選擇進程Choose a process

Azure Boards |Azure DevOps Server 2020 |Azure DevOps Server 2019 |TFS 2018-TFS 2013Azure Boards | Azure DevOps Server 2020 | Azure DevOps Server 2019 | TFS 2018 - TFS 2013

每當您建立專案時,都必須根據您所使用的進程模型來選擇進程或流程範本。Anytime you create a project, you must choose a process or process template based on the process model you use.

  • 程式 會定義工作 專案追蹤系統的組建區塊,並支援 Azure Boards 的繼承程式模型。A process defines the building blocks of the work item tracking system and supports the Inheritance process model for Azure Boards. 此模型支援透過 WYSIWYG 使用者介面來自訂專案。This model supports customization of projects through a WYSIWYG user interface.
  • 流程範本 定義了工作專案追蹤系統的組建區塊,以及您透過 Azure Boards 或內部部署 Azure DevOps Server 或 TEAM FOUNDATION SERVER (TFS) 存取的其他子系統。A process template defines the building blocks of the work item tracking system as well as other sub-systems you access through Azure Boards or an on-premises Azure DevOps Server or Team Foundation Server (TFS). 它支援裝載的 XML 和內部部署 XML 程式模型,可透過修改和匯入 XML 定義檔的方式來支援專案的自訂。It supports Hosted XML and On-premises XML process models which support customization of projects through the modification and import of XML definition files.

注意

如需有關設定和自訂專案和小組以支援商務需求的指引,請參閱 Azure Boards 的設定和自訂For guidance on configuring and customizing your project and teams to support your business needs, review Configuration and customization of Azure Boards.

如需使用您選擇的流程建立專案的詳細資訊,請參閱 建立專案For details on creating a project using the process of your choice, see Create a project. 若要深入瞭解流程模型,請參閱 自訂您的工作追蹤體驗To learn more about process models, see Customize your work tracking experience.

提示

使用 Azure DevOps Server,您可以選擇使用繼承的進程模型或內部部署 XML 進程模型。With Azure DevOps Server, you can choose between using the Inherited process model or the On-premises XML process model. 如需詳細資訊,請參閱 自訂您的工作追蹤體驗,選擇專案集合的進程模型For details, see Customize your work tracking experience, Choose the process model for your project collection. 若要存取預設進程/流程範本的最新版本:To access the latest versions of the default processes/process templates:

提示

若要存取預設流程範本的最新版本:To access the latest versions of the default process templates:

預設進程和流程範本中所包含的工作追蹤物件 — (Basic、Agile、CMMI 和 Scrum) — 都相同,而且摘要如下。The work tracking objects contained within the default processes and process templates—Basic, Agile, CMMI, and Scrum—are the same and are summarized below. 您可以從 Azure DevOps Server 2019.1 和更新版本取得基本流程。The Basic process is available from Azure DevOps Server 2019.1 and later versions. 為了簡單起見,它們稱為「進程」。For simplicity, they are referred to as a "process."

提示

若要查看及管理繼承的進程模型,請參閱 管理進程To view and manage Inherited process models, see Manage processes.

Basic、Agile、Scrum 和 CMMIBasic, Agile, Scrum, and CMMI

預設的流程主要不同于 (Wit 的工作專案類型,) 它們提供用於規劃和追蹤工作的工作專案類型。The default processes differ mainly in the work item types (WITs) they provide for planning and tracking work.

「基本」是最輕量的,且處於選擇性預覽。Basic is the most lightweight and is in a selective Preview. Scrum 是下一個最輕量的功能。Scrum is the next most light-weight. Agile 支援許多 Agile 方法詞彙,而 CMMI (代表功能成熟度模型整合)可提供對正式程式和變更管理的最大支援。Agile supports many Agile method terms, and CMMI, which stands for Capability Maturity Model Integration, provides the most support for formal processes and change management.

注意

Azure DevOps Server 2019 Update 1和更新版本有提供基本的流程。The Basic process is available with Azure DevOps Server 2019 Update 1 and later versions.

選擇為您的小組提供最適合的流程。Choose the process that provides the best fit for your team.

注意

Azure Boards 和 TFS 2015 和更新版本都支援 Epics。Epics are supported on Azure Boards and TFS 2015 and later versions. 每個小組都可以選擇使用中的待處理專案(backlog)層級,如為 您的小組選取待處理專案導覽等級所述Each team can choose the backlog levels that are active as described in Select backlog navigation levels for your team.

基本Basic

當您的小組想要使用問題、工作和 Epics 的最簡單模型來追蹤工作時,請選擇 [ 基本 ]。Choose Basic when your team wants the simplest model that uses Issues, Tasks, and Epics to track work. 注意: Basic 目前僅針對 Azure Boards 的新使用者提供選擇性預覽。Note: Basic is currently in a selective Preview for new users of Azure Boards only.

工作支援追蹤剩餘的工作。Tasks support tracking Remaining Work.

Basic work item types

敏捷Agile

當您的小組使用 Agile 規劃方法(包括 Scrum),並個別追蹤開發和測試活動時,請選擇 agileChoose Agile when your team uses Agile planning methods, including Scrum, and tracks development and test activities separately. 如果您想要追蹤使用者案例,並 (選擇性地) 看板面板上的 bug,或是在工作面板上追蹤 bug 和工作,此程式的效果很好。This process works great if you want to track user stories and (optionally) bugs on the Kanban board, or track bugs and tasks on the taskboard.

您可以在 Agile 聯盟中深入瞭解 agile 方法。You can learn more about Agile methodologies at the Agile Alliance.

工作支援追蹤原始估計、剩餘工作和已完成工作。Tasks support tracking Original Estimate, Remaining Work, and Completed Work.

Agile work item types

ScrumScrum

當您的小組實務 Scrum 時,選擇 scrumChoose Scrum when your team practices Scrum. 如果您想要追蹤產品待處理專案(backlog) (Pbi 儀表板面板上的) 和 bug,或是將 Pbi 和 bug 細分到工作面板上的工作,這個程式就很好用。This process works great if you want to track product backlog items (PBIs) and bugs on the Kanban board, or break PBIs and bugs down into tasks on the taskboard.

此流程支援 scrum 組織所定義的 scrum 方法。This process supports the Scrum methodology as defined by the Scrum organization.

工作僅支援追蹤剩餘的工作。Tasks support tracking remaining work only.

Scrum work item types

CMMICMMI

當您的小組遵循更正式的專案方法,而這些方法需要流程改善的架構和可審核的決策記錄時,請選擇 CMMIChoose CMMI when your team follows more formal project methods that require a framework for process improvement and an auditable record of decisions. 透過此程式,您可以追蹤需求、變更要求、風險和評論。With this process, you can track requirements, change requests, risks, and reviews.

此程式支援 正式的變更管理活動This process supports formal change management activities. 工作支援追蹤原始估計、剩餘工作和已完成工作。Tasks support tracking Original Estimate, Remaining Work, and Completed Work.

CMMI work item types

如果您需要兩個或三個以上的待處理專案層級,您可以根據所使用的進程模型加入更多專案:If you need more than two or three backlog levels, you can add more based on the process model you use:

預設處理常式之間的主要差異Main distinctions among the default processes

預設處理常式的設計是為了滿足大部分小組的需求。The default processes are designed to meet the needs of most teams. 如果您的小組有不尋常的需求,並連接到內部部署伺服器,您可以自訂處理常式,然後建立專案。If your team has unusual needs and connects to an on-premises server, you can customize a process and then create the project. 或者,您可以從進程建立專案,然後自訂專案。Or, you can create a project from a process and then customize the project.

