如果雲端遷移的 ROI 不符合您的預期,您可能會想要重新流覽本文開頭列出的常見誤解。If the ROI for a cloud migration doesn't match your expectations, you might want to revisit the common myths listed at the beginning of this article.

但請務必瞭解,成本節約不一定可行。But it's important to understand that a cost savings isn't always possible. 有些應用程式在雲端中運作的成本會比內部部署更高。Some applications cost more to operate in the cloud than on-premises. 這些應用程式可能會大幅扭曲分析的結果。These applications can significantly skew results in an analysis.

當 ROI 低於20% 時,請考慮進行數位資產規劃練習,特別注意合理化When the ROI is below 20%, consider a digital estate planning exercise, paying specific attention to rationalization. 在量化分析期間,請檢查每個應用程式,以找出會扭曲結果的工作負載。During quantitative analysis, review each application to find workloads that skew the results. 從方案中移除這些工作負載可能很有意義。It might make sense to remove those workloads from the plan. 如果有使用情形資料可供參考,請考慮縮減 VM 大小以符合使用情形。If usage data is available, consider reducing the size of VMs to match usage.

如果仍沒有相稱的 ROI,請向 Microsoft 銷售人員尋求協助,或洽詢有經驗的合作夥伴If the ROI is still misaligned, seek help from your Microsoft sales representative or engage an experienced partner.

後續步驟Next steps