使用 PowerShell 在多個 SQL Database 之間進行同步處理Use PowerShell to sync between multiple SQL Databases

此 PowerShell 範例會設定「資料同步」,以在多個 Azure SQL 資料庫之間進行同步處理。This PowerShell example configures Data Sync to sync between multiple Azure SQL databases.

如果您沒有 Azure 訂用帳戶,請在開始前建立免費帳戶If you don't have an Azure subscription, create a free account before you begin.

注意

本文已更新為使用新的 Azure PowerShell Az 模組。This article has been updated to use the new Azure PowerShell Az module. AzureRM 模組在至少 2020 年 12 月之前都還會持續收到錯誤 (Bug) 修正,因此您仍然可以持續使用。You can still use the AzureRM module, which will continue to receive bug fixes until at least December 2020. 若要深入了解新的 Az 模組和 AzureRM 的相容性,請參閱新的 Azure PowerShell Az 模組簡介To learn more about the new Az module and AzureRM compatibility, see Introducing the new Azure PowerShell Az module. 如需 Az 模組安裝指示,請參閱安裝 Azure PowerShellFor Az module installation instructions, see Install Azure PowerShell.

使用 Azure Cloud ShellUse Azure Cloud Shell

Azure Cloud Shell 是裝載於 Azure 中的互動式殼層環境,可在瀏覽器中使用。Azure hosts Azure Cloud Shell, an interactive shell environment that you can use through your browser. Cloud Shell 可讓您使用 bashPowerShell 以與 Azure 服務搭配使用。Cloud Shell lets you use either bash or PowerShell to work with Azure services. Azure Cloud Shell 已預先安裝一些命令,可讓您執行本文提到的程式碼,而不必在本機環境上安裝任何工具。You can use the Cloud Shell pre-installed commands to run the code in this article without having to install anything on your local environment.

若要啟動 Azure Cloud Shell:To launch Azure Cloud Shell:

選項Option 範例/連結Example/Link
選取程式碼區塊右上角的 [試試看] 。Select Try It in the upper-right corner of a code block. 選取 [試用] 並不會自動將程式碼複製到 Cloud Shell 中。Selecting Try It doesn't automatically copy the code to Cloud Shell. Azure Cloud Shell 的試試看範例
請前往 https://shell.azure.com 或選取 [啟動 Cloud Shell] 按鈕,在瀏覽器中開啟 Cloud Shell。Go to https://shell.azure.com or select the Launch Cloud Shell button to open Cloud Shell in your browser. <a href="https://shell.azure.com" title="啟動 Azure Cloud Shell
選取 Azure 入口網站右上角功能表列中的 [Cloud Shell] 按鈕。Select the Cloud Shell button on the top-right menu bar in the Azure portal. Azure 入口網站中的 [Cloud Shell] 按鈕

若要在 Azure Cloud Shell 中執行本文中的程式碼:To run the code in this article in Azure Cloud Shell:

  1. 啟動 Cloud Shell。Launch Cloud Shell.
  2. 選取程式碼區塊上的 [複製] 按鈕,複製程式碼。Select the Copy button on a code block to copy the code.
  3. 在 Windows 和 Linux 上按 Ctrl+Shift+V;或在 macOS 上按 Cmd+Shift+V,將程式碼貼到 Cloud Shell工作階段中。Paste the code into the Cloud Shell session with Ctrl+Shift+V on Windows and Linux, or Cmd+Shift+V on macOS.
  4. 按下 Enter 鍵執行程式碼。Press Enter to run the code.

如果選擇在本機安裝和使用 PowerShell,此教學課程需要 AZ PowerShell 1.4.0 或更新版本。If you choose to install and use the PowerShell locally, this tutorial requires AZ PowerShell 1.4.0 or later. 如果您需要升級,請參閱安裝 Azure PowerShell 模組If you need to upgrade, see Install Azure PowerShell module. 如果您在本機執行 PowerShell,則也需要執行 Connect-AzAccount 以建立與 Azure 的連線。If you are running PowerShell locally, you also need to run Connect-AzAccount to create a connection with Azure.

如需 SQL 資料同步的概觀,請參閱使用 Azure SQL 資料同步,跨多個雲端和內部部署資料庫同步處理資料For an overview of SQL Data Sync, see Sync data across multiple cloud and on-premises databases with Azure SQL Data Sync.

重要

「Azure SQL 資料同步」目前支援「Azure SQL Database 受控執行個體」。Azure SQL Data Sync does not support Azure SQL Database Managed Instance at this time.

範例指令碼Sample script

# prerequisites: 
# 1. Create an Azure SQL Database from AdventureWorksLT sample database as hub database
# 2. Create an Azure SQL Database in the same region as sync database
# 3. Create an Azure SQL Database as member database
# 4. Update the parameters below before running the sample
#
using namespace Microsoft.Azure.Commands.Sql.DataSync.Model
using namespace System.Collections.Generic

# Hub database info
# Subscription id for hub database
$SubscriptionId = "subscription_guid"
# Resource group name for hub database
$ResourceGroupName = "ResourceGroup"
# Server name for hub database
$ServerName = "Server"
# Database name for hub database
$DatabaseName = "AdventureWorks"

# Sync database info
# Resource group name for sync database
$SyncDatabaseResourceGroupName = "ResourceGroup"
# Server name for sync database
$SyncDatabaseServerName = "Server"
# Sync database name
$SyncDatabaseName = "SyncDatabase"

# Sync group info
# Sync group name
$SyncGroupName = "SampleSyncGroup1"
# Conflict resolution Policy. Value can be HubWin or MemberWin
$ConflictResolutionPolicy = "HubWin"
# Sync interval in seconds. Value must be no less than 300
$IntervalInSeconds = 300

# Member database info
# Member name
$SyncMemberName = "member"
# Member server name
$MemberServerName = "MemberServer"
# Member database name
$MemberDatabaseName = "SyncDatabase1"
# Member database type. Value can be AzureSqlDatabase or SqlServerDatabase
$MemberDatabaseType = "AzureSqlDatabase"
# Sync direction. Value can be Bidirectional, Onewaymembertohub, Onewayhubtomember
$SyncDirection = "Bidirectional"

# Other info
# Temp file to save the sync schema
$TempFile = $env:TEMP+"\syncSchema.json"

# List of included columns and tables in quoted name
$IncludedColumnsAndTables =  "[SalesLT].[Address].[AddressID]",
                             "[SalesLT].[Address].[AddressLine2]",
                             "[SalesLT].[Address].[rowguid]",
                             "[SalesLT].[Address].[PostalCode]",
                             "[SalesLT].[ProductDescription]"
$MetadataList = [System.Collections.ArrayList]::new($IncludedColumnsAndTables)


Connect-AzAccount 
select-Azsubscription -SubscriptionId $SubscriptionId

# Use this section if it is safe to show password in the script.
# Otherwise, use the PromptForCredential
# $User = "username"
# $PWord = ConvertTo-SecureString -String "Password" -AsPlainText -Force
# $Credential = New-Object -TypeName "System.Management.Automation.PSCredential" -ArgumentList $User, $PWord

$Credential = $Host.ui.PromptForCredential("Need credential", 
              "Please enter your user name and password for server "+$ServerName+".database.windows.net", 
              "", 
              "")

# Create a new sync group
Write-Host "Creating Sync Group"$SyncGroupName
New-AzSqlSyncGroup   -ResourceGroupName $ResourceGroupName `
                            -ServerName $ServerName `
                            -DatabaseName $DatabaseName `
                            -Name $SyncGroupName `
                            -SyncDatabaseName $SyncDatabaseName `
                            -SyncDatabaseServerName $SyncDatabaseServerName `
                            -SyncDatabaseResourceGroupName $SyncDatabaseResourceGroupName `
                            -ConflictResolutionPolicy $ConflictResolutionPolicy `
                            -DatabaseCredential $Credential

# Use this section if it is safe to show password in the script.
#$User = "username"
#$Password = ConvertTo-SecureString -String "password" -AsPlainText -Force
#$Credential = New-Object -TypeName "System.Management.Automation.PSCredential" -ArgumentList $User, $Password

$Credential = $Host.ui.PromptForCredential("Need credential", 
              "Please enter your user name and password for server "+$MemberServerName, 
              "", 
              "")

# Add a new sync member
# You can add members from other subscriptions, you don't need to specify Subscription Id for the member
Write-Host "Adding member"$SyncMemberName" to the sync group"
New-AzSqlSyncMember   -ResourceGroupName $ResourceGroupName `
                            -ServerName $ServerName `
                            -DatabaseName $DatabaseName `
                            -SyncGroupName $SyncGroupName `
                            -Name $SyncMemberName `
                            -MemberDatabaseCredential $Credential `
                            -MemberDatabaseName $MemberDatabaseName `
                            -MemberServerName ($MemberServerName + ".database.windows.net") `
                            -MemberDatabaseType $MemberDatabaseType `
                            -SyncDirection $SyncDirection

# Refresh database schema from hub database
# Specify the -SyncMemberName parameter if you want to refresh schema from the member database
Write-Host "Refreshing database schema from hub database"
$StartTime= Get-Date
Update-AzSqlSyncSchema   -ResourceGroupName $ResourceGroupName `
                              -ServerName $ServerName `
                              -DatabaseName $DatabaseName `
                              -SyncGroupName $SyncGroupName


#Waiting for successful refresh

$StartTime=$StartTime.ToUniversalTime()
$timer=0
$timeout=90
# Check the log and see if refresh has gone through
Write-Host "Check for successful refresh"
$IsSucceeded = $false
While ($IsSucceeded -eq $false)
{
    Start-Sleep -s 10
    $timer=$timer+10
    $Details = Get-AzSqlSyncSchema -SyncGroupName $SyncGroupName -ServerName $ServerName -DatabaseName $DatabaseName -ResourceGroupName $ResourceGroupName
    if ($Details.LastUpdateTime -gt $StartTime)
      {
        Write-Host "Refresh was successful"
        $IsSucceeded = $true
      }
    if ($timer -eq $timeout) 
      {
              Write-Host "Refresh timed out"
        break;
      }
}



# Get the database schema 
Write-Host "Adding tables and columns to the sync schema"
$databaseSchema = Get-AzSqlSyncSchema   -ResourceGroupName $ResourceGroupName `
                                             -ServerName $ServerName `
                                             -DatabaseName $DatabaseName `
                                             -SyncGroupName $SyncGroupName `

$databaseSchema | ConvertTo-Json -depth 5 -Compress | Out-File "c:\tmp\databaseSchema"     
$newSchema = [AzureSqlSyncGroupSchemaModel]::new()
$newSchema.Tables = [List[AzureSqlSyncGroupSchemaTableModel]]::new();

# Add columns and tables to the sync schema
foreach ($tableSchema in $databaseSchema.Tables)
{
    $newTableSchema = [AzureSqlSyncGroupSchemaTableModel]::new()
    $newTableSchema.QuotedName = $tableSchema.QuotedName
    $newTableSchema.Columns = [List[AzureSqlSyncGroupSchemaColumnModel]]::new();
    $addAllColumns = $false
    if ($MetadataList.Contains($tableSchema.QuotedName))
    {
        if ($tableSchema.HasError)
        {
            $fullTableName = $tableSchema.QuotedName
            Write-Host "Can't add table $fullTableName to the sync schema" -foregroundcolor "Red"
            Write-Host $tableSchema.ErrorId -foregroundcolor "Red"
            continue;
        }
        else
        {
            $addAllColumns = $true
        }
    }
    foreach($columnSchema in $tableSchema.Columns)
    {
        $fullColumnName = $tableSchema.QuotedName + "." + $columnSchema.QuotedName
        if ($addAllColumns -or $MetadataList.Contains($fullColumnName))
        {
            if ((-not $addAllColumns) -and $tableSchema.HasError)
            {
                Write-Host "Can't add column $fullColumnName to the sync schema" -foregroundcolor "Red"
                Write-Host $tableSchema.ErrorId -foregroundcolor "Red"c            }
            elseif ((-not $addAllColumns) -and $columnSchema.HasError)
            {
                Write-Host "Can't add column $fullColumnName to the sync schema" -foregroundcolor "Red"
                Write-Host $columnSchema.ErrorId -foregroundcolor "Red"
            }
            else
            {
                Write-Host "Adding"$fullColumnName" to the sync schema"
                $newColumnSchema = [AzureSqlSyncGroupSchemaColumnModel]::new()
                $newColumnSchema.QuotedName = $columnSchema.QuotedName
                $newColumnSchema.DataSize = $columnSchema.DataSize
                $newColumnSchema.DataType = $columnSchema.DataType
                $newTableSchema.Columns.Add($newColumnSchema)
            }
        }
    }
    if ($newTableSchema.Columns.Count -gt 0)
    {
        $newSchema.Tables.Add($newTableSchema)
    }
}

# Convert sync schema to Json format
$schemaString = $newSchema | ConvertTo-Json -depth 5 -Compress

# workaround a powershell bug
$schemaString = $schemaString.Replace('"Tables"', '"tables"').Replace('"Columns"', '"columns"').Replace('"QuotedName"', '"quotedName"').Replace('"MasterSyncMemberName"','"masterSyncMemberName"')

# Save the sync schema to a temp file
$schemaString | Out-File $TempFile

# Update sync schema
Write-Host "Updating the sync schema"
Update-AzSqlSyncGroup  -ResourceGroupName $ResourceGroupName `
                            -ServerName $ServerName `
                            -DatabaseName $DatabaseName `
                            -Name $SyncGroupName `
                            -Schema $TempFile

$SyncLogStartTime = Get-Date

# Trigger sync manually
Write-Host "Trigger sync manually"
Start-AzSqlSyncGroupSync  -ResourceGroupName $ResourceGroupName `
                               -ServerName $ServerName `
                               -DatabaseName $DatabaseName `
                               -SyncGroupName $SyncGroupName

# Check the sync log and wait until the first sync succeeded
Write-Host "Check the sync log"
$IsSucceeded = $false
For ($i = 0; ($i -lt 300) -and (-not $IsSucceeded); $i = $i + 10)
{
    Start-Sleep -s 10
    $SyncLogEndTime = Get-Date
    $SyncLogList = Get-AzSqlSyncGroupLog  -ResourceGroupName $ResourceGroupName `
                                           -ServerName $ServerName `
                                           -DatabaseName $DatabaseName `
                                           -SyncGroupName $SyncGroupName `
                                           -StartTime $SyncLogStartTime.ToUniversalTime() `
                                           -EndTime $SyncLogEndTime.ToUniversalTime()
    if ($SynclogList.Length -gt 0)
    {
        foreach ($SyncLog in $SyncLogList)
        {
            if ($SyncLog.Details.Contains("Sync completed successfully"))
            {
                Write-Host $SyncLog.TimeStamp : $SyncLog.Details
                $IsSucceeded = $true
            }
        }
    }
}

if ($IsSucceeded)
{
    # Enable scheduled sync
    Write-Host "Enable the scheduled sync with 300 seconds interval"
    Update-AzSqlSyncGroup  -ResourceGroupName $ResourceGroupName `
                                -ServerName $ServerName `
                                -DatabaseName $DatabaseName `
                                -Name $SyncGroupName `
                                -IntervalInSeconds $IntervalInSeconds
}
else
{
    # Output all log if sync doesn't succeed in 300 seconds
    $SyncLogEndTime = Get-Date
    $SyncLogList = Get-AzSqlSyncGroupLog  -ResourceGroupName $ResourceGroupName `
                                           -ServerName $ServerName `
                                           -DatabaseName $DatabaseName `
                                           -SyncGroupName $SyncGroupName `
                                           -StartTime $SyncLogStartTime.ToUniversalTime() `
                                           -EndTime $SyncLogEndTime.ToUniversalTime()
    if ($SynclogList.Length -gt 0)
    {
        foreach ($SyncLog in $SyncLogList)
        {
            Write-Host $SyncLog.TimeStamp : $SyncLog.Details
        }
    }
}

# Clean up deployment 
# Remove-AzResourceGroup -ResourceGroupName $resourcegroupname
# Remove-AzResourceGroup -ResourceGroupName $SyncDatabaseResourceGroupName

清除部署Clean up deployment

執行範例指令碼之後,您可以執行下列命令以移除資源群組及與其相關聯的所有資源。After you run the sample script, you can run the following command to remove the resource group and all resources associated with it.

Remove-AzResourceGroup -ResourceGroupName $ResourceGroupName
Remove-AzResourceGroup -ResourceGroupName $SyncDatabaseResourceGroupName

指令碼說明Script explanation

此指令碼會使用下列命令。This script uses the following commands. 下表中的每個命令都會連結至命令特定的文件。Each command in the table links to command-specific documentation.

命令Command 注意Notes
New-AzSqlSyncAgentNew-AzSqlSyncAgent 建立新的同步代理程式Creates a new Sync Agent
New-AzSqlSyncAgentKeyNew-AzSqlSyncAgentKey 產生與同步代理程式相關聯的代理程式金鑰Generates the agent key associated with the Sync agent
Get-AzSqlSyncAgentLinkedDatabaseGet-AzSqlSyncAgentLinkedDatabase 取得同步代理程式的所有資訊Get all the information for the Sync Agent
New-AzSqlSyncMemberNew-AzSqlSyncMember 在同步群組中新增成員Add a new member to the Sync Group
Update-AzSqlSyncSchemaUpdate-AzSqlSyncSchema 重新整理資料庫結構描述資訊Refreshes the database schema information
Get-AzSqlSyncSchemaGet-AzSqlSyncSchema 取得資料庫結構描述資訊Get the database schema information
Update-AzSqlSyncGroupUpdate-AzSqlSyncGroup 更新同步群組Updates the Sync Group
Start-AzSqlSyncGroupSyncStart-AzSqlSyncGroupSync 觸發同步處理Triggers a Sync
Get-AzSqlSyncGroupLogGet-AzSqlSyncGroupLog 檢查同步記錄Checks the Sync Log

後續步驟Next steps

如需有關 Azure PowerShell 的詳細資訊,請參閱 Azure PowerShell 文件For more information about Azure PowerShell, see Azure PowerShell documentation.

您可以在 Azure SQL Database PowerShell 指令碼中找到其他 SQL Database PowerShell 指令碼範例。Additional SQL Database PowerShell script samples can be found in Azure SQL Database PowerShell scripts.

如需 SQL 資料同步的詳細資訊,請參閱:For more info about SQL Data Sync, see:

如需 SQL Database 的詳細資訊,請參閱:For more info about SQL Database, see: