IoT 隨插即用裝置開發人員指南

IoT 隨插即用可讓您建置 IoT 裝置,以向Azure IoT應用程式公告其功能。 IoT 隨插即用當客戶將裝置連線到啟用IoT 隨插即用的應用程式時,不需要手動設定。

IoT 裝置可以直接實作、使用模組或使用IoT Edge模組

本指南說明建立遵循IoT 隨插即用慣例的裝置、模組或IoT Edge模組所需的基本步驟。

若要建置IoT 隨插即用裝置、模組或IoT Edge模組,請遵循下列步驟:

  1. 請確定您的裝置使用 MQTT 或 MQTT over WebSockets 通訊協定來連線到Azure IoT 中樞。
  2. 建立 數位對應項定義語言 (DTDL) 模型來描述您的裝置。 若要深入瞭解,請參閱瞭解IoT 隨插即用模型中的元件
  3. 更新您的裝置或模組,將 宣告 model-id 為裝置連線的一部分。
  4. 使用IoT 隨插即用慣例實作遙測、屬性和命令

一旦裝置或模組實作準備就緒,請使用Azure IoT 總管來驗證裝置是否遵循IoT 隨插即用慣例。

模型識別碼公告

若要宣告模型識別碼,裝置必須將它包含在連線資訊中:

static const char g_ThermostatModelId[] = "dtmi:com:example:Thermostat;1";
IOTHUB_DEVICE_CLIENT_LL_HANDLE deviceHandle = NULL;
deviceHandle = CreateDeviceClientLLHandle();
iothubResult = IoTHubDeviceClient_LL_SetOption(
    deviceHandle, OPTION_MODEL_ID, g_ThermostatModelId);

提示

針對模組和IoT Edge,請使用 IoTHubModuleClient_LL 取代 IoTHubDeviceClient_LL

提示

這是裝置唯一可以設定模型識別碼的時間,無法在裝置連線之後更新。

DPS 承載

使用 裝置布建服務 (DPS) 的裝置 ,可以使用 modelId 下列 JSON 承載在布建程式期間使用 :

{
    "modelId" : "dtmi:com:example:Thermostat;1"
}

使用元件

瞭解IoT 隨插即用模型中的元件中所述,裝置產生器必須決定是否要使用元件來描述其裝置。 使用元件時,裝置必須遵循下列各節中所述的規則:

遙測

預設元件不需要新增至遙測訊息的任何特殊屬性。

使用巢狀元件時,裝置必須設定具有元件名稱的訊息屬性:

void PnP_ThermostatComponent_SendTelemetry(
    PNP_THERMOSTAT_COMPONENT_HANDLE pnpThermostatComponentHandle,
    IOTHUB_DEVICE_CLIENT_LL_HANDLE deviceClientLL)
{
    PNP_THERMOSTAT_COMPONENT* pnpThermostatComponent = (PNP_THERMOSTAT_COMPONENT*)pnpThermostatComponentHandle;
    IOTHUB_MESSAGE_HANDLE messageHandle = NULL;
    IOTHUB_CLIENT_RESULT iothubResult;

    char temperatureStringBuffer[32];

    if (snprintf(
        temperatureStringBuffer,
        sizeof(temperatureStringBuffer),
        g_temperatureTelemetryBodyFormat,
        pnpThermostatComponent->currentTemperature) < 0)
    {
        LogError("snprintf of current temperature telemetry failed");
    }
    else if ((messageHandle = PnP_CreateTelemetryMessageHandle(
        pnpThermostatComponent->componentName, temperatureStringBuffer)) == NULL)
    {
        LogError("Unable to create telemetry message");
    }
    else if ((iothubResult = IoTHubDeviceClient_LL_SendEventAsync(
        deviceClientLL, messageHandle, NULL, NULL)) != IOTHUB_CLIENT_OK)
    {
        LogError("Unable to send telemetry message, error=%d", iothubResult);
    }

    IoTHubMessage_Destroy(messageHandle);
}

// ...

PnP_ThermostatComponent_SendTelemetry(g_thermostatHandle1, deviceClient);

唯讀屬性

從預設元件報告屬性不需要任何特殊建構:

static const char g_maxTemperatureSinceRebootFormat[] = "{\"maxTempSinceLastReboot\":%.2f}";

char maxTemperatureSinceRebootProperty[256];

snprintf(
    maxTemperatureSinceRebootProperty,
    sizeof(maxTemperatureSinceRebootProperty),
    g_maxTemperatureSinceRebootFormat,
    38.7);

IOTHUB_CLIENT_RESULT iothubClientResult = IoTHubDeviceClient_LL_SendReportedState(
    deviceClientLL,
    (const unsigned char*)maxTemperatureSinceRebootProperty,
    strlen(maxTemperatureSinceRebootProperty), NULL, NULL));

裝置對應項會更新為下列報告屬性:

{
  "reported": {
      "maxTempSinceLastReboot" : 38.7
  }
}

使用巢狀元件時,必須在元件名稱內建立屬性,並包含標記:

STRING_HANDLE PnP_CreateReportedProperty(
    const char* componentName,
    const char* propertyName,
    const char* propertyValue
)
{
    STRING_HANDLE jsonToSend;

    if (componentName == NULL) 
    {
        jsonToSend = STRING_construct_sprintf(
            "{\"%s\":%s}",
            propertyName, propertyValue);
    }
    else 
    {
       jsonToSend = STRING_construct_sprintf(
            "{\"""%s\":{\"__t\":\"c\",\"%s\":%s}}",
            componentName, propertyName, propertyValue);
    }

    if (jsonToSend == NULL)
    {
        LogError("Unable to allocate JSON buffer");
    }

    return jsonToSend;
}

void PnP_TempControlComponent_Report_MaxTempSinceLastReboot_Property(
    PNP_THERMOSTAT_COMPONENT_HANDLE pnpThermostatComponentHandle,
    IOTHUB_DEVICE_CLIENT_LL_HANDLE deviceClientLL)
{
    PNP_THERMOSTAT_COMPONENT* pnpThermostatComponent =
        (PNP_THERMOSTAT_COMPONENT*)pnpThermostatComponentHandle;
    char maximumTemperatureAsString[32];
    IOTHUB_CLIENT_RESULT iothubClientResult;
    STRING_HANDLE jsonToSend = NULL;

    if (snprintf(maximumTemperatureAsString, sizeof(maximumTemperatureAsString),
        "%.2f", pnpThermostatComponent->maxTemperature) < 0)
    {
        LogError("Unable to create max temp since last reboot string for reporting result");
    }
    else if ((jsonToSend = PnP_CreateReportedProperty(
                pnpThermostatComponent->componentName,
                g_maxTempSinceLastRebootPropertyName,
                maximumTemperatureAsString)) == NULL)
    {
        LogError("Unable to build max temp since last reboot property");
    }
    else
    {
        const char* jsonToSendStr = STRING_c_str(jsonToSend);
        size_t jsonToSendStrLen = strlen(jsonToSendStr);

        if ((iothubClientResult = IoTHubDeviceClient_LL_SendReportedState(
                deviceClientLL,
                (const unsigned char*)jsonToSendStr,
                jsonToSendStrLen, NULL, NULL)) != IOTHUB_CLIENT_OK)
        {
            LogError("Unable to send reported state, error=%d", iothubClientResult);
        }
        else
        {
            LogInfo("Sending maximumTemperatureSinceLastReboot property to IoTHub for component=%s",
                pnpThermostatComponent->componentName);
        }
    }

    STRING_delete(jsonToSend);
}

// ...

PnP_TempControlComponent_Report_MaxTempSinceLastReboot_Property(g_thermostatHandle1, deviceClient);

裝置對應項會更新為下列報告屬性:

{
  "reported": {
    "thermostat1" : {  
      "__t" : "c",  
      "maxTemperature" : 38.7
     }
  }
}

可寫入的屬性

這些屬性可由裝置設定,或由解決方案更新。 如果解決方案更新屬性,用戶端會在 或 ModuleClientDeviceClient 收到回呼通知。 若要遵循IoT 隨插即用慣例,裝置必須通知服務已成功接收 屬性。

如果屬性類型為 Object ,服務就必須將完整物件傳送至裝置,即使它只更新物件的欄位子集也一樣。 裝置傳送的通知也可以是完整的物件。

報告可寫入屬性

當裝置報告可寫入的屬性時,它必須包含 ack 慣例中定義的值。

若要從預設元件報告可寫入的屬性:

IOTHUB_CLIENT_RESULT iothubClientResult;
char targetTemperatureResponseProperty[256];

snprintf(
    targetTemperatureResponseProperty,
    sizeof(targetTemperatureResponseProperty),
    "{\"targetTemperature\":{\"value\":%.2f,\"ac\":%d,\"av\":%d,\"ad\":\"%s\"}}",
    23.2, 200, 3, "Successfully updated target temperature");

iothubClientResult = IoTHubDeviceClient_LL_SendReportedState(
    deviceClientLL,
    (const unsigned char*)targetTemperatureResponseProperty,
    strlen(targetTemperatureResponseProperty), NULL, NULL);

裝置對應項會更新為下列報告屬性:

{
  "reported": {
      "targetTemperature": {
          "value": 23.2,
          "ac": 200,
          "av": 3,
          "ad": "Successfully updated target temperature"
      }
  }
}

若要從巢狀元件報告可寫入的屬性,對應項必須包含標記:

STRING_HANDLE PnP_CreateReportedPropertyWithStatus(const char* componentName,
    const char* propertyName, const char* propertyValue,
    int result, const char* description, int ackVersion
)
{
    STRING_HANDLE jsonToSend;

    if (componentName == NULL) 
    {
        jsonToSend = STRING_construct_sprintf(
            "{\"%s\":{\"value\":%s,\"ac\":%d,\"ad\":\"%s\",\"av\":%d}}",
            propertyName, propertyValue,
            result, description, ackVersion);
    }
    else
    {
       jsonToSend = STRING_construct_sprintf(
            "{\"""%s\":{\"__t\":\"c\",\"%s\":{\"value\":%s,\"ac\":%d,\"ad\":\"%s\",\"av\":%d}}}",
            componentName, propertyName, propertyValue,
            result, description, ackVersion);
    }

    if (jsonToSend == NULL)
    {
        LogError("Unable to allocate JSON buffer");
    }

    return jsonToSend;
}

// ...

char targetTemperatureAsString[32];
IOTHUB_CLIENT_RESULT iothubClientResult;
STRING_HANDLE jsonToSend = NULL;

snprintf(targetTemperatureAsString,
    sizeof(targetTemperatureAsString),
    "%.2f",
    23.2);
jsonToSend = PnP_CreateReportedPropertyWithStatus(
    "thermostat1",
    "targetTemperature",
    targetTemperatureAsString,
    200,
    "complete",
    3);

const char* jsonToSendStr = STRING_c_str(jsonToSend);
size_t jsonToSendStrLen = strlen(jsonToSendStr);

iothubClientResult = IoTHubDeviceClient_LL_SendReportedState(
    deviceClientLL,
    (const unsigned char*)jsonToSendStr,
    jsonToSendStrLen, NULL, NULL);

STRING_delete(jsonToSend);

裝置對應項會更新為下列報告屬性:

{
  "reported": {
    "thermostat1": {
      "__t" : "c",
      "targetTemperature": {
          "value": 23.2,
          "ac": 200,
          "av": 3,
          "ad": "complete"
      }
    }
  }
}

訂閱所需的屬性更新

服務可以更新所需的屬性,以在連線的裝置上觸發通知。 此通知包含更新所需的屬性,包括識別更新的版本號碼。 裝置必須在傳回給服務的訊息中包含 ack 此版本號碼。

預設元件會看見單一屬性,並使用收到的版本建立報告 ack

static void Thermostat_DeviceTwinCallback(
    DEVICE_TWIN_UPDATE_STATE updateState,
    const unsigned char* payload,
    size_t size,
    void* userContextCallback)
{
    // The device handle associated with this request is passed as the context,
    // since we will need to send reported events back.
    IOTHUB_DEVICE_CLIENT_LL_HANDLE deviceClientLL =
        (IOTHUB_DEVICE_CLIENT_LL_HANDLE)userContextCallback;

    char* jsonStr = NULL;
    JSON_Value* rootValue = NULL;
    JSON_Object* desiredObject;
    JSON_Value* versionValue = NULL;
    JSON_Value* targetTemperatureValue = NULL;

    jsonStr = CopyTwinPayloadToString(payload, size));
    rootValue = json_parse_string(jsonStr));
    desiredObject = GetDesiredJson(updateState, rootValue));
    targetTemperatureValue = json_object_get_value(desiredObject, "targetTemperature"));
    versionValue = json_object_get_value(desiredObject, "$version"));
    json_value_get_type(versionValue);
    json_value_get_type(targetTemperatureValue);

    double targetTemperature = json_value_get_number(targetTemperatureValue);
    int version = (int)json_value_get_number(versionValue);

    // ...

    // The device needs to let the service know that it has received the targetTemperature desired property.
    SendTargetTemperatureReport(deviceClientLL, targetTemperature, 200, version, "Successfully updated target temperature");

    json_value_free(rootValue);
    free(jsonStr);
}

// ...

IOTHUB_CLIENT_RESULT iothubResult;
iothubResult = IoTHubDeviceClient_LL_SetDeviceTwinCallback(
    deviceHandle, Thermostat_DeviceTwinCallback, (void*)deviceHandle))

巢狀元件的裝置對應項會顯示所需的和報告區段,如下所示:

{
  "desired" : {
    "targetTemperature": 23.2,
    "$version" : 3
  },
  "reported": {
      "targetTemperature": {
          "value": 23.2,
          "ac": 200,
          "av": 3,
          "ad": "Successfully updated target temperature"
      }
  }
}

巢狀元件會接收以元件名稱包裝的所需屬性,而且應該回報 ack 報告屬性:

bool PnP_ProcessTwinData(
    DEVICE_TWIN_UPDATE_STATE updateState,
    const unsigned char* payload,
    size_t size, const char** componentsInModel,
    size_t numComponentsInModel,
    PnP_PropertyCallbackFunction pnpPropertyCallback,
    void* userContextCallback)
{
    char* jsonStr = NULL;
    JSON_Value* rootValue = NULL;
    JSON_Object* desiredObject;
    bool result;

    jsonStr = PnP_CopyPayloadToString(payload, size));
    rootValue = json_parse_string(jsonStr));
    desiredObject = GetDesiredJson(updateState, rootValue));
    
    result = VisitDesiredObject(
        desiredObject, componentsInModel,
        numComponentsInModel, pnpPropertyCallback,
        userContextCallback);


    json_value_free(rootValue);
    free(jsonStr);

    return result;
}

// ...
static const char g_thermostatComponent1Name[] = "thermostat1";
static const size_t g_thermostatComponent1Size = sizeof(g_thermostatComponent1Name) - 1;
static const char g_thermostatComponent2Name[] = "thermostat2";

static const char* g_modeledComponents[] = {g_thermostatComponent1Name, g_thermostatComponent2Name};
static const size_t g_numModeledComponents = sizeof(g_modeledComponents) / sizeof(g_modeledComponents[0]);

static void PnP_TempControlComponent_DeviceTwinCallback(
    DEVICE_TWIN_UPDATE_STATE updateState,
    const unsigned char* payload,
    size_t size,
    void* userContextCallback
)
{
    PnP_ProcessTwinData(
        updateState, payload,
        size, g_modeledComponents,
        g_numModeledComponents,
        PnP_TempControlComponent_ApplicationPropertyCallback,
        userContextCallback);
}

巢狀元件的裝置對應項會顯示所需的和報告區段,如下所示:

{
  "desired" : {
    "thermostat1" : {
        "__t" : "c",
        "targetTemperature": 23.2,
    }
    "$version" : 3
  },
  "reported": {
    "thermostat1" : {
        "__t" : "c",
      "targetTemperature": {
          "value": 23.2,
          "ac": 200,
          "av": 3,
          "ad": "complete"
      }
    }
  }
}

命令

預設元件會接收服務叫用的命令名稱。

巢狀元件會接收前置詞為元件名稱和分隔符號的 * 命令名稱。

void PnP_ParseCommandName(
    const char* deviceMethodName,
    unsigned const char** componentName,
    size_t* componentNameSize,
    const char** pnpCommandName
)
{
    const char* separator;

    if ((separator = strchr(deviceMethodName, "*")) != NULL)
    {
        *componentName = (unsigned const char*)deviceMethodName;
        *componentNameSize = separator - deviceMethodName;
        *pnpCommandName = separator + 1;
    }
    else
    {
        *componentName = NULL;
        *componentNameSize = 0;
        *pnpCommandName = deviceMethodName;
    }
}

static int PnP_TempControlComponent_DeviceMethodCallback(
    const char* methodName,
    const unsigned char* payload,
    size_t size,
    unsigned char** response,
    size_t* responseSize,
    void* userContextCallback)
{
    (void)userContextCallback;

    char* jsonStr = NULL;
    JSON_Value* rootValue = NULL;
    int result;
    unsigned const char *componentName;
    size_t componentNameSize;
    const char *pnpCommandName;

    *response = NULL;
    *responseSize = 0;

    // Parse the methodName into its componentName and CommandName.
    PnP_ParseCommandName(methodName, &componentName, &componentNameSize, &pnpCommandName);

    // Parse the JSON of the payload request.
    jsonStr = PnP_CopyPayloadToString(payload, size));
    rootValue = json_parse_string(jsonStr));
    if (componentName != NULL)
    {
        if (strncmp((const char*)componentName, g_thermostatComponent1Name, g_thermostatComponent1Size) == 0)
        {
            result = PnP_ThermostatComponent_ProcessCommand(g_thermostatHandle1, pnpCommandName, rootValue, response, responseSize);
        }
        else if (strncmp((const char*)componentName, g_thermostatComponent2Name, g_thermostatComponent2Size) == 0)
        {
            result = PnP_ThermostatComponent_ProcessCommand(g_thermostatHandle2, pnpCommandName, rootValue, response, responseSize);
        }
        else
        {
            LogError("PnP component=%.*s is not supported by TemperatureController", (int)componentNameSize, componentName);
            result = PNP_STATUS_NOT_FOUND;
        }
    }
    else
    {
        LogInfo("Received PnP command for TemperatureController component, command=%s", pnpCommandName);
        if (strcmp(pnpCommandName, g_rebootCommand) == 0)
        {
            result = PnP_TempControlComponent_InvokeRebootCommand(rootValue);
        }
        else
        {
            LogError("PnP command=s%s is not supported by TemperatureController", pnpCommandName);
            result = PNP_STATUS_NOT_FOUND;
        }
    }

    if (*response == NULL)
    {
        SetEmptyCommandResponse(response, responseSize, &result);
    }

    json_value_free(rootValue);
    free(jsonStr);

    return result;
}

// ...

PNP_DEVICE_CONFIGURATION g_pnpDeviceConfiguration;
g_pnpDeviceConfiguration.deviceMethodCallback = PnP_TempControlComponent_DeviceMethodCallback;
deviceClient = PnP_CreateDeviceClientLLHandle(&g_pnpDeviceConfiguration);

要求和回應承載

命令會使用類型來定義其要求和回應承載。 裝置必須還原序列化傳入輸入參數,並序列化回應。

下列範例示範如何使用承載中定義的複雜類型來實作命令:

{
  "@type": "Command",
  "name": "getMaxMinReport",
  "displayName": "Get Max-Min report.",
  "description": "This command returns the max, min and average temperature from the specified time to the current time.",
  "request": {
    "name": "since",
    "displayName": "Since",
    "description": "Period to return the max-min report.",
    "schema": "dateTime"
  },
  "response": {
    "name" : "tempReport",
    "displayName": "Temperature Report",
    "schema": {
      "@type": "Object",
      "fields": [
        {
          "name": "maxTemp",
          "displayName": "Max temperature",
          "schema": "double"
        },
        {
          "name": "minTemp",
          "displayName": "Min temperature",
          "schema": "double"
        },
        {
          "name" : "avgTemp",
          "displayName": "Average Temperature",
          "schema": "double"
        },
        {
          "name" : "startTime",
          "displayName": "Start Time",
          "schema": "dateTime"
        },
        {
          "name" : "endTime",
          "displayName": "End Time",
          "schema": "dateTime"
        }
      ]
    }
  }
}

下列程式碼片段顯示裝置如何實作此命令定義,包括用來啟用序列化和還原序列化的類型:

static const char g_maxMinCommandResponseFormat[] = "{\"maxTemp\":%.2f,\"minTemp\":%.2f,\"avgTemp\":%.2f,\"startTime\":\"%s\",\"endTime\":\"%s\"}";

// ...

static bool BuildMaxMinCommandResponse(
    PNP_THERMOSTAT_COMPONENT* pnpThermostatComponent,
    unsigned char** response,
    size_t* responseSize)
{
    int responseBuilderSize = 0;
    unsigned char* responseBuilder = NULL;
    bool result;
    char currentTime[TIME_BUFFER_SIZE];

    BuildUtcTimeFromCurrentTime(currentTime, sizeof(currentTime));
    responseBuilderSize = snprintf(NULL, 0, g_maxMinCommandResponseFormat,
        pnpThermostatComponent->maxTemperature,
        pnpThermostatComponent->minTemperature,
        pnpThermostatComponent->allTemperatures /
        pnpThermostatComponent->numTemperatureUpdates,
        g_programStartTime, currentTime));

    responseBuilder = calloc(1, responseBuilderSize + 1));

    responseBuilderSize = snprintf(
        (char*)responseBuilder, responseBuilderSize + 1, g_maxMinCommandResponseFormat,
        pnpThermostatComponent->maxTemperature,
        pnpThermostatComponent->minTemperature,
        pnpThermostatComponent->allTemperatures / pnpThermostatComponent->numTemperatureUpdates,
        g_programStartTime,
        currentTime));

    *response = responseBuilder;
    *responseSize = (size_t)responseBuilderSize;

    return true;
}

提示

要求和回應名稱不存在於透過網路傳輸的序列化承載中。

SDK

本文中的程式碼片段是以使用適用于 Azure RTOS 的Azure IoT中介軟體附加元件範例為基礎。 附加元件是 Azure RTOS適用于 Embedded C 的 Azure SDK之間的系結層。

本文中的程式碼片段是以下列範例為基礎:

模型識別碼公告

若要宣告模型識別碼,裝置必須將它包含在連線資訊中:

#include "nx_azure_iot_hub_client.h"

// ...

#define SAMPLE_PNP_MODEL_ID "dtmi:com:example:Thermostat;1"

// ...

status = nx_azure_iot_hub_client_model_id_set(iothub_client_ptr, (UCHAR *)SAMPLE_PNP_MODEL_ID, sizeof(SAMPLE_PNP_MODEL_ID) - 1);

提示

這是裝置唯一可以設定模型識別碼的時間,無法在裝置連線之後更新。

DPS 承載

使用 裝置布建服務 (DPS) 的裝置 ,可以使用 modelId 下列 JSON 承載在布建程式期間使用 :

{
    "modelId" : "dtmi:com:example:Thermostat;1"
}

此範例會使用下列程式碼來傳送此承載:

#include "nx_azure_iot_provisioning_client.h"

// ...

#define SAMPLE_PNP_MODEL_ID "dtmi:com:example:Thermostat;1"
#define SAMPLE_PNP_DPS_PAYLOAD "{\"modelId\":\"" SAMPLE_PNP_MODEL_ID "\"}"

// ...

status = nx_azure_iot_provisioning_client_registration_payload_set(prov_client_ptr, (UCHAR *)SAMPLE_PNP_DPS_PAYLOAD, sizeof(SAMPLE_PNP_DPS_PAYLOAD) - 1);

使用元件

瞭解IoT 隨插即用模型中的元件中所述,裝置產生器必須決定是否要使用元件來描述其裝置。 使用元件時,裝置必須遵循下列各節中所述的規則。 為了簡化使用元件IoT 隨插即用慣例,範例會使用nx_azure_iot_hub_client.h中的協助程式函式。

遙測

預設元件不需要新增至遙測訊息的任何特殊屬性。

使用巢狀元件時,裝置必須以元件名稱設定訊息屬性。 在下列程式碼片段中, component_name_ptr 是元件的名稱,例如 thermostat1nx_azure_iot_pnp_helpers.h中定義的協助程式函 nx_azure_iot_pnp_helper_telemetry_message_create 式會以元件名稱新增訊息屬性:

#include "nx_azure_iot_pnp_helpers.h"

// ...

static const CHAR telemetry_name[] = "temperature";

// ...

UINT sample_pnp_thermostat_telemetry_send(SAMPLE_PNP_THERMOSTAT_COMPONENT *handle, NX_AZURE_IOT_HUB_CLIENT *iothub_client_ptr)
{
UINT status;
NX_PACKET *packet_ptr;
NX_AZURE_IOT_JSON_WRITER json_writer;
UINT buffer_length;

    // ...

    /* Create a telemetry message packet. */
    if ((status = nx_azure_iot_pnp_helper_telemetry_message_create(iothub_client_ptr, handle -> component_name_ptr,
        handle -> component_name_length,
        &packet_ptr, NX_WAIT_FOREVER)))
    {
        // ...
    }

    // ...

    if ((status = nx_azure_iot_hub_client_telemetry_send(iothub_client_ptr, packet_ptr,
        (UCHAR *)scratch_buffer, buffer_length, NX_WAIT_FOREVER)))
    {
        // ...
    }

    // ...

    return(status);
}

唯讀屬性

從預設元件報告屬性不需要任何特殊建構:

#include "nx_azure_iot_hub_client.h"
#include "nx_azure_iot_json_writer.h"

// ...

static const CHAR reported_max_temp_since_last_reboot[] = "maxTempSinceLastReboot";

// ...

static UINT sample_build_reported_property(NX_AZURE_IOT_JSON_WRITER *json_builder_ptr, double temp)
{
UINT ret;

    if (nx_azure_iot_json_writer_append_begin_object(json_builder_ptr) ||
        nx_azure_iot_json_writer_append_property_with_double_value(json_builder_ptr,
            (UCHAR *)reported_max_temp_since_last_reboot,
            sizeof(reported_max_temp_since_last_reboot) - 1,
            temp, DOUBLE_DECIMAL_PLACE_DIGITS) ||
        nx_azure_iot_json_writer_append_end_object(json_builder_ptr))
    {
        ret = 1;
        printf("Failed to build reported property\r\n");
    }
    else
    {
        ret = 0;
    }

    return(ret);
}

// ...

if ((status = sample_build_reported_property(&json_builder, device_max_temp)))
{
    // ...
}

reported_properties_length = nx_azure_iot_json_writer_get_bytes_used(&json_builder);
if ((status = nx_azure_iot_hub_client_device_twin_reported_properties_send(&(context -> iothub_client),
    scratch_buffer,
    reported_properties_length,
    &request_id, &response_status,
    &reported_property_version,
    (5 * NX_IP_PERIODIC_RATE))))
{
    // ...
}

裝置對應項會更新為下列報告屬性:

{
  "reported": {
      "maxTempSinceLastReboot" : 38.7
  }
}

使用巢狀元件時,必須在元件名稱內建立屬性,並包含標記並包含標記。 在下列程式碼片段中, component_name_ptr 是元件的名稱,例如 thermostat1nx_azure_iot_pnp_helpers.h中定義的協助程式函 nx_azure_iot_pnp_helper_build_reported_property 式會以正確的格式建立報告屬性:

#include "nx_azure_iot_pnp_helpers.h"

// ...

static const CHAR reported_max_temp_since_last_reboot[] = "maxTempSinceLastReboot";

UINT sample_pnp_thermostat_report_max_temp_since_last_reboot_property(SAMPLE_PNP_THERMOSTAT_COMPONENT *handle, NX_AZURE_IOT_HUB_CLIENT *iothub_client_ptr)
{
UINT reported_properties_length;
UINT status;
UINT response_status;
UINT request_id;
NX_AZURE_IOT_JSON_WRITER json_builder;
ULONG reported_property_version;

    // ...

    if ((status = nx_azure_iot_pnp_helper_build_reported_property(handle -> component_name_ptr,
        handle -> component_name_length,
        append_max_temp, (VOID *)handle,
        &json_builder)))
    {
        // ...
    }

    reported_properties_length = nx_azure_iot_json_writer_get_bytes_used(&json_builder);
    if ((status = nx_azure_iot_hub_client_device_twin_reported_properties_send(iothub_client_ptr,
        scratch_buffer,
        reported_properties_length,
        &request_id, &response_status,
        &reported_property_version,
        (5 * NX_IP_PERIODIC_RATE))))
    {
        // ...
    }

    // ...
}

裝置對應項會更新為下列報告屬性:

{
    "reported": {
        "thermostat1" : {  
            "__t" : "c",  
            "maxTemperature" : 38.7
        } 
    }
}

可寫入的屬性

這些屬性可由裝置設定,或由解決方案更新。 若要遵循IoT 隨插即用慣例,裝置必須通知服務已成功接收 屬性。

報告可寫入屬性

當裝置報告可寫入的屬性時,它必須包含 ack 慣例中定義的值。

若要從預設元件報告可寫入的屬性:

#include "nx_azure_iot_hub_client.h"
#include "nx_azure_iot_json_writer.h"

// ...

static const CHAR reported_temp_property_name[] = "targetTemperature";
static const CHAR reported_value_property_name[] = "value";
static const CHAR reported_status_property_name[] = "ac";
static const CHAR reported_version_property_name[] = "av";
static const CHAR reported_description_property_name[] = "ad";

// ...

static VOID sample_send_target_temperature_report(SAMPLE_CONTEXT *context, double current_device_temp_value,
    UINT status, UINT version, UCHAR *description_ptr,
    UINT description_len)
{
NX_AZURE_IOT_JSON_WRITER json_builder;
UINT bytes_copied;
UINT response_status;
UINT request_id;
ULONG reported_property_version;

    // ...

    if (nx_azure_iot_json_writer_append_begin_object(&json_builder) ||
        nx_azure_iot_json_writer_append_property_name(&json_builder,
            (UCHAR *)reported_temp_property_name,
            sizeof(reported_temp_property_name) - 1) ||
        nx_azure_iot_json_writer_append_begin_object(&json_builder) ||
        nx_azure_iot_json_writer_append_property_with_double_value(&json_builder,
            (UCHAR *)reported_value_property_name,
            sizeof(reported_value_property_name) - 1,
            current_device_temp_value, DOUBLE_DECIMAL_PLACE_DIGITS) ||
        nx_azure_iot_json_writer_append_property_with_int32_value(&json_builder,
            (UCHAR *)reported_status_property_name,
            sizeof(reported_status_property_name) - 1,
            (int32_t)status) ||
        nx_azure_iot_json_writer_append_property_with_int32_value(&json_builder,
            (UCHAR *)reported_version_property_name,
            sizeof(reported_version_property_name) - 1,
            (int32_t)version) ||
        nx_azure_iot_json_writer_append_property_with_string_value(&json_builder,
            (UCHAR *)reported_description_property_name,
            sizeof(reported_description_property_name) - 1,
            description_ptr, description_len) ||
        nx_azure_iot_json_writer_append_end_object(&json_builder) ||
        nx_azure_iot_json_writer_append_end_object(&json_builder))
    {
        // ...
    }
    else
    // ...
}

裝置對應項會更新為下列報告屬性:

{
  "reported": {
      "targetTemperature": {
          "value": 23.2,
          "ac": 200,
          "av": 3,
          "ad": "success"
      }
  }
}

若要從巢狀元件報告可寫入的屬性,對應項必須包含標記,而且必須在元件名稱內建立屬性。 在下列程式碼片段中, component_name_ptr 是元件的名稱,例如 thermostat1nx_azure_iot_pnp_helpers.h中定義的協助程式函 nx_azure_iot_pnp_helper_build_reported_property_with_status 式會建立報告的屬性承載:

#include "nx_azure_iot_pnp_helpers.h"

// ...

static VOID sample_send_target_temperature_report(SAMPLE_PNP_THERMOSTAT_COMPONENT *handle,
    NX_AZURE_IOT_HUB_CLIENT *iothub_client_ptr, double temp,
    INT status_code, UINT version, const CHAR *description)
{
UINT bytes_copied;
UINT response_status;
UINT request_id;
NX_AZURE_IOT_JSON_WRITER json_writer;
ULONG reported_property_version;

    // ...

    if (nx_azure_iot_pnp_helper_build_reported_property_with_status(handle -> component_name_ptr, handle -> component_name_length,
        (UCHAR *)target_temp_property_name,
        sizeof(target_temp_property_name) - 1,
        append_temp, (VOID *)&temp, status_code,
        (UCHAR *)description,
        strlen(description), version, &json_writer))
    {
        // ...
    }
    else
    {
        // ...
    }

    // ...
}

裝置對應項會更新為下列報告屬性:

{
  "reported": {
    "thermostat1": {
      "__t" : "c",
      "targetTemperature": {
          "value": 23.2,
          "ac": 200,
          "av": 3,
          "ad": "success"
      }
    }
  }
}

訂閱所需的屬性更新

服務可以更新所需的屬性,以在連線的裝置上觸發通知。 此通知包含更新所需的屬性和識別更新的版本號碼。 裝置必須在傳回給服務的訊息中包含 ack 此版本號碼。

預設元件會看見單一屬性,並使用收到的版本建立報告 ack

#include "nx_azure_iot_hub_client.h"
#include "nx_azure_iot_json_writer.h"

// ...

static const CHAR temp_response_description[] = "success";

// ...

static UINT sample_parse_desired_temp_property(SAMPLE_CONTEXT *context,
    NX_AZURE_IOT_JSON_READER *json_reader_ptr,
    UINT is_partial)
{
double parsed_value;
UINT version;
NX_AZURE_IOT_JSON_READER copy_json_reader;
UINT status;

    // ...

    copy_json_reader = *json_reader_ptr;
    if (sample_json_child_token_move(&copy_json_reader,
            (UCHAR *)desired_version_property_name,
            sizeof(desired_version_property_name) - 1) ||
        nx_azure_iot_json_reader_token_int32_get(&copy_json_reader, (int32_t *)&version))
    {
        // ...
    }

    // ...

    sample_send_target_temperature_report(context, current_device_temp, 200,
        (UINT)version, (UCHAR *)temp_response_description,
        sizeof(temp_response_description) - 1);

    // ...
}

巢狀元件會接收以元件名稱包裝的所需屬性,並使用接收的版本建立報告 ack

#include "nx_azure_iot_pnp_helpers.h"

// ...

static const CHAR target_temp_property_name[] = "targetTemperature";
static const CHAR temp_response_description_success[] = "success";
static const CHAR temp_response_description_failed[] = "failed";

// ...

UINT sample_pnp_thermostat_process_property_update(SAMPLE_PNP_THERMOSTAT_COMPONENT *handle,
    NX_AZURE_IOT_HUB_CLIENT *iothub_client_ptr,
    UCHAR *component_name_ptr, UINT component_name_length,
    UCHAR *property_name_ptr, UINT property_name_length,
    NX_AZURE_IOT_JSON_READER *property_value_reader_ptr, UINT version)
{
double parsed_value = 0;
INT status_code;
const CHAR *description;

    // ...

    if (property_name_length != (sizeof(target_temp_property_name) - 1) ||
        strncmp((CHAR *)property_name_ptr, (CHAR *)target_temp_property_name, property_name_length) != 0)
    {
        // ...
    }
    else if (nx_azure_iot_json_reader_token_double_get(property_value_reader_ptr, &parsed_value))
    {
        status_code = 401;
        description = temp_response_description_failed;
    }
    else
    {
        status_code = 200;
        description = temp_response_description_success;

        // ...
    }

    sample_send_target_temperature_report(handle, iothub_client_ptr, parsed_value,
                                          status_code, version, description);

    // ...
}

巢狀元件的裝置對應項會顯示所需的和報告區段,如下所示:

{
  "desired" : {
    "thermostat1" : {
        "__t" : "c",
        "targetTemperature": 23.2,
    }
    "$version" : 3
  },
  "reported": {
    "thermostat1" : {
        "__t" : "c",
      "targetTemperature": {
          "value": 23.2,
          "ac": 200,
          "av": 3,
          "ad": "success"
      }
    }
  }
}

命令

預設元件會接收服務叫用的命令名稱。

巢狀元件會接收前置詞為元件名稱和分隔符號的 * 命令名稱。 在下列程式碼片段中,nx_azure_iot_pnp_helpers.h中定義的協助程式函 nx_azure_iot_pnp_helper_command_name_parse 式會剖析裝置從服務接收的訊息中的元件名稱和命令名稱:

#include "nx_azure_iot_hub_client.h"
#include "nx_azure_iot_pnp_helpers.h"

// ...

static VOID sample_direct_method_action(SAMPLE_CONTEXT *sample_context_ptr)
{
NX_PACKET *packet_ptr;
UINT status;
USHORT method_name_length;
const UCHAR *method_name_ptr;
USHORT context_length;
VOID *context_ptr;
UINT component_name_length;
const UCHAR *component_name_ptr;
UINT pnp_command_name_length;
const UCHAR *pnp_command_name_ptr;
NX_AZURE_IOT_JSON_WRITER json_writer;
NX_AZURE_IOT_JSON_READER json_reader;
NX_AZURE_IOT_JSON_READER *json_reader_ptr;
UINT status_code;
UINT response_length;

    // ...

    if ((status = nx_azure_iot_hub_client_direct_method_message_receive(&(sample_context_ptr -> iothub_client),
        &method_name_ptr, &method_name_length,
        &context_ptr, &context_length,
        &packet_ptr, NX_WAIT_FOREVER)))
    {
        // ...
    }

    // ...

    if ((status = nx_azure_iot_pnp_helper_command_name_parse(method_name_ptr, method_name_length,
        &component_name_ptr, &component_name_length,
        &pnp_command_name_ptr,
        &pnp_command_name_length)) != NX_AZURE_IOT_SUCCESS)
    {
        // ...
    }
    
    // ...

    else
    {
        // ...

        if ((status = sample_pnp_thermostat_process_command(&sample_thermostat_1, component_name_ptr,
            component_name_length, pnp_command_name_ptr,
            pnp_command_name_length, json_reader_ptr,
            &json_writer, &status_code)) == NX_AZURE_IOT_SUCCESS)
        {
            // ...
        }
        else if ((status = sample_pnp_thermostat_process_command(&sample_thermostat_2, component_name_ptr,
            component_name_length, pnp_command_name_ptr,
            pnp_command_name_length, json_reader_ptr,
            &json_writer, &status_code)) == NX_AZURE_IOT_SUCCESS)
        {
            // ...
        }
        else if((status = sample_pnp_temp_controller_process_command(component_name_ptr, component_name_length,
            pnp_command_name_ptr, pnp_command_name_length,
            json_reader_ptr, &json_writer,
            &status_code)) == NX_AZURE_IOT_SUCCESS)
        {
            // ...
        }
        else
        {
            printf("Failed to find any handler for method %.*s\r\n", method_name_length, method_name_ptr);
            status_code = SAMPLE_COMMAND_NOT_FOUND_STATUS;
            response_length = 0;
        }

        // ...
    }
}

要求和回應承載

命令會使用類型來定義其要求和回應承載。 裝置必須還原序列化傳入輸入參數,並序列化回應。

下列範例示範如何使用承載中定義的複雜類型來實作命令:

{
  "@type": "Command",
  "name": "getMaxMinReport",
  "displayName": "Get Max-Min report.",
  "description": "This command returns the max, min and average temperature from the specified time to the current time.",
  "request": {
    "name": "since",
    "displayName": "Since",
    "description": "Period to return the max-min report.",
    "schema": "dateTime"
  },
  "response": {
    "name" : "tempReport",
    "displayName": "Temperature Report",
    "schema": {
      "@type": "Object",
      "fields": [
        {
          "name": "maxTemp",
          "displayName": "Max temperature",
          "schema": "double"
        },
        {
          "name": "minTemp",
          "displayName": "Min temperature",
          "schema": "double"
        },
        {
          "name" : "avgTemp",
          "displayName": "Average Temperature",
          "schema": "double"
        },
        {
          "name" : "startTime",
          "displayName": "Start Time",
          "schema": "dateTime"
        },
        {
          "name" : "endTime",
          "displayName": "End Time",
          "schema": "dateTime"
        }
      ]
    }
  }
}

下列程式碼片段顯示裝置如何實作此命令定義,包括用來啟用序列化和還原序列化的類型:

#include "nx_azure_iot_pnp_helpers.h"

// ...

static const CHAR report_max_temp_name[] = "maxTemp";
static const CHAR report_min_temp_name[] = "minTemp";
static const CHAR report_avg_temp_name[] = "avgTemp";
static const CHAR report_start_time_name[] = "startTime";
static const CHAR report_end_time_name[] = "endTime";
static const CHAR fake_start_report_time[] = "2020-01-10T10:00:00Z";
static const CHAR fake_end_report_time[] = "2023-01-10T10:00:00Z";

// ...

static UINT sample_get_maxmin_report(SAMPLE_PNP_THERMOSTAT_COMPONENT *handle,
    NX_AZURE_IOT_JSON_READER *json_reader_ptr,
    NX_AZURE_IOT_JSON_WRITER *out_json_builder_ptr)
{
UINT status;
UCHAR *start_time = (UCHAR *)fake_start_report_time;
UINT start_time_len = sizeof(fake_start_report_time) - 1;
UCHAR time_buf[32];

    // ...

    /* Build the method response payload */
    if (nx_azure_iot_json_writer_append_begin_object(out_json_builder_ptr) ||
        nx_azure_iot_json_writer_append_property_with_double_value(out_json_builder_ptr,
            (UCHAR *)report_max_temp_name,
            sizeof(report_max_temp_name) - 1,
            handle -> maxTemperature,
            DOUBLE_DECIMAL_PLACE_DIGITS) ||
        nx_azure_iot_json_writer_append_property_with_double_value(out_json_builder_ptr,
            (UCHAR *)report_min_temp_name,
            sizeof(report_min_temp_name) - 1,
            handle -> minTemperature,
            DOUBLE_DECIMAL_PLACE_DIGITS) ||
        nx_azure_iot_json_writer_append_property_with_double_value(out_json_builder_ptr,
            (UCHAR *)report_avg_temp_name,
            sizeof(report_avg_temp_name) - 1,
            handle -> avgTemperature,
            DOUBLE_DECIMAL_PLACE_DIGITS) ||
        nx_azure_iot_json_writer_append_property_with_string_value(out_json_builder_ptr,
            (UCHAR *)report_start_time_name,
            sizeof(report_start_time_name) - 1,
            (UCHAR *)start_time, start_time_len) ||
        nx_azure_iot_json_writer_append_property_with_string_value(out_json_builder_ptr,
            (UCHAR *)report_end_time_name,
            sizeof(report_end_time_name) - 1,
            (UCHAR *)fake_end_report_time,
            sizeof(fake_end_report_time) - 1) ||
        nx_azure_iot_json_writer_append_end_object(out_json_builder_ptr))
    {
        status = NX_NOT_SUCCESSFUL;
    }
    else
    {
        status = NX_AZURE_IOT_SUCCESS;
    }

    return(status);
}

提示

要求和回應名稱不存在於透過網路傳輸的序列化承載中。

模型識別碼公告

若要宣告模型識別碼,裝置必須將它包含在連線資訊中:

DeviceClient.CreateFromConnectionString(
  connectionString,
  TransportType.Mqtt,
  new ClientOptions() { ModelId = modelId })

新的 ClientOptions 多載適用于所有 DeviceClient 用來初始化連線的方法。

提示

針對模組和IoT Edge,請使用 ModuleClient 取代 DeviceClient

提示

這是裝置唯一可以設定模型識別碼的時間,無法在裝置連線之後更新。

DPS 承載

使用 裝置布建服務 (DPS) 的裝置 ,可以使用 modelId 下列 JSON 承載在布建程式期間使用 :

{
    "modelId" : "dtmi:com:example:Thermostat;1"
}

使用元件

瞭解IoT 隨插即用模型中的元件中所述,裝置產生器必須決定是否要使用元件來描述其裝置。 使用元件時,裝置必須遵循下列各節中所述的規則。

遙測

預設元件不需要新增至遙測訊息的任何特殊屬性。

使用巢狀元件時,裝置必須設定具有元件名稱的訊息屬性:

public async Task SendComponentTelemetryValueAsync(string componentName, string serializedTelemetry)
{
  var message = new Message(Encoding.UTF8.GetBytes(serializedTelemetry));
  message.ComponentName = componentName;
  message.ContentType = "application/json";
  message.ContentEncoding = "utf-8";
  await client.SendEventAsync(message);
}

唯讀屬性

從預設元件報告屬性不需要任何特殊建構:

TwinCollection reportedProperties = new TwinCollection();
reportedProperties["maxTemperature"] = 38.7;
await client.UpdateReportedPropertiesAsync(reportedProperties);

裝置對應項會更新為下列報告屬性:

{
  "reported": {
      "maxTemperature" : 38.7
  }
}

使用巢狀元件時,必須在元件名稱內建立屬性,並包含標記:

TwinCollection reportedProperties = new TwinCollection();
TwinCollection component = new TwinCollection();
component["maxTemperature"] = 38.7;
component["__t"] = "c"; // marker to identify a component
reportedProperties["thermostat1"] = component;
await client.UpdateReportedPropertiesAsync(reportedProperties);

裝置對應項會更新為下列報告屬性:

{
  "reported": {
    "thermostat1" : {  
      "__t" : "c",  
      "maxTemperature" : 38.7
     } 
  }
}

可寫入的屬性

這些屬性可由裝置設定,或由解決方案更新。 如果解決方案更新屬性,用戶端會在 或 ModuleClientDeviceClient 收到回呼通知。 若要遵循IoT 隨插即用慣例,裝置必須通知服務已成功接收 屬性。

如果屬性類型為 Object ,服務就必須將完整物件傳送至裝置,即使它只更新物件的欄位子集也一樣。 裝置傳送的通知也必須是完整物件。

報告可寫入屬性

當裝置報告可寫入的屬性時,它必須包含 ack 慣例中定義的值。

若要從預設元件報告可寫入的屬性:

TwinCollection reportedProperties = new TwinCollection();
TwinCollection ackProps = new TwinCollection();
ackProps["value"] = 23.2;
ackProps["ac"] = 200; // using HTTP status codes
ackProps["av"] = 0; // not readed from a desired property
ackProps["ad"] = "reported default value";
reportedProperties["targetTemperature"] = ackProps;
await client.UpdateReportedPropertiesAsync(reportedProperties);

裝置對應項會更新為下列報告屬性:

{
  "reported": {
      "targetTemperature": {
          "value": 23.2,
          "ac": 200,
          "av": 3,
          "ad": "complete"
      }
  }
}

若要從巢狀元件報告可寫入的屬性,對應項必須包含標記:

TwinCollection reportedProperties = new TwinCollection();
TwinCollection component = new TwinCollection();
TwinCollection ackProps = new TwinCollection();
component["__t"] = "c"; // marker to identify a component
ackProps["value"] = 23.2;
ackProps["ac"] = 200; // using HTTP status codes
ackProps["av"] = 0; // not read from a desired property
ackProps["ad"] = "reported default value";
component["targetTemperature"] = ackProps;
reportedProperties["thermostat1"] = component;
await client.UpdateReportedPropertiesAsync(reportedProperties);

裝置對應項會更新為下列報告屬性:

{
  "reported": {
    "thermostat1": {
      "__t" : "c",
      "targetTemperature": {
          "value": 23.2,
          "ac": 200,
          "av": 3,
          "ad": "complete"
      }
    }
  }
}

訂閱所需的屬性更新

服務可以更新所需的屬性,以在連線的裝置上觸發通知。 此通知包含更新所需的屬性,包括識別更新的版本號碼。 裝置必須在傳回給服務的訊息中包含 ack 此版本號碼。

預設元件會看見單一屬性,並使用收到的版本建立報告 ack

await client.SetDesiredPropertyUpdateCallbackAsync(async (desired, ctx) => 
{
  JValue targetTempJson = desired["targetTemperature"];
  double targetTemperature = targetTempJson.Value<double>();

  TwinCollection reportedProperties = new TwinCollection();
  TwinCollection ackProps = new TwinCollection();
  ackProps["value"] = targetTemperature;
  ackProps["ac"] = 200;
  ackProps["av"] = desired.Version; 
  ackProps["ad"] = "desired property received";
  reportedProperties["targetTemperature"] = ackProps;

  await client.UpdateReportedPropertiesAsync(reportedProperties);
}, null);

巢狀元件的裝置對應項會顯示所需的和報告區段,如下所示:

{
  "desired" : {
    "targetTemperature": 23.2,
    "$version" : 3
  },
  "reported": {
      "targetTemperature": {
          "value": 23.2,
          "ac": 200,
          "av": 3,
          "ad": "complete"
      }
  }
}

巢狀元件會接收以元件名稱包裝的所需屬性,而且應該回報 ack 報告屬性:

await client.SetDesiredPropertyUpdateCallbackAsync(async (desired, ctx) =>
{
  JObject thermostatComponent = desired["thermostat1"];
  JToken targetTempProp = thermostatComponent["targetTemperature"];
  double targetTemperature = targetTempProp.Value<double>();

  TwinCollection reportedProperties = new TwinCollection();
  TwinCollection component = new TwinCollection();
  TwinCollection ackProps = new TwinCollection();
  component["__t"] = "c"; // marker to identify a component
  ackProps["value"] = targetTemperature;
  ackProps["ac"] = 200; // using HTTP status codes
  ackProps["av"] = desired.Version; // not readed from a desired property
  ackProps["ad"] = "desired property received";
  component["targetTemperature"] = ackProps;
  reportedProperties["thermostat1"] = component;

  await client.UpdateReportedPropertiesAsync(reportedProperties);
}, null);

巢狀元件的裝置對應項會顯示所需的和報告區段,如下所示:

{
  "desired" : {
    "thermostat1" : {
        "__t" : "c",
        "targetTemperature": 23.2,
    }
    "$version" : 3
  },
  "reported": {
    "thermostat1" : {
        "__t" : "c",
      "targetTemperature": {
          "value": 23.2,
          "ac": 200,
          "av": 3,
          "ad": "complete"
      }
    }
  }
}

命令

預設元件會接收服務叫用的命令名稱。

巢狀元件會接收前置詞為元件名稱和分隔符號的 * 命令名稱。

await client.SetMethodHandlerAsync("themostat*reboot", (MethodRequest req, object ctx) =>
{
  Console.WriteLine("REBOOT");
  return Task.FromResult(new MethodResponse(200));
},
null);

要求和回應承載

命令會使用類型來定義其要求和回應承載。 裝置必須還原序列化傳入輸入參數,並序列化回應。 下列範例示範如何使用承載中定義的複雜類型來實作命令:

{
  "@type": "Command",
  "name": "start",
  "request": {
    "name": "startRequest",
    "schema": {
      "@type": "Object",
      "fields": [
        {
          "name": "startPriority",
          "schema": "integer"
        },
        {
          "name": "startMessage",
          "schema" : "string"
        }
      ]
    }
  },
  "response": {
    "name": "startReponse",
    "schema": {
      "@type": "Object",
      "fields": [
        {
            "name": "startupTime",
            "schema": "integer" 
        },
        {
          "name": "startupMessage",
          "schema": "string"
        }
      ]
    }
  }
}

下列程式碼片段顯示裝置如何實作此命令定義,包括用來啟用序列化和還原序列化的類型:

class startRequest
{
  public int startPriority { get; set; }
  public string startMessage { get; set; }
}

class startResponse
{
  public int startupTime { get; set; }
  public string startupMessage { get; set; }
}

// ... 

await client.SetMethodHandlerAsync("start", (MethodRequest req, object ctx) =>
{
  var startRequest = JsonConvert.DeserializeObject<startRequest>(req.DataAsJson);
  Console.WriteLine($"Received start command with priority ${startRequest.startPriority} and ${startRequest.startMessage}");

  var startResponse = new startResponse
  {
    startupTime = 123,
    startupMessage = "device started with message " + startRequest.startMessage
  };

  string responsePayload = JsonConvert.SerializeObject(startResponse);
  MethodResponse response = new MethodResponse(Encoding.UTF8.GetBytes(responsePayload), 200);
  return Task.FromResult(response);
},null);

