如何透過 Azure 成本管理將雲端投資最佳化How to optimize your cloud investment with Azure Cost Management

Azure 成本管理可提供您規劃、分析以及減少費用,以便將雲端投資發揮到極致的工具。Azure Cost Management gives you the tools to plan for, analyze and reduce your spending to maximize your cloud investment. 本文件為您提供了一種有條理的成本管理方法,並強調在您解決組織的成本挑戰時可以使用的工具。This document provides you with a methodical approach to cost management and highlights the tools available to you as you address your organization’s cost challenges. Azure 可讓您輕鬆建置及部署雲端解決方案。Azure makes it easy to build and deploy cloud solutions. 但是,這些解決方案必須經過最佳化,才能將組織的成本降到最低。However, it's important that those solutions are optimized to minimize the cost to your organization. 依照本文件中所述的原則,並使用我們的工具將有助於確保貴組織做好成功的準備。Following the principles outlined in this document and using our tools will help to make sure your organization is prepared for success.

方法Methodology

成本管理是組織的問題,而且應該是在您投資雲端資源之前就開始持續進行的工作。Cost management is an organizational problem and should be an ongoing practice that begins before you spend money on cloud resources. 若要成功實施成本管理,並將成本最佳化,貴組織必須:To successfully implement cost management and optimize costs, your organization must:

  • 備妥可讓您邁向成功的適當工具Be prepared with the proper tools for success
  • 對成本負責Be accountable for costs
  • 採取適當的動作,將費用最佳化Take appropriate action to optimize spending

貴組織必須符合以下所列的三個關鍵群組,才能確保您成功管理成本。Three key groups, outlined below, must be aligned in your organization to make sure that you successfully manage costs.

  • 財務 - 負責根據雲端費用預測,核准整個組織預算申請的人員。Finance - People responsible for approving budget requests across the organization based on cloud spending forecasts. 他們會支付相對應的帳單,並將成本指派給各個小組以劃分權責。They pay the corresponding bill and assign costs to various teams to drive accountability.
  • 經理 - 組織中的業務決策者,必須了解雲端費用,才能找出最佳費用結果。Managers - Business decision makers in an organization that need to understand cloud spending to find the best spending results.
  • 應用程式小組 - 管理雲端資源的工程師會以每天為基礎,開發服務以符合組織的需求。App teams - Engineers managing cloud resources on a day-to-day basis, developing services to meet the organization's needs. 這些小組需要在其定義的預算中提供最高價值的彈性。These teams need the flexibility to deliver the most value in their defined budgets.

主要原則Key principles

使用以下所述的原則,為貴組織在雲端成本管理方面的成就定位。Use the principles outlined below to position your organization for success in cloud cost management.

規劃Planning

全方位的前期規劃可讓您根據特定的業務需求,量身打造雲端使用情況。Comprehensive, up-front planning allows you to tailor cloud usage to your specific business requirements. 自問:Ask yourself:

  • 我要解決哪些業務問題?What business problem am I solving?
  • 我預期資源有哪些使用模式?What usage patterns do I expect from my resources?

您的答案將協助您選擇最適合您的供應項目。Your answers will help you select the offerings that are right for you. 它們會決定要使用的基礎架構以及如何用於將 Azure 的效率發揮到極致。They determine the infrastructure to use and how it's used to maximize your Azure efficiency.

可見度Visibility

如果結構良好,成本管理可協助您告知人員所負責的 Azure 成本或所花的錢。When structured well, Cost Management helps you to inform people about the Azure costs they're responsible for or for the money they spend. Azure 的服務專門針對深入了解錢花在哪裡而設計。Azure has services designed to give you insight into where your money is spent. 利用這些工具。Take advantage of these tools. 這些工具有助於找出未充分使用的資源、消除浪費,並將節省成本的機會發揮到極致。They can help you find resources that are underused, remove waste, and maximize cost-saving opportunities.

責任Accountability

歸納組織中的成本,以確保負責的人員對其小組的費用負責。Attribute costs in your organization to make sure that people responsible are accountable for their team's spending. 若要充分了解貴組織的 Azure 費用,您應該整理資源並仔細歸納成本。To fully understand your organization's Azure spending, you should organize your resources to maximize insight into cost attribution. 良好的組織有助於管理並降低成本,並使人員對組織中的有效費用負責。Good organization helps to manage and reduce costs and hold people accountable for efficient spending in your organization.

最佳化Optimization

採取行動以減少費用。Act to reduce your spending. 根據透過規劃和增加成本可見度而蒐集到的結果充分發揮。Make the most of it based on the findings gathered through planning and increasing cost visibility. 您可以考慮購買及授權最佳化,以及本文件稍後將詳細討論的基礎架構部署變更。You might consider purchase and licensing optimizations along with infrastructure deployment changes that are discussed in detail later in this document.

重複項目Iteration

組織中的每個人都必須參與成本管理生命週期。Everyone in your organization must engage in the cost management lifecycle. 他們必須持續參與,以便將成本最佳化。They need to stay involved on an ongoing basis to optimize costs. 嚴格遵循此反覆運算過程,使其成為貴組織中負責雲端治理的重要租用戶。Be rigorous about this iterative process and make it a key tenet of responsible cloud governance in your organization.

顯示可見性、責任和最佳化的主要準則圖表

使用成本用心規劃Plan with cost in mind

部署雲端資源之前,請評估下列項目:Before you deploy cloud resources, assess the following items:

  • 最符合您需求的 Azure 供應項目The Azure offer that best meets your needs
  • 您打算使用的資源The resources you plan to use
  • 這些資源可能的成本How much they might cost

Azure 會提供工具來協助您評估程序。Azure provides tools to assist you in the assessment process. 這些工具可讓您了解啟用工作負載所需的投資。The tools can give you a good idea of the investment required to enable your workloads. 然後,您可以為您的情況選擇最佳設定。Then you can select the best configuration for your situation.

Azure 上架選項Azure onboarding options

將成本管理中的經驗發揮到極致的第一個步驟是調查並決定最適合您的 Azure 供應項目。The first step in maximizing your experience within Cost Management is to investigate and decide which Azure offer is best for you. 請思考您打算在未來如何使用 Azure。Think about how you plan to use Azure in the future. 也請考慮您要如何設定計費模式。Also consider how you want your billing model configured. 做決定時,請考慮下列問題:Consider the following questions when making your decision:

  • 我打算使用 Azure 多久?How long do I plan to use Azure? 我是要測試還是打算建置更長期的基礎架構?Am I testing, or do I plan to build longer-term infrastructure?
  • 我想要如何支付 Azure 費用?How do I want to pay for Azure? 我應該預付較低的價格還是在月底開發票?Should I prepay for a reduced price or get invoiced at the end of the month?

若要深入了解各種選項,請造訪如何購買 AzureTo learn more about the various options, visit How to buy Azure. 以下是幾個最常見的計費模式。Several of the most common billing models are identified below.

免費Free

  • 12 個月的熱門免費服務12 months of popular free services
  • 使用 200 美元的信用額度探索服務 30 天$200 in credit to explore services for 30 days
  • 25 項以上的服務一律免費25+ services are always free

隨用隨付Pay as you go

  • 沒有最低金額或承諾用量No minimums or commitments
  • 具有競爭力的價格Competitive Pricing
  • 用多少付多少Pay only for what you use
  • 可隨時取消Cancel anytime

Enterprise 合約Enterprise Agreement

  • 預付承諾用量的選項Options for up-front monetary commitments
  • 取得較低的 Azure 定價Access to reduced Azure pricing

預估解決方案的成本Estimate the cost of your solution

部署任何基礎架構之前,請評估解決方案的費用。Before you deploy any infrastructure, assess how much your solution will cost. 評估將有助於為貴組織前期的工作負載建立預算。The assessment will help you create a budget for your organization for the workload, up-front. 接著,您可以使用預算一段時間,來衡量初始估計有效性的基準。Then you can use a budget over time to benchmark the validity of your initial estimation. 此外,您可以將其與已部署之解決方案的實際成本相比較。And you can compare it with the actual cost of your deployed solution.

Azure 定價計算機Azure pricing calculator

Azure 定價計算機可讓您混合及比對不同的 Azure 服務組合,以查看成本估計值。The Azure pricing calculator allows you to mix and match different combinations of Azure services to see an estimate of the costs. 您可以在 Azure 中使用不同的方式實作解決方案,每個方式都可能會影響您的整體費用。You can implement your solution using different ways in Azure - each might influence your overall spending. 及早思考雲端部署的所有基礎架構需求可協助您最有效地使用此工具。Thinking early about all of the infrastructure needs of your cloud deployment helps you use the tool most effectively. 此工具可以協助您在 Azure 中準確估算預估的費用。It can help you get a solid estimate of your estimated spending in Azure.

如需詳細資訊,請參閱 Azure 定價計算機For more information, see the Azure pricing calculator.

Azure MigrateAzure Migrate

Azure Migrate 是一種服務,可評估貴組織在內部部署資料中心內的目前工作負載。Azure Migrate is a service that assesses your organization's current workloads in on-premises datacenters. 它可讓您深入了解您需要從 Azure 替代方案獲得的服務。It gives you insight into what you might need from an Azure replacement solution. 首先,Migrate 會分析您的內部部署電腦,以判斷移轉是否可行。First, Migrate analyzes your on-premises machines to determine whether migration is feasible. 接著,它會建議 Azure 中的 VM 大小,以便將效能發揮到極致。Then, it recommends VM sizing in Azure to maximize performance. 最後,它也會建立以 Azure 為基礎的解決方案成本預估。Finally, it also creates a cost estimate for an Azure-based solution.

如需詳細資訊,請參閱 Azure MigrateFor more information, see Azure Migrate.

分析和管理成本Analyze and manage your costs

隨時了解貴組織成本如何變化。Keep informed about how your organization's costs evolve over time. 使用下列技術正確了解並管理您的費用。Use the following techniques to properly understand and manage your spending.

組織和標記資源Organize and tag your resources

使用成本用心組織您的資源。Organize your resources with cost in mind. 當您建立訂用帳戶和資源群組時,請思考負責相關聯成本的小組。As you create subscriptions and resource groups, think about the teams that are responsible for associated costs. 請確定您的報告會牢記您的組織。Make sure your reporting keeps your organization in mind. 訂用帳戶和資源群組提供良好的值區,以整理並歸納整個組織的費用。Subscriptions and resource groups provide good buckets to organize and attribute spending across your organization. 標記提供良好的歸納成本方式。Tags provide a good way to attribute cost. 您可以使用標記作為篩選條件。You can use tags as a filter. 此外,當您分析資料以及調查成本時,您可以使用標記來分組。And you can use them to group by when you analyze data and investigate costs. Enterprise 合約客戶也可以建立部門,並將訂用帳戶放在其下。Enterprise Agreement customers can also create departments and place subscriptions under them. 在 Azure 中,以成本為基礎的組織有助於將負責減少其小組費用的相關人員保留在您組織中。Cost-based organization in Azure helps keep the relevant people in your organization accountable for reducing their team's spending.

使用成本分析Use cost analysis

成本分析可讓您使用標準資源屬性細分您的成本,以深入分析您組織的成本。Cost analysis allows you to analyze your organizational costs in-depth by slicing and dicing your costs using standard resource properties. 請考慮下列常見的問題作為分析的指南。Consider the following common questions as a guide for your analysis. 定期回答這些問題將協助您掌握更多資訊,並做出更具成本意識的決策。Answering these questions on a regular basis will help you stay more informed and enable more cost-conscious decisions.

  • 當月預估成本 – 這個月到目前為止我產生了多少費用?Estimated costs for the current month – How much have I incurred so far this month? 我將維持在預算之內嗎?Will I stay under my budget?
  • 調查異常 – 進行例行檢查,以確定成本維持在合理的正常使用範圍內。Investigate anomalies – Do routine checks to make sure that costs stay within a reasonable range of normal usage. 趨勢為何?What are the trends? 是否有任何異常值?Are there any outliers?
  • 發票對帳 - 我最近的發票費用是否超過上個月?Invoice reconciliation - Is my latest invoiced cost more than the previous month? 每月消費習慣如何變化?How did spending habits change month-over-month?
  • 內部退款 - 既然我知道自己收取了多少費用,那麼如何為我的組織將這些費用分類?Internal chargeback - Now that I know how much I'm being charged, how should those charges be broken down for my organization?

如需詳細資訊,請參閱成本分析For more information, see cost analysis.

排程匯出帳單資料Export billing data on a schedule

您需要將帳單資料匯入外部系統,例如儀表板或財務系統嗎?Do you need to import your billing data into an external system, like a dashboard or financial system? 設定自動匯出至 Azure 儲存體的作業,並避免逐月手動下載檔案。Set up automated exports to Azure Storage and avoid manually downloading files every month. 接著,您即可輕鬆設定與其他系統的自動整合,讓您的帳單資料保持同步。You can then easily set up automatic integrations with other systems to keep your billing data in sync.

如需有關匯出帳單資料的詳細資訊,請參閱建立和管理匯出的資料For more information about exporting billing data, see Create and manage exported data.

建立預算Create budgets

在您找出並分析您的消費模式之後,務必開始為自己和您的小組設定限制。After you've identified and analyzed your spending patterns, it's important to begin setting limits for yourself and your teams. Azure 預算讓您能夠設定以成本或使用量為基礎的預算,且其中包含多個臨界值與警示。Azure budgets give you the ability to set either a cost or usage-based budget with many thresholds and alerts. 請務必審核您定期建立的預算,以查看您的預算燃盡進度,並視需要進行變更。Make sure to review the budgets that you create regularly to see your budget burn-down progress and make changes as needed. Azure 預算也可讓您設定達到指定預算臨界值時的自動化觸發程序,。Azure budgets also allow you to configure an automation trigger when a given budget threshold is reached. 例如,您可以設定您的服務關閉 VM。For example, you can configure your service to shut down VMs. 或者,您可以將基礎架構移至不同的定價層,以回應預算觸發程序。Or you can move your infrastructure to a different pricing tier in response to a budget trigger.

如需詳細資訊,請參閱 Azure 預算For more information, see Azure Budgets.

如需有關以預算為基礎之自動化的詳細資訊,請參閱以預算為基礎的自動化For more information about budget-based automation, see Budget Based Automation.

採取最佳化行動Act to optimize

使用下列方式將費用最佳化。Use the following ways to optimize spending.

減少浪費Cut out waste

在 Azure 中部署基礎架構之後,務必確定正在使用它。After you've deployed your infrastructure in Azure, it's important to make sure it is being used. 立即開始儲存最簡單的方式是檢閱您的資源,並移除未在使用的所有資源。The easiest way to start saving immediately is to review your resources and remove any that aren't being used. 您應該從該處判斷資源是否已盡可能有效率地使用。From there, you should determine if your resources are being used as efficiently as possible.

Azure 建議程式Azure Advisor

Azure Advisor 是一種服務,除此之外,可從 CPU 或網路使用方式觀點,識別低使用率的虛擬機器。Azure Advisor is a service that, among other things, identifies virtual machines with low utilization from a CPU or network usage standpoint. 您可以從該處根據預估的成本,決定要關閉機器還是調整其大小,以繼續運轉機器。From there, you can decide to either shut down or resize the machine based on the estimated cost to continue running the machines. Advisor 也會提供保留的執行個體購買建議。Advisor also provides recommendations for reserved instance purchases. 這些建議是以您過去 30 天內的虛擬機器使用情況為基礎。The recommendations are based on your last 30 days of virtual machine usage. 採取行動時,建議有助於減少費用。When acted on, the recommendations can help you reduce your spending.

如需詳細資訊,請參閱 Azure AdvisorFor more information, see Azure Advisor.

適當地調整 VM 的大小Size your VMs properly

VM 大小對於整體 Azure 費用會造成重大的影響。VM sizing has a significant impact on your overall Azure cost. Azure 中需要的 VM 數目可能不等於目前在內部部署資料中心內部署的 VM 數目。The number of VMs needed in Azure might not equate to what you currently have deployed in an on-premises datacenter. 請務必為您打算執行的工作負載,選擇適當的大小。Make sure your choose the right size for the workloads that you plan to run.

如需詳細資訊,請參閱 Azure IaaS: proper sizing and costFor more information, see Azure IaaS: proper sizing and cost.

使用購買折扣Use purchase discounts

Azure 有許多組織可以利用的折扣以節省成本。Azure has many discounts that your organization should take advantage of to save money.

Azure ReservationsAzure Reservations

Azure 保留可讓您預付一年或三年期的虛擬機器或 SQL Database 計算容量。Azure Reservations allow you to prepay for one-year or three-years of virtual machine or SQL Database compute capacity. 預付費用可讓您在所使用的資源上取得折扣。Pre-paying will allow you to get a discount on the resources you use. Azure 保留可以大幅降低虛擬機器或 SQL Database 的計算成本。透過預付一年或三年期的承諾用量費用,即可節省高達隨用隨付價格的 72%。Azure reservations can significantly reduce your virtual machine or SQL database compute costs — up to 72 percent on pay-as-you-go prices with one-year or three-year upfront commitment. 保留會提供計費折扣,且不會影響虛擬機器或 SQL Database 的執行階段狀態。Reservations provide a billing discount and don't affect the runtime state of your virtual machines or SQL databases.

如需詳細資訊,請參閱什麼是 Azure 保留?For more information, see What are Azure Reservations?.

使用 Azure Hybrid BenefitUse Azure Hybrid Benefit

如果您在內部部署中已經有 Windows Server 或 SQL Server 授權,您可以使用 Azure Hybrid Benefit 程式儲存在 Azure 中。If you already have Windows Server or SQL Server licenses in your on-premises deployments, you can use the Azure Hybrid Benefit program to save in Azure. 利用 Windows Server 權益,每個授權都涵蓋 OS (最多兩部虛擬機器上) 的費用,而您只需支付基礎計算費用。With the Windows Server benefit, each license covers the cost of the OS (up to two virtual machines), and you only pay for base compute costs. 您可以使用現有的 SQL Server 授權,最多節省 55% 的 vCore 型 SQL Database 選項。You can use existing SQL Server licenses to save up to 55 percent on vCore-based SQL Database options. 選項包括 Azure 虛擬機器和 SQL Server Integration Services 中的 SQL Server。Options include SQL Server in Azure Virtual Machines and SQL Server Integration Services.

如需詳細資訊,請參閱 Azure Hybrid Benefit 節費計算機For more information, see Azure Hybrid Benefit savings calculator.

其他資源Other resources

Azure 還提供一項服務,可讓您建置能夠利用 Azure 中的剩餘容量來降低費率的服務。Azure also has a service that allows you to build services that take advantage of surplus capacity in Azure for reduced rates. 如需詳細資訊,請參閱使用低優先順序的 VM 搭配 BatchFor more information, see Use low priority VMs with Batch.

後續步驟Next steps

  • 如果您不熟悉成本管理,請閱讀什麼是 Azure 成本管理?來了解它如何協助您監視及控制 Azure 費用,以便將資源使用狀況最佳化。If you're new to Cost Management, read What is Azure Cost Management? to learn how it helps monitor and control Azure spending and to optimize resource use.