下表摘要說明四個預設處理常式所使用之 Wit 和狀態之間的主要差異。The following table summarizes the main distinctions between the WITs and states used by the four default processes.

追蹤區域 Tracking area 基本 Basic 敏捷 Agile Scrum Scrum Cmmi CMMI
工作流程狀態Workflow states
  • 操作方法To Do
  • 正在進行Doing
  • 完成Done
  • 新增New
  • 使用中Active
  • 已解決Resolved
  • 封閉式Closed
  • 移除Removed
  • 新增New
  • 已核准Approved
  • 認可Committed
  • 完成Done
  • 移除Removed
  • 已提議Proposed
  • 使用中Active
  • 已解決Resolved
  • 封閉式Closed
產品計劃 (請參閱第 1 點)Product planning (see note 1)
  • 問題Issue
  • 使用者劇本User story
  • Bug (選擇性) Bug (optional)
  • 產品待處理項目Product backlog item
  • Bug (選擇性) Bug (optional)
  • 需求Requirement
  • Bug (選擇性) Bug (optional)
待辦專案組合 (2) Portfolio backlogs (2)
  • EpicEpic
  • EpicEpic
  • 功能Feature
  • EpicEpic
  • 功能Feature
  • EpicEpic
  • 功能Feature
工作和短期衝刺規劃 (3) Task and sprint planning (3)
  • TaskTask
  • TaskTask
  • Bug (選擇性) Bug (optional)
  • TaskTask
  • Bug (選擇性) Bug (optional)
  • TaskTask
  • Bug (選擇性) Bug (optional)
Bug 待處理專案管理 (1) Bug backlog management (1)
  • 問題Issue
  • BugBug
  • BugBug
  • BugBug
問題和風險管理Issue and risk management
  • 問題Issue
  • 問題Issue
  • 阻礙Impediment
  • 問題Issue
  • 風險Risk
  • 檢閱Review

注意:Notes:

  1. 您可以從產品待處理專案 (backlog)看板面板加入這些 wit。You can add these WITs from the product backlog or Kanban board. 產品待處理專案(backlog)會顯示目前工作待處理專案(backlog)的單一視圖,可動態重新排序和分組。The product backlog shows a single view of the current backlog of work that can be dynamically re-ordered and grouped. 產品擁有者可以快速排定工作的優先順序,以及概述相依性和關聯性。Product owners can quickly prioritize work and outline dependencies and relationships.

    此外,每個小組都可以設定他們想要如何在其待處理專案 和麵板上顯示 bugAlso, each team can configure how they want bugs to show up on their backlogs and boards.

  2. 您可以使用 Portfolio 待處理項目定義待處理項目階層,了解跨多個小組的工作範圍並查看該工作如何彙總成更廣泛的解決方案。With portfolio backlogs you can define a hierarchy of backlogs to understand the scope of work across several teams and see how that work rolls up into broader initiatives. 每個小組都可以設定要顯示哪些待辦 專案組合,以供使用Each team can configure which portfolio backlogs appear for their use.

  3. 您可以從短期 衝刺待處理專案和工作面板定義工作You can define tasks from the sprint backlog and taskboard. 使用容量規劃時,小組可以快速判斷其是否超過或低於短期衝刺的產能。With capacity planning, teams can quickly determine if they are over or under capacity for a sprint.

工作流程狀態、轉換及原因Workflow states, transitions, and reasons

工作流程狀態支援在工作從新狀態移到已關閉或完成狀態時追蹤該工作的狀態。Workflow states support tracking the status of work as it moves from a new state to a closed or a done state. 每個工作流程是由一組狀態、狀態間的有效轉換,以及將工作項目轉換為選取狀態的原因所組成。Each workflow consists of a set of states, the valid transitions between the states, and the reasons for transitioning the work item to the selected state.

重要

針對 Azure DevOps Services 和 Azure DevOps Server 2019,預設工作流程轉換支援任何狀態轉換。For Azure DevOps Services and Azure DevOps Server 2019, the default workflow transitions support any state to any state transition. 您可以自訂這些工作流程來限制某些轉換。請參閱 自訂工作追蹤物件以支援小組的流程You can customize these workflows to restrict some transitions .See Customize work tracking objects to support your team's processes.

此外,您可以藉由安裝 狀態模型視覺效果 Markeplace 擴充功能,來查看每個工作專案類型的支援工作流程轉換。Also, you can view the supported workflow transitions for each work item type by installing the State Model Visualization Markeplace extension. 此延伸模組會在標示 狀態視覺化 的面板底下新增中樞。This extension adds a new hub under Boards labeled State Visualizer. 在該頁面上,您可以選擇工作專案類型,並查看工作流程狀態模型。On that page you can choose a work item type and view the workflow state model.

下圖顯示這些 Wit 用來追蹤三個預設進程之工作和程式碼瑕疵的一般向前進展。The following diagrams show the typical forward progression of those WITs used to track work and code defects for the three default processes. 它們也會顯示部分回到先前狀態的回復,以及轉為已移除狀態的轉換。They also show some of the regressions to former states and transitions to removed states. 每個影像只會顯示與轉換相關聯的預設原因。Each image shows only the default reason associated with the transition.

長篇,問題,工作階層Epic, Issue, Task hierarchy

Basic process work item hierarchy

長篇,問題,工作流程Epic, Issue, Task workflow

Basic process workflow

注意

當您從 Azure DevOps Services 或 Azure DevOps Server 2019.1建立新專案時,就可以使用基本程式。The Basic process is available when you create a new project from Azure DevOps Services or Azure DevOps Server 2019.1. 針對較早的內部部署,選擇 Agile、Scrum 或 CMMI 流程。For earlier on-premises deployments, choose Agile, Scrum, or CMMI process.

敏捷式工具(出現在待處理專案和麵板上的 Wit)所使用的大部分,都支援任何對任何轉換。Most WITs used by Agile tools, ones that appear on backlogs and boards, support any-to-any transitions. 您可以藉由將工作專案拖曳至其對應的 [狀態] 資料行,以更新工作專案的狀態。You can update the status of a work item using the Kanban board or the taskboard by dragging it to its corresponding state column.

您可以變更工作流程來支援其他狀態、轉換及原因。You can change the workflow to support additional states, transitions, and reasons. 若要深入瞭解,請參閱 自訂您的工作追蹤體驗To learn more, see Customize your work tracking experience.

已移除、已關閉,以及完成狀態Removed, Closed, and Done states

當您將工作項目的狀態變更為 [已移除]、[已關閉] 或 [完成] 之後,系統的回應如下:When you change the state of a work item to Removed, Closed, or Done, the system responds like this:

  • 已關閉完成:處於此狀態的工作專案不會出現在待辦專案組合和待處理專案(backlog)頁面上。Closed or Done: Work items in this state don't appear on the portfolio backlog and backlog pages. 不過,它們會顯示在短期衝刺待處理專案頁面、儀表板和工作面板上。However, they do appear on the sprint backlog pages, Kanban board, and taskboard. 此外,當您變更 Portfolio 待處理項目檢視以顯示待處理項目 (例如,若要檢視產品待處理項目的功能),就會顯示處於 [已關閉] 和 [完成] 狀態的項目。Also, when you change the portfolio backlog view to show backlog items, for example, to view Features to Product Backlog Items, items in the closed and done state will appear.
  • 已移除:處於此狀態的工作專案不會出現在任何待處理專案或面板上。Removed: Work items in this state don't appear on any backlog or board.

只要專案為使用中狀態,工作專案就會保留在專案中。Work items are maintained in a project as long as the project is active. 即使您將它們設為 [已關閉]、[完成] 或 [已移除],記錄都會保留在資料存放區中。Even if you set them to Closed, Done, or Removed, a record is kept in the data store. 您可以使用記錄來建立查詢或報告。You can use a record to create queries or reports.

如果您需要永久刪除工作專案,請參閱 移除或刪除工作專案If you need to permanently delete work items, see Remove or delete work items.

加入至所有進程的工作專案類型Work item types added to all processes

下列 Wit 會新增至所有進程,但基本程式除外。The following WITs are added to all processes except the Basic process.

Test Plans、Microsoft Test Manager、My Work 和意見反應所使用的工作專案類型

小組會使用對應的工具,建立並處理下列類型:Teams create and work with these types using the corresponding tool:

  • 測試計劃、測試套件、測試案例共用步驟和共用參數: Microsoft Test Manager。Test Plan, Test Suite, Test Case Shared Steps, and Shared Parameters: Microsoft Test Manager.
  • 意見要求和意見回應:要求意見。Feedback Request and Feedback Response: Request feedback.
  • 程式碼檢閱要求和程式碼檢閱回應:我的工作 (在 Team Explorer 中) 和程式碼檢閱要求。Code Review Request and Code Review Response: My Work (from Team Explorer) and Code Review Request.

這些類型定義中的工作項目並不適合手動建立,因此已加入至 [隱藏類型] 分類。Work items from these type definitions are not meant to be created manually and therefore are added to the Hidden Types category. 加入至隱藏類型分類的工作專案類型,不會出現在用來建立新工作專案的功能表中。Work item types that are added to the Hidden Types category don't appear in the menus used to create new work items.

注意

如果您將專案從 TFS 2013 或較舊版本升級到較新版本的 TFS,您可能必須新增不存在於舊版的 Wit。If you upgraded your project from TFS 2013 or an earlier version to a later version of TFS, you might have to add WITs that didn't exist in the earlier versions. 如需詳細資訊,請參閱在 TFS 升級後設定功能For more information, see Configure features after a TFS upgrade.

下列 Wit 是以指定的 TFS 版本新增:The following WITs were added with the indicated TFS version:

  • 使用 TFS 2013.2 新增的共用參數Shared Parameters added with TFS 2013.2
  • 使用 TFS 2013.3 加入的測試計劃和測試套件Test Plan and Test Suite added with TFS 2013.3

支援測試經驗的 WITWITs that support the test experience

支援測試體驗以及使用 Test Manager 和入口網站的 Wit,會使用下圖所示的連結類型連結在一起。WITs that support the test experience and work with Test Manager and the web portal are linked together using the link types shown in the following picture.

測試管理工作項目類型

您可以從入口網站或 Microsoft Test Manager,查看針對測試套件定義的測試案例,以及為測試計劃定義的測試套件。From the web portal or Microsoft Test Manager, you can view which test cases are defined for a test suite, and which test suites are defined for a test plan. 不過,這些物件不會透過連結類型彼此連接。However, these objects aren't connected to each other through link types. 自訂這些 WIT 的方式與自訂任何其他 WIT 一樣。You can customize these WITs as you would any other WIT. 請參閱 自訂工作追蹤物件以支援小組的流程See Customize work tracking objects to support your team's processes.

如果您變更測試計劃和測試套件的工作流程,則可能需要更新流程組態 (如這裡所述)。If you change the workflow for the test plan and test suite, you might need to update the process configuration as described here. 如需每個測試欄位的定義,請參閱以 組建和測試整合欄位為基礎的查詢For definitions of each test field, see Query based on build and test integration fields.

您可以在建立使用此處理程式的專案之前或之後,自訂處理常式。You can customize a process before or after you create a project that uses the process. 您使用的方法取決於您所使用的進程模型。The methods you use depend on the process model you use. 若要深入瞭解,請參閱 自訂您的工作追蹤體驗To learn more, see Customize your work tracking experience.

如果您有其他問題,請參閱 Azure DevOps 支援頁面If you have additional questions, see Azure DevOps support page.