提示

要求和回應名稱不存在於透過網路傳輸的序列化承載中。

模型識別碼公告

若要宣告模型識別碼,裝置必須將它包含在連線資訊中:

ClientOptions options = new ClientOptions();
options.setModelId(MODEL_ID);
deviceClient = new DeviceClient(deviceConnectionString, protocol, options);

ClientOptions 載適用于所有 DeviceClient 用來初始化連線的方法。

提示

針對模組和IoT Edge,請使用 ModuleClient 取代 DeviceClient

提示

這是裝置唯一可以設定模型識別碼的時間,無法在裝置連線之後更新。

DPS 承載

使用 裝置布建服務 (DPS) 的裝置 ,可以使用 modelId 下列 JSON 承載在布建程式期間使用 。

{
    "modelId" : "dtmi:com:example:Thermostat;1"
}

使用元件

瞭解IoT 隨插即用模型中的元件中所述,裝置產生器必須決定是否要使用元件來描述其裝置。 使用元件時,裝置必須遵循下列各節中所述的規則。

遙測

預設元件不需要新增至遙測訊息的任何特殊屬性。

使用巢狀元件時,裝置必須設定具有元件名稱的訊息屬性:

private static void sendTemperatureTelemetry(String componentName) {
  double currentTemperature = temperature.get(componentName);

  Map<String, Object> payload = singletonMap("temperature", currentTemperature);

  Message message = new Message(gson.toJson(payload));
  message.setContentEncoding("utf-8");
  message.setContentTypeFinal("application/json");

  if (componentName != null) {
      message.setProperty("$.sub", componentName);
  }
  deviceClient.sendEventAsync(message, new MessageIotHubEventCallback(), message);
}

唯讀屬性

從預設元件報告屬性不需要任何特殊建構:

Property reportedProperty = new Property("maxTempSinceLastReboot", 38.7);

deviceClient.sendReportedProperties(Collections.singleton(reportedProperty));

裝置對應項會更新為下列報告屬性:

{
  "reported": {
      "maxTempSinceLastReboot" : 38.7
  }
}

使用巢狀元件時,必須在元件名稱內建立屬性,並包含標記:

Map<String, Object> componentProperty = new HashMap<String, Object>() {{
    put("__t", "c");
    put("maxTemperature", 38.7);
}};

Set<Property> reportedProperty = new Property("thermostat1", componentProperty)

deviceClient.sendReportedProperties(reportedProperty);

裝置對應項會更新為下列報告屬性:

{
  "reported": {
    "thermostat1" : {  
      "__t" : "c",  
      "maxTemperature" : 38.7
     }
  }
}

可寫入的屬性

這些屬性可由裝置設定,或由解決方案更新。 如果解決方案更新屬性,用戶端會在 或 ModuleClientDeviceClient 收到回呼通知。 若要遵循IoT 隨插即用慣例,裝置必須通知服務已成功接收 屬性。

如果屬性類型為 Object ,服務就必須將完整物件傳送至裝置,即使它只更新物件的欄位子集也一樣。 裝置傳送的通知也必須是完整物件。

報告可寫入屬性

當裝置報告可寫入的屬性時,它必須包含 ack 慣例中定義的值。

若要從預設元件報告可寫入的屬性:

@AllArgsConstructor
private static class EmbeddedPropertyUpdate {
  @NonNull
  @SerializedName("value")
  public Object value;
  @NonNull
  @SerializedName("ac")
  public Integer ackCode;
  @NonNull
  @SerializedName("av")
  public Integer ackVersion;
  @SerializedName("ad")
  public String ackDescription;
}

EmbeddedPropertyUpdate completedUpdate = new EmbeddedPropertyUpdate(23.2, 200, 3, "Successfully updated target temperature");
Property reportedPropertyCompleted = new Property("targetTemperature", completedUpdate);
deviceClient.sendReportedProperties(Collections.singleton(reportedPropertyCompleted));

裝置對應項會更新為下列報告屬性:

{
  "reported": {
      "targetTemperature": {
          "value": 23.2,
          "ac": 200,
          "av": 3,
          "ad": "Successfully updated target temperature"
      }
  }
}

若要從巢狀元件報告可寫入的屬性,對應項必須包含標記:

Map<String, Object> embeddedProperty = new HashMap<String, Object>() {{
    put("value", 23.2);
    put("ac", 200);
    put("av", 3);
    put("ad", "complete");
}};

Map<String, Object> componentProperty = new HashMap<String, Object>() {{
    put("__t", "c");
    put("targetTemperature", embeddedProperty);
}};

Set<Property> reportedProperty = new Property("thermostat1", componentProperty));

deviceClient.sendReportedProperties(reportedProperty);

裝置對應項會更新為下列報告屬性:

{
  "reported": {
    "thermostat1": {
      "__t" : "c",
      "targetTemperature": {
          "value": 23.2,
          "ac": 200,
          "av": 3,
          "ad": "complete"
      }
    }
  }
}

訂閱所需的屬性更新

服務可以更新所需的屬性,以在連線的裝置上觸發通知。 此通知包含更新所需的屬性,包括識別更新的版本號碼。 裝置必須在傳回給服務的訊息中包含 ack 此版本號碼。

預設元件會看見單一屬性,並使用收到的版本建立報告 ack

private static class TargetTemperatureUpdateCallback implements TwinPropertyCallBack {

    String propertyName = "targetTemperature";

    @Override
    public void TwinPropertyCallBack(Property property, Object context) {
        double targetTemperature = ((Number)property.getValue()).doubleValue();

        EmbeddedPropertyUpdate completedUpdate = new EmbeddedPropertyUpdate(temperature, 200, property.getVersion(), "Successfully updated target temperature");
        Property reportedPropertyCompleted = new Property(propertyName, completedUpdate);
        deviceClient.sendReportedProperties(Collections.singleton(reportedPropertyCompleted));
    }
}

// ...

deviceClient.startDeviceTwin(new TwinIotHubEventCallback(), null, new TargetTemperatureUpdateCallback(), null);
Map<Property, Pair<TwinPropertyCallBack, Object>> desiredPropertyUpdateCallback =
  Collections.singletonMap(
    new Property("targetTemperature", null),
    new Pair<>(new TargetTemperatureUpdateCallback(), null));
deviceClient.subscribeToTwinDesiredProperties(desiredPropertyUpdateCallback);

巢狀元件的裝置對應項會顯示所需的和報告區段,如下所示:

{
  "desired" : {
    "targetTemperature": 23.2,
    "$version" : 3
  },
  "reported": {
      "targetTemperature": {
          "value": 23.2,
          "ac": 200,
          "av": 3,
          "ad": "Successfully updated target temperature"
      }
  }
}

巢狀元件會接收以元件名稱包裝的所需屬性,而且應該回報 ack 報告屬性:

private static final Map<String, Double> temperature = new HashMap<>();

private static class TargetTemperatureUpdateCallback implements TwinPropertyCallBack {

    String propertyName = "targetTemperature";

    @Override
    public void TwinPropertyCallBack(Property property, Object context) {
        String componentName = (String) context;

        if (property.getKey().equalsIgnoreCase(componentName)) {
            double targetTemperature = (double) ((TwinCollection) property.getValue()).get(propertyName);

            Map<String, Object> embeddedProperty = new HashMap<String, Object>() {{
                put("value", temperature.get(componentName));
                put("ac", 200);
                put("av", property.getVersion().longValue());
                put("ad", "Successfully updated target temperature.");
            }};

            Map<String, Object> componentProperty = new HashMap<String, Object>() {{
                put("__t", "c");
                put(propertyName, embeddedProperty);
            }};

            Set<Property> completedPropertyPatch = new Property(componentName, componentProperty));

            deviceClient.sendReportedProperties(completedPropertyPatch);
        } else {
            log.debug("Property: Received an unrecognized property update from service.");
        }
    }
}

// ...

deviceClient.startDeviceTwin(new TwinIotHubEventCallback(), null, new GenericPropertyUpdateCallback(), null);
Map<Property, Pair<TwinPropertyCallBack, Object>> desiredPropertyUpdateCallback = Stream.of(
  new AbstractMap.SimpleEntry<Property, Pair<TwinPropertyCallBack, Object>>(
    new Property("thermostat1", null),
    new Pair<>(new TargetTemperatureUpdateCallback(), "thermostat1")),
  new AbstractMap.SimpleEntry<Property, Pair<TwinPropertyCallBack, Object>>(
    new Property("thermostat2", null),
    new Pair<>(new TargetTemperatureUpdateCallback(), "thermostat2"))
).collect(Collectors.toMap(AbstractMap.SimpleEntry::getKey, AbstractMap.SimpleEntry::getValue));

deviceClient.subscribeToTwinDesiredProperties(desiredPropertyUpdateCallback);

巢狀元件的裝置對應項會顯示所需的和報告區段,如下所示:

{
  "desired" : {
    "thermostat1" : {
        "__t" : "c",
        "targetTemperature": 23.2,
    }
    "$version" : 3
  },
  "reported": {
    "thermostat1" : {
        "__t" : "c",
      "targetTemperature": {
          "value": 23.2,
          "ac": 200,
          "av": 3,
          "ad": "complete"
      }
    }
  }
}

命令

預設元件會接收服務叫用的命令名稱。

巢狀元件會接收前置詞為元件名稱和分隔符號的 * 命令名稱。

deviceClient.subscribeToDeviceMethod(new MethodCallback(), null, new MethodIotHubEventCallback(), null);

// ...
private static final Map<String, Double> temperature = new HashMap<>();

private static class MethodCallback implements DeviceMethodCallback {
  final String reboot = "reboot";
  final String getMaxMinReport1 = "thermostat1*getMaxMinReport";
  final String getMaxMinReport2 = "thermostat2*getMaxMinReport";

  @Override
  public DeviceMethodData call(String methodName, Object methodData, Object context) {
    String jsonRequest = new String((byte[]) methodData, StandardCharsets.UTF_8);

    switch (methodName) {
      case reboot:
        int delay = gson.fromJson(jsonRequest, Integer.class);

        Thread.sleep(delay * 1000);

        temperature.put("thermostat1", 0.0d);
        temperature.put("thermostat2", 0.0d);

        return new DeviceMethodData(200, null);

      // ...

      default:
        log.debug("Command: command=\"{}\" is not implemented, no action taken.", methodName);
          return new DeviceMethodData(404, null);
    }
  }
}

要求和回應承載

命令會使用類型來定義其要求和回應承載。 裝置必須還原序列化傳入輸入參數,並序列化回應。

下列範例示範如何使用承載中定義的複雜類型來實作命令:

{
  "@type": "Command",
  "name": "getMaxMinReport",
  "displayName": "Get Max-Min report.",
  "description": "This command returns the max, min and average temperature from the specified time to the current time.",
  "request": {
    "name": "since",
    "displayName": "Since",
    "description": "Period to return the max-min report.",
    "schema": "dateTime"
  },
  "response": {
    "name" : "tempReport",
    "displayName": "Temperature Report",
    "schema": {
      "@type": "Object",
      "fields": [
        {
          "name": "maxTemp",
          "displayName": "Max temperature",
          "schema": "double"
        },
        {
          "name": "minTemp",
          "displayName": "Min temperature",
          "schema": "double"
        },
        {
          "name" : "avgTemp",
          "displayName": "Average Temperature",
          "schema": "double"
        },
        {
          "name" : "startTime",
          "displayName": "Start Time",
          "schema": "dateTime"
        },
        {
          "name" : "endTime",
          "displayName": "End Time",
          "schema": "dateTime"
        }
      ]
    }
  }
}

下列程式碼片段顯示裝置如何實作此命令定義,包括用來啟用序列化和還原序列化的類型:

deviceClient.subscribeToDeviceMethod(new GetMaxMinReportMethodCallback(), "getMaxMinReport", new MethodIotHubEventCallback(), "getMaxMinReport");

// ...

private static class GetMaxMinReportMethodCallback implements DeviceMethodCallback {
    String commandName = "getMaxMinReport";

    @Override
    public DeviceMethodData call(String methodName, Object methodData, Object context) {

        String jsonRequest = new String((byte[]) methodData, StandardCharsets.UTF_8);
        Date since = gson.fromJson(jsonRequest, Date.class);

        String responsePayload = String.format(
                "{\"maxTemp\": %.1f, \"minTemp\": %.1f, \"avgTemp\": %.1f, \"startTime\": \"%s\", \"endTime\": \"%s\"}",
                maxTemp,
                minTemp,
                avgTemp,
                since,
                endTime);

        return new DeviceMethodData(StatusCode.COMPLETED.value, responsePayload);
    }
}

提示

要求和回應名稱不存在於透過網路傳輸的序列化承載中。

模型識別碼公告

若要宣告模型識別碼,裝置必須將它包含在連線資訊中:

const modelIdObject = { modelId: 'dtmi:com:example:Thermostat;1' };
const client = Client.fromConnectionString(deviceConnectionString, Protocol);
await client.setOptions(modelIdObject);
await client.open();

提示

針對模組和IoT Edge,請使用 ModuleClient 取代 Client

提示

這是裝置唯一可以設定模型識別碼的時間,無法在裝置連線之後更新。

DPS 承載

使用 裝置布建服務 (DPS) 的裝置 ,可以使用 modelId 下列 JSON 承載在布建程式期間使用 。

{
    "modelId" : "dtmi:com:example:Thermostat;1"
}

使用元件

瞭解IoT 隨插即用模型中的元件中所述,裝置產生器必須決定是否要使用元件來描述其裝置。 使用元件時,裝置必須遵循下列各節中所述的規則。

遙測

預設元件不需要新增至遙測訊息的任何特殊屬性。

使用巢狀元件時,裝置必須設定具有元件名稱的訊息屬性:

async function sendTelemetry(deviceClient, data, index, componentName) {
  const msg = new Message(data);
  if (!!(componentName)) {
    msg.properties.add(messageSubjectProperty, componentName);
  }
  msg.contentType = 'application/json';
  msg.contentEncoding = 'utf-8';
  await deviceClient.sendEvent(msg);
}

唯讀屬性

從預設元件報告屬性不需要任何特殊建構:

const createReportPropPatch = (propertiesToReport) => {
  let patch;
  patch = { };
  patch = propertiesToReport;
  return patch;
};

deviceTwin = await client.getTwin();
patchThermostat = createReportPropPatch({
  maxTempSinceLastReboot: 38.7
});

deviceTwin.properties.reported.update(patchThermostat, function (err) {
  if (err) throw err;
});

裝置對應項會更新為下列報告屬性:

{
  "reported": {
      "maxTempSinceLastReboot" : 38.7
  }
}

使用巢狀元件時,必須在元件名稱內建立屬性,並包含標記:

helperCreateReportedPropertiesPatch = (propertiesToReport, componentName) => {
  let patch;
  if (!!(componentName)) {
    patch = { };
    propertiesToReport.__t = 'c';
    patch[componentName] = propertiesToReport;
  } else {
    patch = { };
    patch = propertiesToReport;
  }
  return patch;
};

deviceTwin = await client.getTwin();
patchThermostat1Info = helperCreateReportedPropertiesPatch({
  maxTempSinceLastReboot: 38.7,
}, 'thermostat1');

deviceTwin.properties.reported.update(patchThermostat1Info, function (err) {
  if (err) throw err;
});

裝置對應項會更新為下列報告屬性:

{
  "reported": {
    "thermostat1" : {  
      "__t" : "c",  
      "maxTempSinceLastReboot" : 38.7
     } 
  }
}

可寫入的屬性

這些屬性可由裝置設定,或由解決方案更新。 如果解決方案更新屬性,用戶端會在 或 ModuleClientClient 收到回呼通知。 若要遵循IoT 隨插即用慣例,裝置必須通知服務已成功接收 屬性。

如果屬性類型為 Object ,服務就必須將完整物件傳送至裝置,即使它只更新物件的欄位子集也一樣。 裝置傳送的通知也必須是完整物件。

報告可寫入屬性

當裝置報告可寫入的屬性時,它必須包含 ack 慣例中定義的值。

若要從預設元件報告可寫入的屬性:

patch = {
  targetTemperature:
    {
      'value': 23.2,
      'ac': 200,  // using HTTP status codes
      'ad': 'reported default value',
      'av': 0  // not read from a desired property
    }
};
deviceTwin.properties.reported.update(patch, function (err) {
  if (err) throw err;
});

裝置對應項會更新為下列報告屬性:

{
  "reported": {
    "targetTemperature": {
      "value": 23.2,
      "ac": 200,
      "av": 0,
      "ad": "reported default value"
    }
  }
}

若要從巢狀元件報告可寫入的屬性,對應項必須包含標記:

patch = {
  thermostat1: {
    '__t' : 'c',
    targetTemperature: {
      'value': 23.2,
      'ac': 200,  // using HTTP status codes
      'ad': 'reported default value',
      'av': 0  // not read from a desired property
    }
  }
};
deviceTwin.properties.reported.update(patch, function (err) {
  if (err) throw err;
});

裝置對應項會更新為下列報告屬性:

{
  "reported": {
    "thermostat1": {
      "__t" : "c",
      "targetTemperature": {
          "value": 23.2,
          "ac": 200,
          "av": 0,
          "ad": "complete"
      }
    }
  }
}

訂閱所需的屬性更新

服務可以更新所需的屬性,以在連線的裝置上觸發通知。 此通知包含更新所需的屬性,包括識別更新的版本號碼。 裝置必須在傳回給服務的訊息中包含 ack 此版本號碼。

預設元件會看見單一屬性,並使用收到的版本建立報告 ack

const propertyUpdateHandler = (deviceTwin, propertyName, reportedValue, desiredValue, version) => {
  const patch = createReportPropPatch(
    { [propertyName]:
      {
        'value': desiredValue,
        'ac': 200,
        'ad': 'Successfully executed patch for ' + propertyName,
        'av': version
      }
    });
  updateComponentReportedProperties(deviceTwin, patch);
};

desiredPropertyPatchHandler = (deviceTwin) => {
  deviceTwin.on('properties.desired', (delta) => {
    const versionProperty = delta.$version;

    Object.entries(delta).forEach(([propertyName, propertyValue]) => {
      if (propertyName !== '$version') {
        propertyUpdateHandler(deviceTwin, propertyName, null, propertyValue, versionProperty);
      }
    });
  });
};

巢狀元件的裝置對應項會顯示所需的和報告區段,如下所示:

{
  "desired" : {
    "targetTemperature": 23.2,
    "$version" : 3
  },
  "reported": {
      "targetTemperature": {
          "value": 23.2,
          "ac": 200,
          "av": 3,
          "ad": "complete"
      }
  }
}

巢狀元件會接收以元件名稱包裝的所需屬性,而且應該回報 ack 報告屬性:

const desiredPropertyPatchListener = (deviceTwin, componentNames) => {
  deviceTwin.on('properties.desired', (delta) => {
    Object.entries(delta).forEach(([key, values]) => {
      const version = delta.$version;
      if (!!(componentNames) && componentNames.includes(key)) { // then it is a component we are expecting
        const componentName = key;
        const patchForComponents = { [componentName]: {} };
        Object.entries(values).forEach(([propertyName, propertyValue]) => {
          if (propertyName !== '__t' && propertyName !== '$version') {
            const propertyContent = { value: propertyValue };
            propertyContent.ac = 200;
            propertyContent.ad = 'Successfully executed patch';
            propertyContent.av = version;
            patchForComponents[componentName][propertyName] = propertyContent;
          }
        });
        updateComponentReportedProperties(deviceTwin, patchForComponents, componentName);
      }
      else if  (key !== '$version') { // individual property for root
        const patchForRoot = { };
        const propertyContent = { value: values };
        propertyContent.ac = 200;
        propertyContent.ad = 'Successfully executed patch';
        propertyContent.av = version;
        patchForRoot[key] = propertyContent;
        updateComponentReportedProperties(deviceTwin, patchForRoot, null);
      }
    });
  });
};

元件的裝置對應項會顯示所需的和回報區段,如下所示:

{
  "desired" : {
    "thermostat1" : {
        "__t" : "c",
        "targetTemperature": 23.2,
    }
    "$version" : 3
  },
  "reported": {
    "thermostat1" : {
        "__t" : "c",
      "targetTemperature": {
          "value": 23.2,
          "ac": 200,
          "av": 3,
          "ad": "complete"
      }
    }
  }
}

命令

預設元件會接收服務叫用的命令名稱。

巢狀元件會接收前置詞為元件名稱和分隔符號的 * 命令名稱。

const commandHandler = async (request, response) => {
  switch (request.methodName) {
  
  // ...

  case 'thermostat1*reboot': {
    await response.send(200, 'reboot response');
    break;
  }
  default:
    await response.send(404, 'unknown method');
    break;
  }
};

client.onDeviceMethod('thermostat1*reboot', commandHandler);

要求和回應承載

命令會使用類型來定義其要求和回應承載。 裝置必須還原序列化傳入輸入參數,並序列化回應。 下列範例示範如何使用承載中定義的複雜類型來實作命令:

{
  "@type": "Command",
  "name": "getMaxMinReport",
  "displayName": "Get Max-Min report.",
  "description": "This command returns the max, min and average temperature from the specified time to the current time.",
  "request": {
    "name": "since",
    "displayName": "Since",
    "description": "Period to return the max-min report.",
    "schema": "dateTime"
  },
  "response": {
    "name" : "tempReport",
    "displayName": "Temperature Report",
    "schema": {
      "@type": "Object",
      "fields": [
        {
          "name": "maxTemp",
          "displayName": "Max temperature",
          "schema": "double"
        },
        {
          "name": "minTemp",
          "displayName": "Min temperature",
          "schema": "double"
        },
        {
          "name" : "avgTemp",
          "displayName": "Average Temperature",
          "schema": "double"
        },
        {
          "name" : "startTime",
          "displayName": "Start Time",
          "schema": "dateTime"
        },
        {
          "name" : "endTime",
          "displayName": "End Time",
          "schema": "dateTime"
        }
      ]
    }
  }
}

下列程式碼片段顯示裝置如何實作此命令定義,包括用來啟用序列化和還原序列化的類型:

class TemperatureSensor {

  // ...

  getMaxMinReportObject() {
    return {
      maxTemp: this.maxTemp,
      minTemp: this.minTemp,
      avgTemp: this.cumulativeTemperature / this.numberOfTemperatureReadings,
      endTime: (new Date(Date.now())).toISOString(),
      startTime: this.startTime
    };
  }
}

// ...

const deviceTemperatureSensor = new TemperatureSensor();

const commandHandler = async (request, response) => {
  switch (request.methodName) {
  case commandMaxMinReport: {
    console.log('MaxMinReport ' + request.payload);
    await response.send(200, deviceTemperatureSensor.getMaxMinReportObject());
    break;
  }
  default:
    await response.send(404, 'unknown method');
    break;
  }
};

提示

要求和回應名稱不存在於透過網路傳輸的序列化承載中。

模型識別碼公告

若要宣告模型識別碼,裝置必須將它包含在連線資訊中:

device_client = IoTHubDeviceClient.create_from_symmetric_key(
    symmetric_key=symmetric_key,
    hostname=registration_result.registration_state.assigned_hub,
    device_id=registration_result.registration_state.device_id,
    product_info=model_id,
)

提示

針對模組和IoT Edge,請使用 IoTHubModuleClient 取代 IoTHubDeviceClient

提示

這是裝置唯一可以設定模型識別碼的時間,無法在裝置連線之後更新。

DPS 承載

使用 裝置布建服務 (DPS) 的裝置 ,可以使用 modelId 下列 JSON 承載在布建程式期間使用 。

{
    "modelId" : "dtmi:com:example:Thermostat;1"
}

使用元件

瞭解IoT 隨插即用模型中的元件中所述,裝置產生器必須決定是否要使用元件來描述其裝置。 使用元件時,裝置必須遵循下列各節中所述的規則。

遙測

預設元件不需要新增至遙測訊息的任何特殊屬性。

使用巢狀元件時,裝置必須設定具有元件名稱的訊息屬性:

async def send_telemetry_from_temp_controller(device_client, telemetry_msg, component_name=None):
    msg = Message(json.dumps(telemetry_msg))
    msg.content_encoding = "utf-8"
    msg.content_type = "application/json"
    if component_name:
        msg.custom_properties["$.sub"] = component_name
    await device_client.send_message(msg)
}

唯讀屬性

從預設元件報告屬性不需要任何特殊建構:

await device_client.patch_twin_reported_properties({"maxTempSinceLastReboot": 38.7})

裝置對應項會更新為下列報告屬性:

{
  "reported": {
      "maxTempSinceLastReboot" : 38.7
  }
}

使用巢狀元件時,必須在元件名稱內建立屬性,並包含標記:

inner_dict = {}
inner_dict["targetTemperature"] = 38.7
inner_dict["__t"] = "c"
prop_dict = {}
prop_dict["thermostat1"] = inner_dict

await device_client.patch_twin_reported_properties(prop_dict)

裝置對應項會更新為下列報告屬性:

{
  "reported": {
    "thermostat1" : {  
      "__t" : "c",  
      "maxTempSinceLastReboot" : 38.7
     }
  }
}

可寫入的屬性

這些屬性可由裝置設定,或由解決方案更新。 如果解決方案更新屬性,用戶端會在 或 IoTHubModuleClientIoTHubDeviceClient 收到回呼通知。 若要遵循IoT 隨插即用慣例,裝置必須通知服務已成功接收 屬性。

如果屬性類型為 Object ,服務就必須將完整物件傳送至裝置,即使它只更新物件的欄位子集也一樣。 裝置傳送的通知也必須是完整物件。

報告可寫入屬性

當裝置報告可寫入的屬性時,它必須包含 ack 慣例中定義的值。

若要從預設元件報告可寫入的屬性:

prop_dict = {}
prop_dict["targetTemperature"] = {
    "ac": 200,
    "ad": "reported default value",
    "av": 0,
    "value": 23.2
}

await device_client.patch_twin_reported_properties(prop_dict)

裝置對應項會更新為下列報告屬性:

{
  "reported": {
    "targetTemperature": {
      "value": 23.2,
      "ac": 200,
      "av": 0,
      "ad": "reported default value"
    }
  }
}

若要從巢狀元件報告可寫入的屬性,對應項必須包含標記:

inner_dict = {}
inner_dict["targetTemperature"] = {
    "ac": 200,
    "ad": "reported default value",
    "av": 0,
    "value": 23.2
}
inner_dict["__t"] = "c"
prop_dict = {}
prop_dict["thermostat1"] = inner_dict

await device_client.patch_twin_reported_properties(prop_dict)

裝置對應項會更新為下列報告屬性:

{
  "reported": {
    "thermostat1": {
      "__t" : "c",
      "targetTemperature": {
          "value": 23.2,
          "ac": 200,
          "av": 0,
          "ad": "complete"
      }
    }
  }
}

訂閱所需的屬性更新

服務可以更新所需的屬性,以在連線的裝置上觸發通知。 此通知包含更新所需的屬性,包括識別更新的版本號碼。 裝置必須在傳回給服務的訊息中包含 ack 此版本號碼。

預設元件會看見單一屬性,並使用收到的版本建立報告 ack

async def execute_property_listener(device_client):
    ignore_keys = ["__t", "$version"]
    while True:
        patch = await device_client.receive_twin_desired_properties_patch()  # blocking call

        version = patch["$version"]
        prop_dict = {}

        for prop_name, prop_value in patch.items():
            if prop_name in ignore_keys:
                continue
            else:
                prop_dict[prop_name] = {
                    "ac": 200,
                    "ad": "Successfully executed patch",
                    "av": version,
                    "value": prop_value,
                }

        await device_client.patch_twin_reported_properties(prop_dict)

巢狀元件的裝置對應項會顯示所需的和報告區段,如下所示:

{
  "desired" : {
    "targetTemperature": 23.2,
    "$version" : 3
  },
  "reported": {
      "targetTemperature": {
          "value": 23.2,
          "ac": 200,
          "av": 3,
          "ad": "complete"
      }
  }
}

巢狀元件會接收以元件名稱包裝的所需屬性,而且應該回報 ack 報告屬性:

def create_reported_properties_from_desired(patch):
    ignore_keys = ["__t", "$version"]
    component_prefix = list(patch.keys())[0]
    values = patch[component_prefix]

    version = patch["$version"]
    inner_dict = {}

    for prop_name, prop_value in values.items():
        if prop_name in ignore_keys:
            continue
        else:
            inner_dict["ac"] = 200
            inner_dict["ad"] = "Successfully executed patch"
            inner_dict["av"] = version
            inner_dict["value"] = prop_value
            values[prop_name] = inner_dict

    properties_dict = dict()
    if component_prefix:
        properties_dict[component_prefix] = values
    else:
        properties_dict = values

    return properties_dict

async def execute_property_listener(device_client):
    while True:
        patch = await device_client.receive_twin_desired_properties_patch()  # blocking call
        properties_dict = create_reported_properties_from_desired(patch)

        await device_client.patch_twin_reported_properties(properties_dict)

元件的裝置對應項會顯示所需的和回報區段,如下所示:

{
  "desired" : {
    "thermostat1" : {
        "__t" : "c",
        "targetTemperature": 23.2,
    }
    "$version" : 3
  },
  "reported": {
    "thermostat1" : {
        "__t" : "c",
      "targetTemperature": {
          "value": 23.2,
          "ac": 200,
          "av": 3,
          "ad": "complete"
      }
    }
  }
}

命令

預設元件會接收服務叫用的命令名稱。

巢狀元件會接收前置詞為元件名稱和分隔符號的 * 命令名稱。

command_request = await device_client.receive_method_request("thermostat1*reboot")

要求和回應承載

命令會使用類型來定義其要求和回應承載。 裝置必須還原序列化傳入輸入參數,並序列化回應。 下列範例示範如何使用承載中定義的複雜類型來實作命令:

{
  "@type": "Command",
  "name": "getMaxMinReport",
  "displayName": "Get Max-Min report.",
  "description": "This command returns the max, min and average temperature from the specified time to the current time.",
  "request": {
    "name": "since",
    "displayName": "Since",
    "description": "Period to return the max-min report.",
    "schema": "dateTime"
  },
  "response": {
    "name" : "tempReport",
    "displayName": "Temperature Report",
    "schema": {
      "@type": "Object",
      "fields": [
        {
          "name": "maxTemp",
          "displayName": "Max temperature",
          "schema": "double"
        },
        {
          "name": "minTemp",
          "displayName": "Min temperature",
          "schema": "double"
        },
        {
          "name" : "avgTemp",
          "displayName": "Average Temperature",
          "schema": "double"
        },
        {
          "name" : "startTime",
          "displayName": "Start Time",
          "schema": "dateTime"
        },
        {
          "name" : "endTime",
          "displayName": "End Time",
          "schema": "dateTime"
        }
      ]
    }
  }
}

下列程式碼片段顯示裝置如何實作此命令定義,包括用來啟用序列化和還原序列化的類型:

def create_max_min_report_response(values):
    response_dict = {
        "maxTemp": max_temp,
        "minTemp": min_temp,
        "avgTemp": sum(avg_temp_list) / moving_window_size,
        "startTime": (datetime.now() - timedelta(0, moving_window_size * 8)).isoformat(),
        "endTime": datetime.now().isoformat(),
    }
    # serialize response dictionary into a JSON formatted str
    response_payload = json.dumps(response_dict, default=lambda o: o.__dict__, sort_keys=True)
    return response_payload

提示

要求和回應名稱不存在於透過網路傳輸的序列化承載中。

後續步驟

既然您已瞭解IoT 隨插即用裝置開發,以下是一些額外的資源: