Load Balancer 和可用性區域Load Balancer and Availability Zones

Azure Load Balancer 支援可用性區域案例。Azure Load Balancer supports availability zones scenarios. 您可以使用 Standard Load Balancer,藉由調整資源和跨區域散發來提高整個案例的可用性。You can use Standard Load Balancer to increase availability throughout your scenario by aligning resources with, and distribution across zones. 請參閱這份檔,以瞭解這些概念和基本案例設計指導方針Review this document to understand these concepts and fundamental scenario design guidance

Load Balancer 可以是 區域冗余、區域性非區域性A Load Balancer can either be zone redundant, zonal, or non-zonal. 若要為您的負載平衡器設定上述的區域相關屬性 () ,請選取所需的適當前端類型。To configure the zone related properties (mentioned above) for your load balancer, select the appropriate type of frontend needed.

區域備援Zone redundant

在具有可用性區域的區域中,Standard Load Balancer 可以是區域冗余。In a region with Availability Zones, a Standard Load Balancer can be zone-redundant. 此流量是由單一 IP 位址提供服務。This traffic is served by a single IP address.

單一前端 IP 位址會存活區域失敗。A single frontend IP address will survive zone failure. 前端 IP 可用來觸達所有 (不受影響的) 後端集區成員,不論區域為何。The frontend IP may be used to reach all (non-impacted) backend pool members no matter the zone. 一或多個可用性區域可能會失敗,而且只要區域中的一個區域維持良好狀況,資料路徑就會繼續生存。One or more availability zones can fail and the data path survives as long as one zone in the region remains healthy.

前端的 IP 位址會由多個可用性區域中的多個獨立基礎結構部署同時提供服務。The frontend's IP address is served simultaneously by multiple independent infrastructure deployments in multiple availability zones. 任何在不受區域失敗影響的其他區域中,任何重試或重新建立作業都會成功。Any retries or reestablishment will succeed in other zones not affected by the zone failure.

Figure depicts a zone-redundant standard load balancer directing traffic in three different zones to three different subnets in a zone redundant configuration.

圖:區域重複的負載平衡器Figure: Zone redundant load balancer

緯 向Zonal

您可以選擇保證前端的單一區域(稱為區域 )。You can choose to have a frontend guaranteed to a single zone, which is known as a zonal. 此案例表示區域中的單一區域會提供任何輸入或輸出流程。This scenario means any inbound or outbound flow is served by a single zone in a region. 您的前端會具有與區域相同的健康情況。Your frontend shares fate with the health of the zone. 非保證區域中的失敗皆不會對資料路徑造成影響。The data path is unaffected by failures in zones other than where it was guaranteed. 您可以使用區域性前端來公開每個可用性區域的 IP 位址。You can use zonal frontends to expose an IP address per Availability Zone.

此外,也支援在每個區域內,直接針對負載平衡的端點使用區域性前端。Additionally, the use of zonal frontends directly for load balanced endpoints within each zone is supported. 您可以使用此設定來公開每個區域的負載平衡端點,以個別監視每個區域。You can use this configuration to expose per zone load-balanced endpoints to individually monitor each zone. 針對公用端點,您可以將它們與 DNS 負載平衡產品(例如 流量管理員 )整合,並使用單一 DNS 名稱。For public endpoints, you can integrate them with a DNS load-balancing product like Traffic Manager and use a single DNS name.

Figure depicts three zonal standard load balancers each directing traffic in a zone to three different subnets in a zonal configuration.

圖:區域性負載平衡器Figure: Zonal load balancer

針對公用負載平衡器前端,您可以將 區域 參數新增至公用 IP。For a public load balancer frontend, you add a zones parameter to the public IP. 此公用 IP 是由個別規則所使用的前端 IP 設定所參考。This public IP is referenced by the frontend IP configuration used by the respective rule.

若為內部負載平衡器前端,請將 區域 參數新增至內部負載平衡器前端 IP 設定。For an internal load balancer frontend, add a zones parameter to the internal load balancer frontend IP configuration. 區域性前端可保證子網中特定區域的 IP 位址。A zonal frontend guarantees an IP address in a subnet to a specific zone.

設計考慮Design considerations

既然您已瞭解 Standard Load Balancer 的區域相關屬性,下列設計考慮可能有助於設計高可用性。Now that you understand the zone related properties for Standard Load Balancer, the following design considerations might help as you design for high availability.

容錯至區域失敗Tolerance to zone failure

  • 區域多餘 的 Load Balancer 可以在具有一個 IP 位址的任何區域中提供區域性資源。A zone redundant Load Balancer can serve a zonal resource in any zone with one IP address. 只要區域內至少有一個區域維持良好狀態,IP 就可以存留一或多個區域失敗。The IP can survive one or more zone failures as long as at least one zone remains healthy within the region.
  • 區域性 前端是將服務縮減為單一區域,並與各自的區域共用 fate。A zonal frontend is a reduction of the service to a single zone and shares fate with the respective zone. 如果您的部署所在的區域停止運作,您的部署將不會存活此失敗。If the zone your deployment is in goes down, your deployment will not survive this failure.

建議您針對生產工作負載使用區域多餘的 Load Balancer。It is recommended you use zone redundant Load Balancer for your production workloads.

控制項與資料平面的含意Control vs data plane implications

區域冗余不表示表示資料平面或控制平面。Zone-redundancy doesn't imply hitless data plane or control plane. 區域冗余流程可以使用任何區域,而您的流程將會使用區域中所有狀況良好的區域。Zone-redundant flows can use any zone and your flows will use all healthy zones in a region. 在區域失敗中,使用狀況良好的區域的流量不會受到影響。In a zone failure, traffic flows using healthy zones aren't affected.

在區域失敗時使用區域的流量會受到影響,但應用程式可以復原。Traffic flows using a zone at the time of zone failure may be affected but applications can recover. 當 Azure 交集區域失敗時,流量會在區域內的狀況良好區域內繼續進行。Traffic continues in the healthy zones within the region upon retransmission when Azure has converged around the zone failure.

查看 Azure 雲端設計模式 ,以改善應用程式對失敗案例的復原能力。Review Azure cloud design patterns to improve the resiliency of your application to failure scenarios.

下一步Next steps