Azure 保留折扣如何套用至虛擬機器How the Azure reservation discount is applied to virtual machines

購買 Azure 保留的虛擬機器執行個體之後,保留折扣會自動套用至符合保留之屬性和數量的虛擬機器。After you buy an Azure Reserved Virtual Machine Instance, the reservation discount is automatically applied to virtual machines that match the attributes and quantity of the reservation. 保留會涵蓋虛擬機器的計算成本。A reservation covers the compute costs of your virtual machines.

保留折扣適用於您從 Azure Marketplace 購買的基礎 VM。A reservation discount applies to the base VMs that you purchase from the Azure Marketplace.

如需 SQL Database 保留容量,請參閱了解 Azure 保留的執行個體折扣For SQL Database reserved capacity, see Understand Azure Reserved Instances discount.

下表說明您購買保留的 VM 執行個體後的虛擬機器成本。The following table illustrates the costs for your virtual machine after you purchase a Reserved VM Instance. 在所有情況下,您都必須依標準費率支付儲存體和網路功能的費用。In all cases, you're charged for storage and networking at the normal rates.

虛擬機器類型Virtual Machine Type 保留的 VM 執行個體的費用Charges with Reserved VM Instance
沒有包含其他軟體的 Linux 虛擬機器Linux VMs without additional software 保留可涵蓋您的 VM 基礎結構成本。The reservation covers your VM infrastructure costs.
包含軟體 (例如 Red Hat) 費用的 Linux 虛擬機器Linux VMs with software charges (For example, Red Hat) 保留可涵蓋基礎結構成本。The reservation covers the infrastructure costs. 您必須支付其他軟體的費用。You're charged for additional software.
沒有包含其他軟體的 Windows 虛擬機器Windows VMs without additional software 保留可涵蓋基礎結構成本。The reservation covers the infrastructure costs. 您必須支付 Windows 軟體的費用。You're charged for Windows software.
包含其他軟體 (例如 SQL server) 的 Windows 虛擬機器Windows VMs with additional software (For example, SQL server) 保留可涵蓋基礎結構成本。The reservation covers the infrastructure costs. 您必須支付 Windows 軟體和其他軟體的費用。You're charged for Windows software and for additional software.
具有 Azure Hybrid Benefit 的 Windows 虛擬機器Windows VMs with Azure Hybrid Benefit 保留可涵蓋基礎結構成本。The reservation covers the infrastructure costs. Azure Hybrid Benefit 所涵蓋的 Windows 軟體成本。The Windows software costs are covered by the Azure Hybrid Benefit. 任何額外的軟體都是分開收費。Any additional software is charged separately.

保留折扣的套用方式How reservation discount is applied

保留折扣採「不用則作廢」 的原則。A reservation discount is "use-it-or-lose-it". 因此,如果您有任何一小時沒有相符的資源,就會失去該小時的保留數量。So, if you don't have matching resources for any hour, then you lose a reservation quantity for that hour. 您無法遞轉未使用的保留時數。You can't carry forward unused reserved hours.

當您關閉資源時,保留折扣會自動套用至指定範圍中另一個相符的資源。When you shut down a resource, the reservation discount automatically applies to another matching resource in the specified scope. 如果在指定的範圍內找不到相符的資源,則會「失去」 保留時數。If no matching resources are found in the specified scope, then the reserved hours are lost.

非 Windows VM 的保留折扣Reservation discount for non-Windows VMs

Azure 保留折扣會套用到正在執行的 VM 執行個體 (以小時計算)。The Azure reservation discount is applied to running VM instances on an hourly basis. 您購買的保留會與執行中虛擬機器發出的使用量進行比對,以便套用保留折扣。The reservations that you have purchased are matched to the usage emitted by the running VMs to apply the reservation discount. 對於沒有執行整個小時的 VM,保留會由其他不是使用保留的 VM (包括目前執行的 VM) 來填滿。For VMs that may not run the full hour, the reservation will be filled from other VMs not using a reservation, including concurrently running VMs. 在一個小時結束時,將鎖定該小時內的 VM 保留應用。At the end of the hour, the reservation application for VMs in the hour is locked. 如果 VM 執行時間未滿一小時,或該小時內的並行 VM 未填滿保留的一小時,即表示該小時的保留使用率過低。In the event a VM does not run for an hour or concurrent VMs within the hour do not fill the hour of the reservation, the reservation is underutilized for that hour. 下圖說明可計費虛擬機器使用量的保留應用。The following graph illustrates the application of a reservation to billable VM usage. 圖例是以一個購買的保留和兩個對應的虛擬機器執行個體為基礎。The illustration is based on one reservation purchase and two matching VM instances.

一個套用的保留執和兩個對應的 VM 執行個體的螢幕擷取畫面

  1. 任何超過保留線的使用量,都會依一般隨用隨付費率收費。Any usage that's above the reservation line gets charged at the regular pay-as-you-go rates. 您不用支付低於保留線的使用費用,因為此費用已涵蓋於所購買的保留內。You're not charged for any usage below the reservations line, since it has been already paid as part of reservation purchase.
  2. 在第一個 1 小時內,執行個體 1 執行了 0.75 個小時,而執行個體 2 執行了 0.5 小時。In hour 1, instance 1 runs for 0.75 hours and instance 2 runs for 0.5 hours. 第一個 1 小時的使用量總計為 1.25 小時。Total usage for hour 1 is 1.25 hours. 您必須為剩餘的 0.25 小時支付隨用隨付費率的費用。You're charged the pay-as-you-go rates for the remaining 0.25 hours.
  3. 針對第 2 小時和第 3 小時,兩個執行個體各執行 1 小時。For hour 2 and hour 3, both instances ran for 1 hour each. 一個執行個體涵蓋在保留內,而另一個執行個體須依隨用隨付的費率計費。One instance is covered by the reservation and the other is charged at pay-as-you-go rates.
  4. 針對第 4 個小時,執行個體 1 執行了 0.5 個小時,而執行個體 2 執行了 1 小時。For hour 4, instance 1 runs for 0.5 hours and instance 2 runs for 1 hour. 保留可完全涵蓋執行個體 1,並涵蓋了執行個體 2 的 0.5 個小時。Instance 1 is fully covered by the reservation and 0.5 hours of instance 2 is covered. 您必須為剩餘的 0.5 小時支付隨用隨付費率的費用。You’re charged the pay-as-you-go rate for the remaining 0.5 hours.

若要在計費使用量報告中了解及檢視 Azure 保留的應用,請參閱了解保留使用量To understand and view the application of your Azure Reservations in billing usage reports, see Understand reservation usage.

Windows VM 的保留折扣Reservation discount for Windows VMs

當您執行 Windows VM 執行個體時,系統會套用保留以涵蓋基礎結構成本。When you're running Windows VM instances, the reservation is applied to cover the infrastructure costs. 對於 Windows 虛擬機器,其虛擬機器基礎結構成本的保留應用與非 Windows 虛擬機器相同。The application of the reservation to the VM infrastructure costs for Windows VMs is the same as for non-Windows VMs. 您必須為以每個 vCPU 為單位計算的 Windows 軟體個別支付費用。You're charged separately for Windows software on a per vCPU basis. 請參閱 使用保留的 Windows 軟體成本See Windows software costs with Reservations. 您可以使用適用於 Windows Server 的 Azure Hybrid Benefit 來涵蓋 Windows 授權成本。You can cover your Windows licensing costs with Azure Hybrid Benefit for Windows Server.

折扣可套用於不同的大小Discount can apply to different sizes

當您購買保留的 VM 執行個體時,如果選取 [針對執行個體大小彈性最佳化],折扣範圍就會涵蓋您選取的 VM 大小。When you buy a Reserved VM Instance and select Optimized for instance size flexibility, the discount coverage applies to the VM size you select. 這也可以套用至相同系列執行個體大小彈性群組中的其他 VM 大小。It can also apply to other VMs sizes that are in the same series instance size flexibility group. 如需詳細資訊,請參閱利用保留的 VM 執行個體獲得虛擬機器大小彈性For more information, see Virtual machine size flexibility with Reserved VM Instances.

進階儲存體 VM 不提供非進階折扣Premium storage VMs don't get non-premium discounts

以下為範例。Here's an example. 假設您購買了五個 Standard_D1 VM 的保留,則保留折扣僅適用於相同執行個體系列中的 Standard_D1 VM 或其他 VM。Assume you bought a reservation for five Standard_D1 VMs, the reservation discount applies only to Standard_D1 VMs or other VMs in the same instance family. 折扣不適用於 DS1 執行個體大小彈性群組中的 Standard_DS1 VM 或其他大小。The discount doesn't apply to Standard_DS1 VM or other sizes in the DS1 instance size flexibility group.

保留折扣應用程式會忽略 VM 使用的計量,而只會評估 serviceType。The reservation discount application ignores the meter used for VMs and only evaluates ServiceType. 查看 AdditionalInfo 中的 ServiceType 值,以判斷 VM 的執行個體彈性群組/系列資訊。Look at the ServiceType value in AdditionalInfo to determine the instance flexibility group/series information for your VMs. 這些值位於您的使用量 CSV 檔案中。The values are in your usage CSV file.

購買後,您無法直接變更保留的執行個體彈性群組/系列。You can't directly change the instance flexibility group/series of the reservation after purchase. 不過,您可以將 VM 保留從一個執行個體彈性群組/系列「交換」到另一個執行個體彈性群組/系列。However, you can exchange a VM reservation from one instance flexibility group/series to another.

取得 VM 保留折扣的服務Services that get VM reservation discounts

您的 VM 保留可套用至從多個服務發出的 VM 使用量,而不只是針對您的 VM 部署。Your VM reservations can apply to VM usage emitted from multiple services - not just for your VM deployments. 取得保留折扣的資源會根據執行個體大小彈性設定而變更。Resources that get reservation discounts change depending on the instance size flexibility setting.

執行個體大小彈性設定Instance size flexibility setting

執行個體大小彈性設定會決定哪些服務可取得保留執行個體折扣。The instance size flexibility setting determines which services get the reserved instance discounts.

無論是開啟或關閉設定,保留折扣都會在 ConsumedServiceMicrosoft.Compute 時,自動套用至任何相符的 VM 使用量。Whether the setting is on or off, reservation discounts automatically apply to any matching VM usage when the ConsumedService is Microsoft.Compute. 因此,請檢查您的使用量資料是否有 ConsumedService 值。So, check your usage data for the ConsumedService value. 部分範例包括:Some examples include:

  • 虛擬機器Virtual machines
  • 虛擬機器擴展集Virtual machine scale sets
  • 容器服務Container service
  • Azure Batch 部署 (在使用者訂用帳戶模式中)Azure Batch deployments (in user subscriptions mode)
  • Azure Kubernetes Service (AKS)Azure Kubernetes Service (AKS)
  • Service FabricService Fabric

若設為開啟,保留折扣會在 ConsumedService 為下列任何項目時,自動套用至相符的 VM 使用量:When the setting is on, reservation discounts automatically apply to matching VM usage when the ConsumedService is any of the following items:

  • Microsoft.ComputeMicrosoft.Compute
  • Microsoft.ClassicComputeMicrosoft.ClassicCompute
  • Microsoft.BatchMicrosoft.Batch
  • Microsoft.MachineLearningServicesMicrosoft.MachineLearningServices
  • Microsoft.KustoMicrosoft.Kusto

檢查使用量資料中的 ConsumedService 值,以判斷使用量是否符合保留折扣的資格。Check the ConsumedService value in your usage data to determine if the usage is eligible for reservation discounts.

如需執行個體大小彈性的詳細資訊,請參閱利用保留的 VM 執行個體獲得虛擬機器大小彈性For more information about instance size flexibility, see Virtual machine size flexibility with Reserved VM Instances.

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後續步驟Next steps

若要深入了解 Azure 保留項目,請參閱下列文章:To learn more about Azure Reservations, see the following articles: