流量管理員常見問題集 (FAQ)Traffic Manager Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)

流量管理員基本概念Traffic Manager basics

「流量管理員」使用什麼 IP 位址?What IP address does Traffic Manager use?

流量管理員的運作方式所述,流量管理員是在 DNS 層級運作。As explained in How Traffic Manager Works, Traffic Manager works at the DNS level. 它會傳送 DNS 回應,將用戶端導向適當的服務端點。It sends DNS responses to direct clients to the appropriate service endpoint. 用戶端會接著直接連線到服務端點,而不會透過「流量管理員」。Clients then connect to the service endpoint directly, not through Traffic Manager.

因此,「流量管理員」並不提供端點或 IP 位址來供用戶端連線。Therefore, Traffic Manager does not provide an endpoint or IP address for clients to connect to. 如果您的服務需要靜態 IP 位址,就必須在服務上設定,而不是在「流量管理員」中設定。If you want static IP address for your service, that must be configured at the service, not in Traffic Manager.

哪種類型的流量可以使用流量管理員路由傳送?What types of traffic can be routed using Traffic Manager?

流量管理員的運作方式中所述,流量管理員端點可以是 Azure 內部或外部裝載的任何網際網路對向服務。As explained in How Traffic Manager Works, a Traffic Manager endpoint can be any internet facing service hosted inside or outside of Azure. 因此,流量管理員可以將源自公用網際網路的流量路由傳送至一組也是網際網路面向的端點。Hence, Traffic Manager can route traffic that originates from the public internet to a set of endpoints that are also internet facing. 如果您的端點位於私人網路內部 (例如,Azure Load Balancer 的內部版本),或是讓使用者從這類內部網路提出 DNS 要求,則您無法使用流量管理員來路由傳送此流量。If you have endpoints that are inside a private network (for example, an internal version of Azure Load Balancer) or have users making DNS requests from such internal networks, then you cannot use Traffic Manager to route this traffic.

流量管理員是否支援「黏性」工作階段?Does Traffic Manager support 'sticky' sessions?

流量管理員的運作方式所述,流量管理員是在 DNS 層級運作。As explained in How Traffic Manager Works, Traffic Manager works at the DNS level. 它會使用 DNS 回應將用戶端導向到適當的服務端點。It uses DNS responses to direct clients to the appropriate service endpoint. 用戶端會直接連接至服務端點,而不會透過流量管理員。Clients connect to the service endpoint directly, not through Traffic Manager. 因此,流量管理員看不到用戶端與伺服器之間的 HTTP 流量。Therefore, Traffic Manager does not see the HTTP traffic between the client and the server.

此外,流量管理員收到之 DNS 查詢的來源 IP 位址屬於遞迴 DNS 服務,而不是用戶端。Additionally, the source IP address of the DNS query received by Traffic Manager belongs to the recursive DNS service, not the client. 因此,流量管理員無法追蹤個別的用戶端,也就無法實作「黏性」工作階段。Therefore, Traffic Manager has no way to track individual clients and cannot implement 'sticky' sessions. 不是只有流量管理員才受此限制,所有 DNS 型流量管理系統都是如此。This limitation is common to all DNS-based traffic management systems and is not specific to Traffic Manager.

我在使用流量管理員時為何看到 HTTP 錯誤?Why am I seeing an HTTP error when using Traffic Manager?

流量管理員的運作方式所述,流量管理員是在 DNS 層級運作。As explained in How Traffic Manager Works, Traffic Manager works at the DNS level. 它會使用 DNS 回應將用戶端導向到適當的服務端點。It uses DNS responses to direct clients to the appropriate service endpoint. 用戶端會接著直接連線到服務端點,而不會透過「流量管理員」。Clients then connect to the service endpoint directly, not through Traffic Manager. 流量管理員看不到用戶端與伺服器之間的 HTTP 流量。Traffic Manager does not see HTTP traffic between client and server. 因此,您看到的任何 HTTP 錯誤必定來自您的應用程式。Therefore, any HTTP error you see must be coming from your application. 為了讓用戶端連接至應用程式,所有 DNS 解析步驟都已完成。For the client to connect to the application, all DNS resolution steps are complete. 這包括流量管理員在應用程式流量流程上的任何互動。That includes any interaction that Traffic Manager has on the application traffic flow.

因此,進一步的調查應該將焦點放在應用程式上。Further investigation should therefore focus on the application.

從用戶端的瀏覽器傳送的 HTTP 主機標頭是最常見的問題來源。The HTTP host header sent from the client's browser is the most common source of problems. 請確定應用程式已設定為接受您使用之網域名稱的正確主機標頭。Make sure that the application is configured to accept the correct host header for the domain name you are using. 關於使用 Azure App Service 的端點,請參閱在使用流量管理員的 Azure App Service 中設定 Web 應用程式的自訂網域名稱For endpoints using the Azure App Service, see configuring a custom domain name for a web app in Azure App Service using Traffic Manager.

使用「流量管理員」對效能有什麼影響?What is the performance impact of using Traffic Manager?

流量管理員的運作方式所述,流量管理員是在 DNS 層級運作。As explained in How Traffic Manager Works, Traffic Manager works at the DNS level. 由於用戶端會直接連線到服務端點,因此在連線建立之後,使用「流量管理員」時並不會造成任何效能影響。Since clients connect to your service endpoints directly, there is no performance impact incurred when using Traffic Manager once the connection is established.

因為流量管理員會在 DNS 層級與應用程式整合,所以它確實需要在 DNS 解析鏈結中插入額外的 DNS 查閱。Since Traffic Manager integrates with applications at the DNS level, it does require an additional DNS lookup to be inserted into the DNS resolution chain. 「流量管理員」對 DNS 解析時間的影響極小。The impact of Traffic Manager on DNS resolution time is minimal. 流量管理員使用全球網路上的名稱伺服器,並使用任一傳播網路功能,以確保一律將 DNS 查詢路由傳送至最靠近的可用名稱伺服器。Traffic Manager uses a global network of name servers, and uses anycast networking to ensure DNS queries are always routed to the closest available name server. 此外,快取 DNS 回應意謂著因使用「流量管理員」而造成的額外 DNS 延遲僅適用於一小部分工作階段。In addition, caching of DNS responses means that the additional DNS latency incurred by using Traffic Manager applies only to a fraction of sessions.

「效能」方法會將流量路由傳送至最靠近的可用端點。The Performance method routes traffic to the closest available endpoint. 最後結果就是這個方法引起的整體效能影響會降到最低。The net result is that the overall performance impact associated with this method should be minimal. 增加的任何 DNS 延遲都被端點更短的網路延遲所抵銷。Any increase in DNS latency should be offset by lower network latency to the endpoint.

我可以搭配「流量管理員」使用哪些應用程式通訊協定?What application protocols can I use with Traffic Manager?

流量管理員的運作方式所述,流量管理員是在 DNS 層級運作。As explained in How Traffic Manager Works, Traffic Manager works at the DNS level. 完成 DNS 查閱之後,用戶端就會直接連線到應用程式端點,而不會透過「流量管理員」。Once the DNS lookup is complete, clients connect to the application endpoint directly, not through Traffic Manager. 因此,連線可以使用任何應用程式通訊協定。Therefore, the connection can use any application protocol. 如果您選取 TCP 作為監視通訊協定,流量管理員的端點健康情況監視可以在不使用任何應用程式通訊協定的情況下完成。If you select TCP as the monitoring protocol, Traffic Manager's endpoint health monitoring can be done without using any application protocols. 如果您選擇使用應用程式通訊協定來驗證健康情況,端點必須能夠回應 HTTP 或 HTTPS GET 要求。If you choose to have the health verified using an application protocol, the endpoint needs to be able to respond to either HTTP or HTTPS GET requests.

我是否可以在流量管理員中使用「裸」網域名稱?Can I use Traffic Manager with a 'naked' domain name?

是。Yes. 若要了解如何建立您要參考的 Azure 流量管理員設定檔的網域名稱頂點的別名記錄,請參閱設定為支援頂點網域名稱使用流量管理員別名記錄To learn how to create an alias record for your domain name apex to reference an Azure Traffic Manager profile, see Configure an alias record to support apex domain names with Traffic Manager.

處理 DNS 查詢時,流量管理員會考量用戶端子網路位址嗎?Does Traffic Manager consider the client subnet address when handling DNS queries?

是,除了所收到 DNS 查詢的來源 IP 位址 (通常是 DNS 解析程式的 IP 位址) 之外,在執行「地理」、「效能」和「子網路」路由方法的查閱時,如果代表使用者發出要求的解析程式在查詢中包含用戶端子網路位址,則流量管理員也會考量該位址。Yes, in addition to the source IP address of the DNS query it receives (which usually is the IP address of the DNS resolver), when performing lookups for Geographic, Performance, and Subnet routing methods, traffic manager also considers the client subnet address if it is included in the query by the resolver making the request on behalf of the end user.
具體而言即 RFC 7871 – DNS 查詢中的用戶端子網路 (英文),此子網路提供 DNS 的延伸機制 (EDNS0) (英文),可將用戶端子網路位址從支援它的解析程式傳遞出去。Specifically, RFC 7871 – Client Subnet in DNS Queries that provides an Extension Mechanism for DNS (EDNS0) which can pass on the client subnet address from resolvers that support it.

什麼是 DNS TTL,以及它如何影響我的使用者?What is DNS TTL and how does it impact my users?

DNS 查詢進入流量管理員時,它會在稱為存留時間 (TTL) 的回應中設定值。When a DNS query lands on Traffic Manager, it sets a value in the response called time-to-live (TTL). 此值 (單位為秒) 會向 DNS 解析程式下游表示快取此回應要多久時間。This value, whose unit is in seconds, indicates to DNS resolvers downstream on how long to cache this response. 雖然 DNS 解析程式不保證會快取此結果,但是快取它可讓它們回應對於快取的任何後續查詢,而不是移至流量管理員 DNS 伺服器。While DNS resolvers are not guaranteed to cache this result, caching it enables them to respond to any subsequent queries off the cache instead of going to Traffic Manager DNS servers. 這會影響回應,如下所示:This impacts the responses as follows:

  • 較高的 TTL 會減少進入流量管理員 DNS 伺服器的查詢數目,因為提供服務的查詢數目是可計費的使用量,所以可減少客戶的成本。a higher TTL reduces the number of queries that land on the Traffic Manager DNS servers, which can reduce the cost for a customer since number of queries served is a billable usage.
  • 較高的 TTL 可能會減少執行 DNS 查閱所花費的時間。a higher TTL can potentially reduce the time it takes to do a DNS lookup.
  • 較高的 TTL 也表示您的資料不會反映流量管理員透過其探查代理程式取得的最新健康情況資訊。a higher TTL also means that your data does not reflect the latest health information that Traffic Manager has obtained through its probing agents.

我可以將流量管理員回應的 TTL 設為多高或多低?How high or low can I set the TTL for Traffic Manager responses?

您可以在每個設定檔層級將 DNS TTL 設定為最低 0 秒、最高 2,147,483,647 秒 (符合 RFC-1035 的最大範圍)。You can set, at a per profile level, the DNS TTL to be as low as 0 seconds and as high as 2,147,483,647 seconds (the maximum range compliant with RFC-1035). 當 TTL 為 0 時,表示下游 DNS 解析程式不會快取查詢回應,且所有查詢都預期觸達流量管理員 DNS 伺服器來進行解析。A TTL of 0 means that downstream DNS resolvers do not cache query responses and all queries are expected to reach the Traffic Manager DNS servers for resolution.

如何了解傳給我的設定檔的查詢量?How can I understand the volume of queries coming to my profile?

流量管理員提供的其中一個計量是由設定檔所回應的查詢數量。One of the metrics provided by Traffic Manager is the number of queries responded by a profile. 您可以在設定檔層級的彙總取得此資訊,或者也可以進一步分割此資料,以查看所傳回特定端點的查詢量。You can get this information at a profile level aggregation or you can split it up further to see the volume of queries where specific endpoints were returned. 此外,您可以設定警示,以在查詢回應量跨越設定的條件時通知您。In addition, you can set up alerts to notify you if the query response volume crosses the conditions you have set. 如需詳細資訊,請參閱流量管理員的計量與警示For more details, Traffic Manager metrics and alerts.

流量管理員地理流量路由方法Traffic Manager Geographic traffic routing method

地理路由派上用場的使用案例有哪些?What are some use cases where geographic routing is useful?

每當 Azure 客戶需要依據地理區域來區別他們的使用者位置時,就可以使用地理路由類型。Geographic routing type can be used in any scenario where an Azure customer needs to distinguish their users based on geographic regions. 例如,使用地理流量路由方法,您可以為特定區域的使用者提供不同於其他區域的使用者體驗。For example, using the Geographic traffic routing method, you can give users from specific regions a different user experience than those from other regions. 另一個例子是符合本機資料主權規定,要求特定區域的使用者只能由該區域中的端點提供服務。Another example is complying with local data sovereignty mandates that require that users from a specific region be served only by endpoints in that region.

如何決定應該要使用效能路由方法或使用地理路由方法?How do I decide if I should use Performance routing method or Geographic routing method?

這兩個常用路由方法的主要差異,在於效能路由的主要目標是將流量傳送至能提供呼叫者最低延遲的端點,而地理路由的主要目標則是對您的呼叫者強制使用地理柵欄,這樣就能特意將他們路由到特定端點。The key difference between these two popular routing methods is that in Performance routing method your primary goal is to send traffic to the endpoint that can provide the lowest latency to the caller, whereas, in Geographic routing the primary goal is to enforce a geo fence for your callers so that you can deliberately route them to a specific endpoint. 因為地理位置相近度和低延遲有相互關聯,所以可能會發生重疊,但也並非總是如此。The overlap happens since there is a correlation between geographical closeness and lower latency, although this is not always true. 可能有在其他地理位置的端點可以提供呼叫者更佳的延遲體驗,在此情況下,效能路由會將使用者傳送到該端點,但地理位置路由會一律將他們傳送到您為其地理位置所對應的端點。There might be an endpoint in a different geography that can provide a better latency experience for the caller and in that case Performance routing will send the user to that endpoint but Geographic routing will always send them to the endpoint you have mapped for their geographic region. 為了進一步釐清,請考慮以下範例:您可以使用地理路由製造不尋常的對應,例如將來自亞洲的所有流量都傳送到在美國的端點,或將所有來自美國的流量傳送到在亞洲的端點。To further make it clear, consider the following example - with Geographic routing you can make uncommon mappings such as send all traffic from Asia to endpoints in the US and all US traffic to endpoints in Asia. 在此情況下,地理路由會完全按照您的設定執行,而不會將效能最佳化列入考量。In that case, Geographic routing will deliberately do exactly what you have configured it to do and performance optimization is not a consideration.

注意

在某些情況下,您可能需要效能路由和地理路由功能兩者,對於這些情況,巢狀設定檔可能是最佳選擇。There may be scenarios where you might need both performance and geographic routing capabilities, for these scenarios nested profiles can be great choice. 例如,您可以設定使用地理路由的父設定檔,將所有來自北美洲的流量,傳送到所含端點在美國的巢狀設定檔,並使用效能路由將那些流量傳送到該集合中的最佳端點。For example, you can set up a parent profile with geographic routing where you send all traffic from North America to a nested profile that has endpoints in the US and use performance routing to send those traffic to the best endpoint within that set.

流量管理員的地理路由支援哪些區域?What are the regions that are supported by Traffic Manager for geographic routing?

這裡可以找到流量管理員所使用的國家/區域階層。The country/region hierarchy that is used by Traffic Manager can be found here. 雖然此頁面一有變動就會隨時更新,但您也可以透過程式設計方式,利用 Azure 流量管理員 REST API 擷取相同的資訊。While this page is kept up-to-date with any changes, you can also programmatically retrieve the same information by using the Azure Traffic Manager REST API.

流量管理員如何判斷使用者從何處執行查詢?How does traffic manager determine where a user is querying from?

流量管理員會查看查詢的來源 IP (這很可能是代表使用者執行查詢的本機 DNS 解析程式),並使用內部 IP 至區域的對應來判斷位置。Traffic Manager looks at the source IP of the query (this most likely is a local DNS resolver doing the querying on behalf of the user) and uses an internal IP to region map to determine the location. 此對應會融合網際網路上的變動而不斷更新。This map is updated on an ongoing basis to account for changes in the internet.

它保證流量管理員可以在每個案例中正確判斷使用者確切的地理位置嗎?Is it guaranteed that Traffic Manager can correctly determine the exact geographic location of the user in every case?

否,基於下列因素,流量管理員不能保證我們從 DNS 查詢的來源 IP 位址推斷的地理區域將會一律對應到使用者的位置:No, Traffic Manager cannot guarantee that the geographic region we infer from the source IP address of a DNS query will always correspond to the user’s location due to the following reasons:

  • 首先,如先前的常見問題集所述,我們看到的來源 IP 位址是代表使用者執行查閱的 DNS 解析程式的 IP 位址。First, as described in the previous FAQ, the source IP address we see is that of a DNS resolver doing the lookup on behalf of the user. 儘管 DNS 解析程式的地理位置是使用者地理位置的良好 Proxy,但是,根據 DNS 解析程式服務的使用量和客戶選擇使用的特定 DNS 解析程式服務而定,它也可以不一樣。While the geographic location of the DNS resolver is a good proxy for the geographic location of the user, it can also be different depending upon the footprint of the DNS resolver service and the specific DNS resolver service a customer has chosen to use. 例如,位於馬來西亞的客戶可以在他們裝置的設定中指定使用 DNS 解析程式服務,此服務可能會挑選其位於新加坡的 DNS 伺服器來處理該使用者/裝置的查詢解析。As an example, a customer located in Malaysia could specify in their device’s settings use a DNS resolver service whose DNS server in Singapore might get picked to handle the query resolutions for that user/device. 在此情況下,流量管理員只會看到解析程式對應到新加坡位置的 IP 位址。In that case, Traffic Manager can only see the resolver’s IP address that corresponds to the Singapore location. 此外,請參閱此頁面上先前有關用戶端子網路位址支援的常見問題集。Also, see the earlier FAQ regarding client subnet address support on this page.

  • 其次,流量管理員會使用內部對應來進行 IP 位址到地理區域的轉譯。Second, Traffic Manager uses an internal map to do the IP address to geographic region translation. 雖然此對應已通過驗證並持續更新以提供其精確度並負責網際網路的進化本質,但仍會產生我們的資料無法確切代表所有 IP 位址之地理位址的可能性。While this map is validated and updated on an ongoing basis to increase its accuracy and account for the evolving nature of the internet, there is still the possibility that our information is not an exact representation of the geographic location of all the IP addresses.

端點必須實際位於地理路由設定的相同區域嗎?Does an endpoint need to be physically located in the same region as the one it is configured with for geographic routing?

否,端點的位置不限制哪些區域可以對應它。No, the location of the endpoint imposes no restrictions on which regions can be mapped to it. 例如,美國中部 Azure 區域的端點可以接納所有來自印度的使用者。For example, an endpoint in US-Central Azure region can have all users from India directed to it.

您可以在未設定為執行地理路由的設定檔中指派地理區域給端點嗎?Can I assign geographic regions to endpoints in a profile that is not configured to do geographic routing?

是,如果設定檔的路由方法不是地理,您可以使用 Azure 流量管理員 REST API,將地理區域指派給該設定檔中的端點。Yes, if the routing method of a profile is not geographic, you can use the Azure Traffic Manager REST API to assign geographic regions to endpoints in that profile. 在非地理路由類型的設定檔中,將忽略此設定。In the case of non-geographic routing type profiles, this configuration is ignored. 如果您稍後將此設定檔變更為地理路由類型,流量管理員可以使用這些對應。If you change such a profile to geographic routing type at a later time, Traffic Manager can use those mappings.

當我嘗試將現有設定檔的路由方法變更為地理時為何會發生錯誤?Why am I getting an error when I try to change the routing method of an existing profile to Geographic?

設為地理路由的設定檔下的所有端點,必須至少有一個區域對應到它。All the endpoints under a profile with geographic routing need to have at least one region mapped to it. 若要將現有的設定檔轉換成地理路由類型,您需要先使用 Azure 流量管理員 REST API,將地理區域和其所有端點相關聯,才能將路由類型變更為地理。To convert an existing profile to geographic routing type, you first need to associate geographic regions to all its endpoints using the Azure Traffic Manager REST API before changing the routing type to geographic. 如果使用入口網站,先刪除端點,將設定檔的路由方法變更為地理,然後新增端點及其地理區域對應。If using portal, first delete the endpoints, change the routing method of the profile to geographic and then add the endpoints along with their geographic region mapping.

在使用地理路由方法的設定檔內,一個區域只能指派給一個端點。A region can be assigned to only one endpoint within a profile if it is using the geographic routing method. 如果該端點不是已連結子設定檔的巢狀類型,萬一該端點變成狀況不良,流量管理員會繼續將流量傳送給它,因為選擇不傳送任何流量也沒有比較好。If that endpoint is not a nested type with a child profile attached to it, if that endpoint going unhealthy, Traffic Manager continues to send traffic to it since the alternative of not sending any traffic isn’t any better. 即使指派的區域位於指派給狀況不良端點的區域「上層」,「流量管理員」也不會容錯移轉至另一個端點 (例如,如果端點的西班牙區域狀況不良,我們將不會容錯移轉至另一個已被指派歐洲地區的端點)。Traffic Manager does not failover to another endpoint, even when the region assigned is a “parent” of the region assigned to the endpoint that went unhealthy (for example, if an endpoint that has region Spain goes unhealthy, we do not failover to another endpoint that has the region Europe assigned to it). 這是為了確保流量管理員會顧及客戶在其設定檔中已設定的地理界限。This is done to ensure that Traffic Manager respects the geographic boundaries that a customer has setup in their profile. 若要在端點變成狀況不良時能夠容錯移轉至另一個端點,建議將地理區域指派給內有多個端點的巢狀設定檔,而不是指派給個別的端點。To get the benefit of failing over to another endpoint when an endpoint goes unhealthy, it is recommended that geographic regions be assigned to nested profiles with multiple endpoints within it instead of individual endpoints. 如此一來,如果巢狀子設定檔中的端點失敗,流量就可以容錯移轉至相同巢狀子設定檔內的另一個端點。In this way, if an endpoint in the nested child profile fails, traffic can failover to another endpoint inside the same nested child profile.

支援此路由類型的 API 版本有任何限制嗎?Are there any restrictions on the API version that supports this routing type?

是,只有 2017 年 3 月 1 日的 API 版本和更新版本支援地理路由類型。Yes, only API version 2017-03-01 and newer supports the Geographic routing type. 任何舊版 API 都無法用來建立地理路由類型的設定檔,或將地理區域指派給端點。Any older API versions cannot be used to created profiles of Geographic routing type or assign geographic regions to endpoints. 如果使用舊版 API 從 Azure 訂用帳戶擷取設定檔,將不會傳回地理路由類型的任何設定檔。If an older API version is used to retrieve profiles from an Azure subscription, any profile of Geographic routing type is not returned. 此外,使用舊版 API 時,傳回的任何設定檔如果有已指派地理區域的端點,則不會顯示其地理區域指派。In addition, when using older API versions, any profile returned that has endpoints with a geographic region assignment, does not have its geographic region assignment shown.

流量管理員子網路流量路由方法Traffic Manager Subnet traffic routing method

子網路路由派上用場的使用案例有哪些?What are some use cases where subnet routing is useful?

「子網路」路由可讓您區分針對其 DNS 要求 IP 位址的來源 IP 所識別之特定使用者集合而提供的體驗。Subnet routing allows you to differentiate the experience you deliver for specific sets of users identified by the source IP of their DNS requests IP address. 如果使用者要從您的公司總部連線至網站,則範例將會顯示不同的內容。An example would be showing different content if users are connecting to a website from your corporate HQ. 另外,如果這些 ISP 在使用 IPv6 時具有非標準效能,則會限制使用者只能從特定 ISP 存取僅支援 IPv4 連線的端點。Another would be restricting users from certain ISPs to only access endpoints that support only IPv4 connections if those ISPs have sub-par performance when IPv6 is used. 另一個使用「子網路」路由方法的原因是搭配使用巢狀設定檔集合中的其他設定檔。Another reason to use Subnet routing method is in conjunction with other profiles in a nested profile set. 例如,如果您想要使用「地理」路由方法來異地隔離使用者,但想要針對特定 ISP 執行不同的路由方法,則可以有「子網路」路由方法作為父設定檔的設定檔,並覆寫該 ISP 以使用特定子設定檔,以及讓其他人都有標準「地理」設定檔。For example, if you want to use Geographic routing method for geo-fencing your users, but for a specific ISP you want to do a different routing method, you can have a profile withy Subnet routing method as the parent profile and override that ISP to use a specific child profile and have the standard Geographic profile for everyone else.

流量管理員如何知道終端使用者的 IP 位址?How does Traffic Manager know the IP address of the end user?

終端使用者裝置通常會代表他們使用 DNS 解析程式來執行 DNS 查閱。End user devices typically use a DNS resolver to do the DNS lookup on their behalf. 這類解析程式的連出 IP 就是流量管理員視為來源 IP 的 IP。The outgoing IP of such resolvers is what Traffic Manager sees as the source IP. 此外,「子網路」路由方法也會查看是否有與要求一起傳遞的 EDNS0 延伸用戶端子網路 (ECS) 資訊。In addition, Subnet routing method also looks to see if there is EDNS0 Extended Client Subnet (ECS) information that was passed with the request. 如果顯示 ECS 資訊,則這是用來判斷路由的位址。If ECS information is present, that is the address used to determine the routing. 如果沒有 ECS 資訊,則會將查詢的來源 IP 用於路由。In the absence of ECS information, the source IP of the query is used for routing purposes.

使用「子網路」路由時,如何指定 IP 位址?How can I specify IP addresses when using Subnet routing?

有兩種方式可以指定要與端點建立關聯的 IP 位址。The IP addresses to associate with an endpoint can be specified in two ways. 首先,您可以使用具有開始和結束位址的四點十進制八進位標記法來指定範圍 (例如 1.2.3.4-5.6.7.8 或 3.4.5.6-3.4.5.6)。First, you can use the quad dotted decimal octet notation with a start and end addresses to specify the range (for example, 1.2.3.4-5.6.7.8 or 3.4.5.6-3.4.5.6). 其次,您可以使用 CIDR 標記法來指定範圍 (例如 1.2.3.0/24)。Second, you can use the CIDR notation to specify the range (for example, 1.2.3.0/24). 您可以指定多個範圍,而且可以在範圍集合中使用這兩種標記法類型。You can specify multiple ranges and can use both notation types in a range set. 適用一些限制。A few restrictions apply.

  • 您不能有重疊的位址範圍,因為每個 IP 都只需要對應至單一端點You cannot have overlap of address ranges since each IP needs to be mapped to only a single endpoint
  • 開始位址不能超過結束位址The start address cannot be more than the end address
  • 如果是 CIDR 標記法,則 ‘/’ 前面的 IP 位址應該是範圍的開始位址 (例如,1.2.3.0/24 有效,但 1.2.3.4.4/24 無效)In the case of the CIDR notation, the IP address before the ‘/’ should be the start address of that range (for example, 1.2.3.0/24 is valid but 1.2.3.4.4/24 is NOT valid)

使用「子網路」路由時,如何指定後援端點?How can I specify a fallback endpoint when using Subnet routing?

在具有「子網路」路由的設定檔中,如果您的端點未對應任何子網路,則會將任何與其他端點不相符的要求都導向這裡。In a profile with Subnet routing, if you have an endpoint with no subnets mapped to it, any request that does not match with other endpoints will be directed to here. 強烈建議您在設定檔中具有這類後援端點,因為要求傳入但未對應至任何端點時,或是它對應至端點但該端點狀況不良時,流量管理員會傳回 NXDOMAIN 回應。It is highly recommended that you have such a fallback endpoint in your profile since Traffic Manager will return a NXDOMAIN response if a request comes in and it is not mapped to any endpoints or if it is mapped to an endpoint but that endpoint is unhealthy.

如果「子網路」路由類型設定檔中已停用端點,則會發生什麼事?What happens if an endpoint is disabled in a Subnet routing type profile?

在具有「子網路」路由的設定檔中,如果您已停用端點,則流量管理員的行為就像該端點和其子網路對應不存在一樣。In a profile with Subnet routing, if you have an endpoint with that is disabled, Traffic Manager will behave as if that endpoint and the subnet mappings it has does not exist. 如果收到的查詢與其 IP 位址對應相符,並停用端點,則流量管理員會傳回後援端點 (沒有對應的端點);或者,如果這類端點不存在,則會傳回 NXDOMAIN 回應。If a query that would’ve matched with its IP address mapping is received and the endpoint is disabled, Traffic Manager will return a fallback endpoint (one with no mappings) or if such an endpoint is not present, will return a NXDOMAIN response.

流量管理員 MultiValue 流量路由方法Traffic Manager MultiValue traffic routing method

MultiValue 路由派上用場的使用案例有哪些?What are some use cases where MultiValue routing is useful?

MultiValue 路由會在單一查詢回應中傳回多個狀況良好的端點。MultiValue routing returns multiple healthy endpoints in a single query response. 此方式的主要優點在於,如果端點狀況不良,則用戶端有更多的選項可重試,而不需要提出另一個 DNS 呼叫 (這可能會從上游快取傳回相同的值)。The main advantage of this is that, if an endpoint is unhealthy, the client has more options to retry without making another DNS call (which might return the same value from an upstream cache). 這適用於想要盡可能縮短停機時間的可用性敏感性應用程式。This is applicable for availability sensitive applications that want to minimize the downtime. MultiValue 路由方法的另一種用法是,如果端點同時「雙重裝載」至 IPv4 和 IPv6 位址,而且您想要讓呼叫者從初始端點連線時選擇這兩個選項。Another use for MultiValue routing method is if an endpoint is “dual-homed” to both IPv4 and IPv6 addresses and you want to give the caller both options to choose from when it initiates a connection to the endpoint.

使用 MultiValue 路由時,會傳回多少個端點?How many endpoints are returned when MultiValue routing is used?

您可以指定要傳回的端點數目上限,而且 MultiValue 所傳回的狀況良好端點數目不會超過收到查詢時的狀況良好端點數目。You can specify the maximum number of endpoints to be returned and MultiValue will return no more than that many healthy endpoints when a query is received. 此設定的最大可能值為 10。The maximum possible value for this configuration is 10.

使用 MultiValue 路由時,會取得一組相同的端點嗎?Will I get the same set of endpoints when MultiValue routing is used?

我們無法保證每個查詢都會傳回同一組端點。We cannot guarantee that the same set of endpoints will be returned in each query. 這也會受到下列事實的影響:有些端點未包含在回應時可能會狀況不良This is also affected by the fact that some of the endpoints might go unhealthy at which point they will not be included in the response

實際使用者度量Real User Measurements

使用「實際使用者度量」有哪些優點?What are the benefits of using Real User Measurements?

當您使用效能路由方法時,「流量管理員」會檢查來源 IP 和「EDNS 用戶端子網路」(如果已傳入),並根據服務所維護的網路延遲智慧功能檢查這些資訊,為您的使用者挑選最佳的 Azure 區域來進行連線。When you use performance routing method, Traffic Manager picks the best Azure region for your end user to connect to by inspecting the source IP and EDNS Client Subnet (if passed in) and checking it against the network latency intelligence the service maintains. 「實際使用者度量」可藉由除了確保延遲表格將使用者網路從使用者連線位置充分延伸到 Azure 之外,也將使用者體驗加到此延遲表格中,為您的使用者加強這項功能。Real User Measurements enhances this for your end user base by having their experience contribute to this latency table in addition to ensuring that this table adequately spans the end user networks from where your end users connect to Azure. 這可提升使用者路由的精確度。This leads to an increased accuracy in the routing of your end user.

我是否可以將「實際使用者度量」與非 Azure 區域搭配使用?Can I use Real User Measurements with non-Azure regions?

「實際使用者度量」只會測量連線到 Azure 區域的延遲並進行回報。Real User Measurements measures and reports on only the latency to reach Azure regions. 如果您將效能型路由與非 Azure 區域中所裝載的端點搭配使用,您仍然可以從這項功能受益,因為您會獲得更多有關所選取要與此端點建立關聯之代表性 Azure 區域的延遲資訊。If you are using performance-based routing with endpoints hosted in non-Azure regions, you can still benefit from this feature by having increased latency information about the representative Azure region you had selected to be associated with this endpoint.

哪個路由方法可從「實際使用者度量」受益?Which routing method benefits from Real User Measurements?

透過「實際使用者度量」取得的額外資訊僅適用於使用效能路由方法的設定檔。The additional information gained through Real User Measurements are applicable only for profiles that use the performance routing method. 透過 Azure 入口網站檢視實際使用者度量時,就能從所有設定檔使用 [實際使用者度量] 連結。The Real User Measurements link is available from all the profiles when you view it through the Azure portal.

我是否需要為每個設定檔個別啟用「實際使用者度量」?Do I need to enable Real User Measurements each profile separately?

否,每一訂用帳戶只需啟用一次,所測量到和回報的所有延遲資訊便可供所有設定檔使用。No, you only need to enable it once per subscription and all the latency information measured and reported are available to all profiles.

如何關閉我訂用帳戶的「實際使用者度量」?How do I turn off Real User Measurements for my subscription?

當您從用戶端應用程式停止收集及傳回延遲度量時,即可停止產生與「實際使用者度量」相關的費用。You can stop accruing charges related to Real User Measurements when you stop collecting and sending back latency measurements from your client application. 例如,當度量 JavaScript 內嵌在網頁中時,您可以移除該 JavaScript,或是在轉譯頁面時關閉其引動過程,來停止使用這項功能。For example, when measurement JavaScript embedded in web pages, you can stop using this feature by removing the JavaScript or by turning off its invocation when the page is rendered.

您也可以透過刪除您的金鑰來關閉「實際使用者度量」。You can also turn off Real User Measurements by deleting your key. 一旦您刪除金鑰,所有傳送給「流量管理員」且具有該金鑰的度量就都會被捨棄。Once you delete the key, any measurements sent to Traffic Manager with that key are discarded.

我是否可以將「實際使用者度量」與網頁以外的用戶端應用程式搭配使用?Can I use Real User Measurements with client applications other than web pages?

是,「實際使用者度量」是設計成可以內嵌透過各種不同類型的使用者用戶端收集的資料。Yes, Real User Measurements is designed to ingest data collected through different type of end user clients. 當支援新類型的用戶端應用程式時,將會更新這個 FAQ。This FAQ will be updated as new types of client applications get supported.

每次轉譯已啟用「實際使用者度量」功能的網頁時,會執行多少個度量?How many measurements are made each time my Real User Measurements enabled web page is rendered?

將「實際使用者度量」與所提供的度量 JavaScript 搭配使用時,每個頁面轉譯都會進行 6 個度量。When Real User Measurements is used with the measurement JavaScript provided, each page rendering results in six measurements being taken. 這些度量會接著回報給「流量管理員」服務。These are then reported back to the Traffic Manager service. 此功能的收費依據為回報給流量管理員服務的度量數目。You are charged for this feature based on the number of measurements reported to Traffic Manager service. 例如,如果使用者在進行度量時但在回報度量前離開您的網頁,這些度量就不列入計費。For example, if the user navigates away from your webpage while the measurements are being taken but before it was reported, those measurements are not considered for billing purposes.

「實際使用者度量」在我的網頁中執行前是否會有延遲?Is there a delay before Real User Measurements script runs in my webpage?

否,在叫用此指令碼前沒有任何以程式設計方式設定的延遲。No, there is no programmed delay before the script is invoked.

是否可以只搭配我想要測量的 Azure 區域來使用實際使用者度量?Can I use Real User Measurements with only the Azure regions I want to measure?

否,每次叫用「實際使用者度量」指令碼時,它都會測量服務所決定的 6 個 Azure 區域。No, each time it is invoked, the Real User Measurements script measures a set of six Azure regions as determined by the service. 這個集合會在不同的引動過程之間變更,當發生大量這樣的引動過程時,度量涵蓋範圍就會跨不同的 Azure 區域。This set changes between different invocations and when a large number of such invocations happen, the measurement coverage spans across different Azure regions.

我是否可以將度量數目限制為特定數目?Can I limit the number of measurements made to a specific number?

度量 JavaScript 內嵌在您網頁內,因此您可以完全控制要何時開始或停止使用它。The measurement JavaScript is embedded within your webpage and you are in complete control over when to start and stop using it. 只要「流量管理員」服務收到索取要測量之 Azure 區域清單的要求,就會傳回一組區域。As long as the Traffic Manager service receives a request for a list of Azure regions to be measured, a set of regions are returned.

我是否可以查看用戶端應用程式在「實際使用者度量」過程中所進行的度量?Can I see the measurements taken by my client application as part of Real User Measurements?

由於度量邏輯是從您用戶端應用程式執行的,因此您可以完全控制所進行的作業,包括查看延遲度量。Since the measurement logic is run from your client application, you are in full control of what happens including seeing the latency measurements. 「流量管理員」不會回報在連結至您訂用帳戶之金鑰底下收到的度量彙總檢視。Traffic Manager does not report an aggregate view of the measurements received under the key linked to your subscription.

我是否可以修改「流量管理員」所提供的度量指令碼?Can I modify the measurement script provided by Traffic Manager?

雖然您可以控制網頁上內嵌的指令碼,但強烈建議您不要對度量指令碼進行任何變更,以確保它可正確測量並回報延遲。While you are in control of what is embedded on your web page, we strongly discourage you from making any changes to the measurement script to ensure that it measures and reports the latencies correctly.

其他人是否可能看到我搭配「實際使用者度量」使用的金鑰?Will it be possible for others to see the key I use with Real User Measurements?

當您將度量指令碼內嵌到網頁中時,其他人可能看到該指令碼及您的「實際使用者度量」(RUM) 金鑰。When you embed the measurement script to a web page it will be possible for others to see the script and your Real User Measurements (RUM) key. 但值得注意的是,這個金鑰與您的訂用帳戶識別碼不同,是由「流量管理員」所產生且僅供此用途使用。But it is important to know that this key is different from your subscription id and is generated by Traffic Manager to be used only for this purpose. 得知您的 RUM 金鑰並不會危害您 Azure 帳戶的安全性。Knowing your RUM key will not compromise your Azure account safety.

其他人是否可能濫用我的 RUM 金鑰?Can others abuse my RUM key?

雖然其他人可能使用您的金鑰來將錯誤資訊傳送給 Azure,但數個錯誤的度量並不會改變路由,因為我們會將這些度量與所收到的所有其他度量一併納入考量。While it is possible for others to use your key to send wrong information to Azure, a few wrong measurements will not change the routing since it is taken into account along with all the other measurements we receive. 如果您需要變更金鑰,您可以在舊金鑰被捨棄時重新產生金鑰。If you need to change your keys, you can re-generate the key at which point the old key becomes discarded.

我是否需要將度量 JavaScript 放在所有網頁中?Do I need to put the measurement JavaScript in all my web pages?

「實際使用者度量」會隨著度量數目增加而變得更有價值。Real User Measurements delivers more value as the number of measurements increase. 儘管如此,是要將它放在所有網頁中,還是放在幾個選取的網頁中,仍是取決於您。Having said that, it is your decision as to whether you need to put it in all your web pages or a select few. 建議您一開始將它放在瀏覽次數最多且使用者應該至少會停留 5 秒的頁面中。Our recommendation is to start by putting it in your most visited page where a user is expected to stay on that page five seconds or more.

如果我使用「實際使用者度量」,「流量管理員」是否可以識別出使用者的相關資訊?Can information about my end users be identified by Traffic Manager if I use Real User Measurements?

使用所提供的度量 JavaScript 時,「流量管理員」將可以檢視使用者的用戶端 IP 位址,以及他們所用本機 DNS 解析程式的來源 IP 位址。When the provided measurement JavaScript is used, Traffic Manager will have visibility into the client IP address of the end user and the source IP address of the local DNS resolver they use. 「流量管理員」會在將用戶端 IP 位址截斷成無法識別出傳送度量的特定使用者之後,才使用該 IP 位址。Traffic Manager uses the client IP address only after having it truncated to not be able to identify the specific end user who sent the measurements.

測量「實際使用者度量」的網頁是否必須使用「流量管理員」來進行路由?Does the webpage measuring Real User Measurements need to be using Traffic Manager for routing?

否,它不需要使用「流量管理員」。No, it doesn’t need to use Traffic Manager. 「流量管理員」的路由端與「實際使用者度量」部分是分開運作的,雖然最好是將它們都放在相同的 Web 屬性中,但不一定要這麼做。The routing side of Traffic Manager operates separately from the Real User Measurement part and although it is a great idea to have them both in the same web property, they don’t need to be.

我是否必須在 Azure 區域裝載任何服務,才能搭配使用「實際使用者度量」?Do I need to host any service on Azure regions to use with Real User Measurements?

否,您不需要在 Azure 上裝載任何伺服器端元件,實際使用者度量就能運作。No, you don’t need to host any server-side component on Azure for Real User Measurements to work. 度量 JavaScript 所下載的單一像素影像,以及在不同 Azure 區域中執行它的服務,是由 Azure 所裝載並管理的。The single pixel image downloaded by the measurement JavaScript and the service running it in different Azure regions is hosted and managed by Azure.

使用「實際使用者度量」時,我的 Azure 頻寬使用量是否會增加?Will my Azure bandwidth usage increase when I use Real User Measurements?

如先前的回答中所述,「實際使用者度量」的伺服器端元件是由 Azure 所擁有和管理的。As mentioned in the previous answer, the server-side components of Real User Measurements are owned and managed by Azure. 這意謂著您的 Azure 頻寬使用量將不會因為使用「實際使用者度量」而增加。This means your Azure bandwidth usage will not increase because you use Real User Measurements. 這並不包括 Azure 收費項目以外的任何頻寬使用量。This does not include any bandwidth usage outside of what Azure charges. 我們藉由只下載一個單一像素影像來測量連線到 Azure 區域的延遲,將使用的頻寬降到最低。We minimize the bandwidth used by downloading only a single pixel image to measurement the latency to an Azure region.

流量檢視Traffic View

「流量檢視」有哪些功能?What does Traffic View do?

「流量檢視」是「流量管理員」的一項功能,可協助您進一步了解使用者及他們的體驗情況。Traffic View is a feature of Traffic Manager that helps you understand more about your users and how their experience is. 它會使用「流量管理員」所收到的查詢和此服務所維護的網路延遲智慧表格,來提供您下列資訊:It uses the queries received by Traffic Manager and the network latency intelligence tables that the service maintains to provide you with the following:

  • 使用者從哪些區域連線到您在 Azure 中的端點。The regions from where your users are connecting to your endpoints in Azure.
  • 有多少使用者從這些區域連線。The volume of users connecting from these regions.
  • 使用者被路由傳送到哪些 Azure 區域。The Azure regions to which they are getting routed to.
  • 使用者連線到這些 Azure 區域時的延遲體驗。Their latency experience to these Azure regions.

此資訊除了以未經處理資料的形式供您下載之外,也可供您透過入口網站中的地理對應重疊和表格式檢視取用。This information is available for you to consume through geographical map overlay and tabular views in the portal in addition to being available as raw data for you to download.

我如何從使用「流量檢視」受益?How can I benefit from using Traffic View?

「流量檢視」可提供您「流量管理員」所接收流量的整體檢視。Traffic View gives you the overall view of the traffic your Traffic Manager profiles receive. 尤其是可用來了解您的使用者群從何處連線,以及同樣重要的是他們的平均延遲體驗。In particular, it can be used to understand where your user base connects from and equally importantly what their average latency experience is. 您可以接著使用此資訊來找出所需專注的領域,例如,將您的 Azure 電腦設備擺設區域擴充到可以為這些使用者提供較低延遲的區域。You can then use this information to find areas in which you need to focus, for example, by expanding your Azure footprint to a region that can serve those users with lower latency. 另一個您可以透過「流量檢視」獲得的深入解析是查看不同區域的流量模式,這可進而協助您決定是要在這些區域增加還是減少投資。Another insight you can derive from using Traffic View is to see the patterns of traffic to different regions which in turn can help you make decisions on increasing or decreasing invent in those regions.

「流量檢視」與透過 Azure 監視器提供的「流量管理員」計量有何不同?How is Traffic View different from the Traffic Manager metrics available through Azure monitor?

「Azure 監視器」可用來了解設定檔及其端點所收到流量的彙總層級。Azure Monitor can be used to understand at an aggregate level the traffic received by your profile and its endpoints. 它也可以顯示端點的健康情況檢查結果,來讓您追蹤端點的健康狀態。It also enables you to track the health status of the endpoints by exposing the health check results. 當您不僅要了解這些,還必須了解使用者連線到 Azure 的區域層級體驗時,便可以使用「流量檢視」來達到該目的。When you need to go beyond these and understand your end user’s experience connecting to Azure at a regional level, Traffic View can be used to achieve that.

「流量檢視」是否使用「EDNS 用戶端子網路」資訊?Does Traffic View use EDNS Client Subnet information?

由 Azure 流量管理員提供的 DNS 查詢確實會考量 ECS 資訊,以增加路由的精確度。The DNS queries served by Azure Traffic Manager do consider ECS information to increase the accuracy of the routing. 但是,當建立其中顯示使用者連線來源的資料集時,「流量檢視」僅使用 DNS 解析程式的 IP 位址。But when creating the data set that shows where the users are connecting from, Traffic View is using only the IP address of the DNS resolver.

「流量檢視」會使用多少天的資料?How many days of data does Traffic View use?

「流量檢視」會處理從您檢視資料的前一天算起往前推 7 天的資料來建立輸出。Traffic View creates its output by processing the data from the seven days preceding the day before when it is viewed by you. 這是一個移動時段,每次您瀏覽時都會使用最新的資料。This is a moving window and the latest data will be used each time you visit.

「流量檢視」如何處理外部端點?How does Traffic View handle external endpoints?

當您在「流量管理員」設定檔中使用裝載在 Azure 區域外的外部端點時,可以選擇讓它對應到作為其延遲特性之 Proxy 的 Azure 區域 (事實上,如果您使用效能路由方法,就必須這麼做)。When you use external endpoints hosted outside Azure regions in a Traffic Manager profile you can choose to have it mapped to an Azure region which is a proxy for its latency characteristics (this is in fact needed if you use performance routing method). 如果它擁有這個 Azure 區域對應,當建立「流量檢視」輸出時,就會使用該 Azure 區域的延遲計量。If it has this Azure region mapping, that Azure region’s latency metrics will be used when creating the Traffic View output. 如果未指定任何 Azure 區域,這些外部端點的資料中就不會有任何延遲資訊。If no Azure region is specified, the latency information will be empty in the data for those external endpoints.

我是否必須為訂用帳戶中的每個設定檔啟用「流量檢視」?Do I need to enable Traffic View for each profile in my subscription?

在預覽期間,「流量檢視」會在訂用帳戶層級啟用。During the preview period, Traffic View was enabled at a subscription level. 作為我們在公開推出之前所做的改進的一部分,您現在可以在設定檔層級啟用「流量檢視」,以便能更細微地啟用此功能。As part of the improvements we made before the general availability, you can now enable Traffic View at a profile level, allowing you to have more granular enabling of this feature. 根據預設,「流量檢視」將針對設定檔停用。By default, Traffic View will be disabled for a profile.

注意

如果您在預覽期間於訂用帳戶層級啟用「流量檢視」,現在就必須針對該訂用帳戶下的每個設定檔,將它重新啟用。If you enabled Traffic View at a subscription level during the preview time, you now need to re-enable it for each of the profile under that subscription.

我是否可以關閉「流量檢視」?How can I turn off Traffic View?

您可以使用入口網站或 REST API,針對任何設定檔關閉「流量檢視」。You can turn off Traffic View for any profile using the Portal or REST API.

「流量檢視」如何計費?How does Traffic View billing work?

「流量檢視」價格取決於用來建立輸出的資料點數目。Traffic View pricing is based on the number of data points used to create the output. 目前,唯一支援的資料類型是您設定檔所接收的查詢。Currently, the only data type supported is the queries your profile receives. 此外,您只需針對在已啟用「流量檢視」之期間所執行的處理支付費用。In addition, you are only billed for the processing that was done when you have Traffic View enabled. 這意謂著如果您在一個月中的某個期間啟用「流量檢視」,而在其他期間關閉此功能,則只有在啟用此功能之期間處理的資料點會列入您的帳單中。This means that, if you enable Traffic View for some time period in a month and turn it off during other times, only the data points processed while you had the feature enabled count towards your bill.

流量管理員端點Traffic Manager endpoints

可以將流量管理員用於來自多個訂用帳戶的端點嗎?Can I use Traffic Manager with endpoints from multiple subscriptions?

來自多個訂用帳戶的端點不能與 Azure Web 應用程式搭配使用。Using endpoints from multiple subscriptions is not possible with Azure Web Apps. Azure Web Apps 規定 Web Apps 使用的任何自訂網域名稱只能在單一訂用帳戶內使用。Azure Web Apps requires that any custom domain name used with Web Apps is only used within a single subscription. 無法使用具有相同網域名稱的多個訂用帳戶中的 Web Apps。It is not possible to use Web Apps from multiple subscriptions with the same domain name.

針對其他端點類型,則可以將「流量管理員」與來自多個訂用帳戶的端點搭配使用。For other endpoint types, it is possible to use Traffic Manager with endpoints from more than one subscription. 在 Resource Manager 中,來自任何訂用帳戶的端點都可以新增至流量管理員,只要設定流量管理員設定檔的人員具有端點的讀取權限即可。In Resource Manager, endpoints from any subscription can be added to Traffic Manager, as long as the person configuring the Traffic Manager profile has read access to the endpoint. 使用 Azure Resource Manager 角色型存取控制 (RBAC)可以授與這些權限。These permissions can be granted using Azure Resource Manager role-based access control (RBAC).

我可以使用流量管理員來設定雲端服務「預備」位置嗎?Can I use Traffic Manager with Cloud Service 'Staging' slots?

是。Yes. 雲端服務「預備」位置可在流量管理員中設定為外部端點。Cloud Service 'staging' slots can be configured in Traffic Manager as External endpoints. 健康情況檢查仍然以 Azure 端點費率計費。Health checks are still be charged at the Azure Endpoints rate.

流量管理員是否支援 IPv6 端點?Does Traffic Manager support IPv6 endpoints?

流量管理員目前不提供 IPv6 定址的名稱伺服器。Traffic Manager does not currently provide IPv6-addressable name servers. 不過,連接到 IPv6 端點的 IPv6 用戶端仍然可以使用流量管理員。However, Traffic Manager can still be used by IPv6 clients connecting to IPv6 endpoints. 用戶端不會直接向流量管理員提出 DNS 要求。A client does not make DNS requests directly to Traffic Manager. 相反地,用戶端會使用遞迴 DNS 服務。Instead, the client uses a recursive DNS service. 僅支援 IPv6 的用戶端會透過 IPv6 將要求傳送至遞迴 DNS 服務。An IPv6-only client sends requests to the recursive DNS service via IPv6. 然後,遞迴服務應該就能夠使用 IPv4 來連絡流量管理員名稱伺服器。Then the recursive service should be able to contact the Traffic Manager name servers using IPv4.

流量管理員會回應端點的 DNS 名稱或 IP 位址。Traffic Manager responds with the DNS name or IP address of the endpoint. 有兩個選項可以支援 IPv6 端點。To support an IPv6 endpoint, there are two options. 您可以將端點新增為具有相關聯 AAAA 記錄的 DNA 名稱,而流量管理員將會對該端點執行健康狀態檢查,並在查詢回應中以 CNAME 記錄類型傳回它。You can add the endpoint as a DNS name that has an associated AAAA record and Traffic Manager will health check that endpoint and return it as a CNAME record type in the query response. 您也可以直接使用 IPv6 位址新增該端點,而流量管理員會在查詢回應中傳回 AAAA 類型記錄。You can also add that endpoint directly using the IPv6 address and Traffic Manager will return a AAAA type record in the query response.

可以使用流量管理員搭配相同區域中的多個 Web 應用程式嗎?Can I use Traffic Manager with more than one Web App in the same region?

通常,流量管理員用於將流量導向不同區域中部署的應用程式。Typically, Traffic Manager is used to direct traffic to applications deployed in different regions. 不過,也可用於應用程式在相同區域中有多個部署時。However, it can also be used where an application has more than one deployment in the same region. 流量管理員 Azure 端點不允許將相同 Azure 區域中的多個 Web 應用程式端點新增至相同的流量管理員設定檔。The Traffic Manager Azure endpoints do not permit more than one Web App endpoint from the same Azure region to be added to the same Traffic Manager profile.

如何將流量管理員設定檔的 Azure 端點移至不同的資源群組?How do I move my Traffic Manager profile’s Azure endpoints to a different resource group?

與流量管理員設定檔相關聯的 Azure 端點,是使用其資源識別碼來追蹤的。Azure endpoints that are associated with a Traffic Manager profile are tracked using their resource IDs. 當作端點使用的 Azure 資源 (例如,公用 IP、傳統雲端服務、WebApp,或以巢狀方式使用的另一個流量管理員設定檔) 移至不同的資源群組時,其資源識別碼也會隨之變更。When an Azure resource that is being used as an endpoint (for example, Public IP, Classic Cloud Service, WebApp, or another Traffic Manager profile used in a nested manner) is moved to a different resource group, its resource ID changes. 在此情況下,目前您必須先刪除端點,然後再將端點加回設定檔中,以更新流量管理員設定檔。In this scenario, currently, you must update the Traffic Manager profile by first deleting and then adding back the endpoints to the profile.

流量管理員端點監視Traffic Manager endpoint monitoring

流量管理員有能力從 Azure 區域失敗中恢復嗎?Is Traffic Manager resilient to Azure region failures?

流量管理員在 Azure 中是提供高可用性應用程式的一個重要元件。Traffic Manager is a key component of the delivery of highly available applications in Azure. 若要提供高可用性,流量管理員必須擁有極高的可用性,並且可從區域失敗中恢復。To deliver high availability, Traffic Manager must have an exceptionally high level of availability and be resilient to regional failure.

根據設計,流量管理員元件可從任何 Azure 區域的全面失敗中恢復。By design, Traffic Manager components are resilient to a complete failure of any Azure region. 此恢復功能適用於所有流量管理員元件︰DNS 名稱伺服器、API、儲存層及端點監視服務。This resilience applies to all Traffic Manager components: the DNS name servers, the API, the storage layer, and the endpoint monitoring service.

萬一整個 Azure 區域停機,也能預期流量管理員會持續正常運作。In the unlikely event of an outage of an entire Azure region, Traffic Manager is expected to continue to function normally. 在多個 Azure 區域中部署的應用程式可依賴流量管理員,將流量導向其應用程式的可用執行個體。Applications deployed in multiple Azure regions can rely on Traffic Manager to direct traffic to an available instance of their application.

資源群組位置的選擇如何影響流量管理員?How does the choice of resource group location affect Traffic Manager?

流量管理員是單一全域服務。Traffic Manager is a single, global service. 不是區域性。It is not regional. 如何選擇資源群組位置,對於部署在該資源群組中的流量管理員設定檔而言,並沒有差別。The choice of resource group location makes no difference to Traffic Manager profiles deployed in that resource group.

Azure Resource Manager 需要所有資源群組指定位置,這會決定部署在該資源群組中資源的預設位置。Azure Resource Manager requires all resource groups to specify a location, which determines the default location for resources deployed in that resource group. 當您建立流量管理員設定檔時,它會建立在資源群組中。When you create a Traffic Manager profile, it is created in a resource group. 所有流量管理員設定檔都使用全域當作位置,覆寫資源群組預設值。All Traffic Manager profiles use global as their location, overriding the resource group default.

如何判斷每個端點目前的健全狀況?How do I determine the current health of each endpoint?

每個端點的目前監視狀態以及整體設定檔都會顯示於 Azure 入口網站中。The current monitoring status of each endpoint, in addition to the overall profile, is displayed in the Azure portal. 您也可以透過流量監視 REST APIPowerShell cmdlets跨平台 Azure CLI 取得此資訊。This information also is available via the Traffic Monitor REST API, PowerShell cmdlets, and cross-platform Azure CLI.

您也可以使用 Azure 監視器來追蹤端點的健康情況,並查看它們的視覺效果表示法。You can also use Azure Monitor to track the health of your endpoints and see a visual representation of them. 如需如何使用 Azure 監視器的相關資訊,請參閱 Azure 監視文件For more about using Azure Monitor, see the Azure Monitoring documentation.

我可以監視 HTTPS 端點嗎?Can I monitor HTTPS endpoints?

是。Yes. 流量管理員支援透過 HTTPS 探查。Traffic Manager supports probing over HTTPS. 在監視組態中將 HTTPS 設定為通訊協定。Configure HTTPS as the protocol in the monitoring configuration.

流量管理員無法提供任何憑證驗證,包括:Traffic manager cannot provide any certificate validation, including:

  • 不會驗證伺服器端憑證Server-side certificates are not validated
  • 不會驗證 SNI 伺服器端憑證SNI server-side certificates are not validated
  • 不支援用戶端憑證Client certificates are not supported

新增端點時,使用 IP 位址還是 DNS 名稱?Do I use an IP address or a DNS name when adding an endpoint?

流量管理員支援使用三種方式來新增要參照的端點:作為 DNS 名稱、IPv4 位址和 IPv6 位址。Traffic Manager supports adding endpoints using three ways to refer them – as a DNS name, as an IPv4 address and as an IPv6 address. 如果端點新增為 IPv4 或 IPv6 位址,則查詢回應分別是 A 或 AAAA 記錄類型。If the endpoint is added as an IPv4 or IPv6 address the query response will be of record type A or AAAA, respectively. 如果端點已新增為 DNS 名稱,則查詢回應會是 CNAME 記錄類型。If the endpoint was added as a DNS name, then the query response will be of record type CNAME. 只有在端點的類型為外部時,才允許將端點新增為 IPv4 或 IPv6 位址。Adding endpoints as IPv4 or IPv6 address is permitted only if the endpoint is of type External. 三端點定址類型支援所有路由方法和監視設定。All routing methods and monitoring settings are supported by the three endpoint addressing types.

新增端點時,可以使用哪些類型的 IP 位址?What types of IP addresses can I use when adding an endpoint?

流量管理員可讓您使用 IPv4 或 IPv6 位址來指定端點。Traffic Manager allows you to use IPv4 or IPv6 addresses to specify endpoints. 下面列出一些限制:There are a few restrictions which are listed below:

  • 不允許對應至保留私人 IP 位址空間的位址。Addresses that correspond to reserved private IP address spaces are not allowed. 這些位址包含 RFC 1918、RFC 6890、RFC 5737、RFC 3068、RFC 2544 和 RFC 5771 中所呼叫的位址These addresses include those called out in RFC 1918, RFC 6890, RFC 5737, RFC 3068, RFC 2544 and RFC 5771
  • 位址不得包含任何連接埠號碼 (您可以在設定檔組態設定中指定要使用的連接埠)The address must not contain any port numbers (you can specify the ports to be used in the profile configuration settings)
  • 在相同的設定檔中,不能有兩個端點具有相同的目標 IP 位址No two endpoints in the same profile can have the same target IP address

我可以在單一設定檔內使用不同的端點定址類型嗎?Can I use different endpoint addressing types within a single profile?

否,流量管理員不允許您在設定檔內混用端點定址類型,但設定檔具有 MultiValue 路由類型且可以混用 IPv4 和 IPv6 定址類型的情況除外No, Traffic Manager does not allow you to mix endpoint addressing types within a profile, except for the case of a profile with MultiValue routing type where you can mix IPv4 and IPv6 addressing types

傳入查詢的記錄類型和與端點定址類型建立關聯的記錄類型不同時,會發生什麼事?What happens when an incoming query’s record type is different from the record type associated with the addressing type of the endpoints?

收到設定檔的查詢時,流量管理員會先尋找需要根據指定路由方法和端點健康狀態所傳回的端點。When a query is received against a profile, Traffic Manager first finds the endpoint that needs to be returned as per the routing method specified and the health status of the endpoints. 它接著會在根據下表傳回回應之前,查看傳入查詢中所要求的記錄類型以及與端點建立關聯的記錄類型。It then looks at the record type requested in the incoming query and the record type associated with the endpoint before returning a response based on the table below.

針對任何具有 MultiValue 以外之路由方法的設定檔:For profiles with any routing method other than MultiValue:

傳入查詢要求Incoming query request 端點類型Endpoint type 提供的回應Response Provided
ANYANY A/AAAA/CNAMEA / AAAA / CNAME 目標端點Target Endpoint
AA A/CNAMEA / CNAME 目標端點Target Endpoint
AA AAAAAAAA NODATANODATA
AAAAAAAA AAAA/CNAMEAAAA / CNAME 目標端點Target Endpoint
AAAAAAAA AA NODATANODATA
CNAMECNAME CNAMECNAME 目標端點Target Endpoint
CNAMECNAME A/AAAAA / AAAA NODATANODATA

針對路由方法設定為 MultiValue 的設定檔:For profiles with routing method set to MultiValue:

傳入查詢要求Incoming query request 端點類型Endpoint type 提供的回應Response Provided
ANYANY 混用 A 和 AAAAMix of A and AAAA 目標端點Target Endpoints
AA 混用 A 和 AAAAMix of A and AAAA 僅限 A 類型的目標端點Only Target Endpoints of type A
AAAAAAAA 混用 A 和 AAAAMix of A and AAAA 僅限 AAAA 類型的目標端點Only Target Endpoints of type AAAA
CNAMECNAME 混用 A 和 AAAAMix of A and AAAA NODATANODATA

我可以在巢狀設定檔中使用具有 IPv4/IPv6 定址端點的設定檔嗎?Can I use a profile with IPv4 / IPv6 addressed endpoints in a nested profile?

是,可以,但有下列例外:MultiValue 類型的設定檔不能是巢狀設定檔集合中的父設定檔。Yes, you can with the exception that a profile of type MultiValue cannot be a parent profile in a nested profile set.

我在我的 Traffic Manager 設定檔中停止 web 應用程式端點,但我並未收到任何流量即使重新啟動它。I stopped an web application endpoint in my Traffic Manager profile but I am not receiving any traffic even after I restarted it. 我該怎麼辦?How can I fix this?

Azure web 應用程式端點停止時 Traffic Manager 會停止檢查其健康情況,並在偵測到端點已重新啟動之後,才重新啟動健全狀況檢查。When an Azure web application endpoint is stopped Traffic Manager stops checking its health and restarts the health checks only after it detects that the endpoint has restarted. 若要避免這種延遲,在重新啟動該端點之後,請在「流量管理員」設定檔中停用然後重新啟用該端點。To prevent this delay, disable and then reenable that endpoint in the Traffic Manager profile after you restart the endpoint.

即使我的應用程式不支援 HTTP 或 HTTPS 也可以使用流量管理員嗎?Can I use Traffic Manager even if my application does not have support for HTTP or HTTPS?

是。Yes. 您可以指定 TCP 作為監視通訊協定,流量管理員可以起始 TCP 連線,並且等待端點的回應。You can specify TCP as the monitoring protocol and Traffic Manager can initiate a TCP connection and wait for a response from the endpoint. 如果端點在逾時期間內以建立連線的回應來回覆連線要求,則該端點會標示為狀況良好。If the endpoint replies to the connection request with a response to establish the connection, within the timeout period, then that endpoint is marked as healthy.

使用 TCP 監視時需要端點的哪些特定回應?What specific responses are required from the endpoint when using TCP monitoring?

使用 TCP 監視時,流量管理員會啟動三向 TCP 交握,方法是將 SYN 要求傳送至端點的指定連接埠。When TCP monitoring is used, Traffic Manager starts a three-way TCP handshake by sending a SYN request to endpoint at the specified port. 接著會等待一段時間 (在逾時設定中指定) 讓端點回應。It then waits for a period of time (as specified in the timeout settings) for a response from the endpoint. 如果端點在監視設定指定的逾時期間內以 SYN-ACK 回應 SYN 要求,則該端點視為狀況良好。If the endpoint responds to the SYN request with a SYN-ACK response within the timeout period specified in the monitoring settings, then that endpoint is considered healthy. 如果收到 SYN-ACK 回應,流量管理員會藉由再回應 RST 以重設連線。If the SYN-ACK response is received, the Traffic Manager resets the connection by responding back with a RST.

流量管理員將我的使用者從狀況不良的端點移開時間有多快?How fast does Traffic Manager move my users away from an unhealthy endpoint?

流量管理員提供多項設定,可協助您控制流量管理員設定檔的容錯移轉行為,如下所示:Traffic Manager provides multiple settings that can help you to control the failover behavior of your Traffic Manager profile as follows:

  • 您可以將探查間隔設定為 10 秒,指定流量管理員更頻繁地探查端點。you can specify that the Traffic Manager probes the endpoints more frequently by setting the Probing Interval at 10 seconds. 這可確保能夠立即偵測到狀況不良的任何端點。This ensures that any endpoint going unhealthy can be detected as soon as possible.
  • 您可以指定在健康情況檢查要求逾時之前要等候多久時間 (最小逾時值是 5 秒)。you can specify how long to wait before a health check request times out (minimum time out value is 5 sec).
  • 您可以指定在端點標示為狀況不良之前,可以發生多少次失敗。you can specify how many failures can occur before the endpoint is marked as unhealthy. 這個值最低可以為 0,只要端點的第一次健康情況檢查失敗,就會標示為狀況不良。This value can be low as 0, in which case the endpoint is marked unhealthy as soon as it fails the first health check. 不過,對於容許失敗次數使用最小值 0,可能會導致因為在探查時可能發生的任何暫時性問題,讓端點離開輪替。However, using the minimum value of 0 for the tolerated number of failures can lead to endpoints being taken out of rotation due to any transient issues that may occur at the time of probing.
  • 您可以將 DNS 回應的存留時間 (TTL) 指定為最低的 0。you can specify the time-to-live (TTL) for the DNS response to be as low as 0. 這麼做表示 DNS 解析程式無法快取回應,每個新的查詢會取得回應,其中包含流量管理員具有的最新健康情況資訊。Doing so means that DNS resolvers cannot cache the response and each new query gets a response that incorporates the most up-to-date health information that the Traffic Manager has.

藉由使用這些設定,流量管理員可以提供在端點變成狀況不良之後 10 秒內的容錯移轉,以及針對對應設定檔進行 DNS 查詢。By using these settings, Traffic Manager can provide failovers under 10 seconds after an endpoint goes unhealthy and a DNS query is made against the corresponding profile.

如何為設定檔中不同的端點指定不同監視設定?How can I specify different monitoring settings for different endpoints in a profile?

流量管理員監視設定是在各個設定檔層級。Traffic Manager monitoring settings are at a per profile level. 如果您只需要為一個端點使用不同的監視設定,可以藉由讓該端點成為巢狀設定檔來完成,其監視設定與父代設定檔不同。If you need to use a different monitoring setting for only one endpoint, it can be done by having that endpoint as a nested profile whose monitoring settings are different from the parent profile.

如何將 HTTP 標頭指派給我端點的流量管理員健康狀態檢查?How can I assign HTTP headers to the Traffic Manager health checks to my endpoints?

流量管理員可讓您在對您端點起始的 HTTP(S) 健康狀態檢查中指定自訂標頭。Traffic Manager allows you to specify custom headers in the HTTP(S) health checks it initiates to your endpoints. 如果您想要指定自訂標頭,則可以在設定檔層級 (適用於所有端點) 或在端點層級指定。If you want to specify a custom header, you can do that at the profile level (applicable to all endpoints) or specify it at the endpoint level. 如果在兩個層級定義標頭,則在端點層級指定的標頭將會覆寫設定檔層級標頭。If a header is defined at both levels, then the one specified at the endpoint level will override the profile level one. 此狀況的一個常見使用案例是指定主機標頭,以將流量管理員要求正確地路由至裝載於多租用戶環境的端點。One common use case for this is specifying host headers so that Traffic Manager requests may get routed correctly to an endpoint hosted in a multi-tenant environment. 另一種使用案例是識別來自端點 HTTP(S) 要求記錄的流量管理員要求Another use case of this is to identify Traffic Manager requests from an endpoint’s HTTP(S) request logs

端點健全狀況檢查使用哪一個主機標頭?What host header do endpoint health checks use?

如果未提供自訂主機標頭設定,則流量管理員所使用主機標頭即為設定檔中所設定端點目標的 DNS 名稱 (如果可用)。If no custom host header setting is provided, the host header used by Traffic Manager is the DNS name of the endpoint target configured in the profile, if that is available.

健康情況檢查是從哪些 IP 位址產生?What are the IP addresses from which the health checks originate?

按一下這裡以檢視 JSON 檔案,此檔案會列出可發出流量管理員健康情況檢查的 IP 位址。Click here to view the JSON file that lists the IP addresses from which Traffic Manager health checks can originate. 請檢閱 JSON 檔案中所列出的 IP,以確保端點會允許來自這些 IP 位址的連入連線,從而能夠檢查其健康情況狀態。Review the IPs listed in the JSON file to ensure that incoming connections from these IP addresses are allowed at the endpoints to check its health status.

流量管理員會對端點進行多少健康情況檢查?How many health checks to my endpoint can I expect from Traffic Manager?

流量管理員對於您端點的健康情況檢查數目取決於下列項目:The number of Traffic Manager health checks reaching your endpoint depends on the following:

  • 您為監視間隔所設定的值 (較小間隔表示在任何指定時間期間內有更多要求進入端點)。the value that you have set for the monitoring interval (smaller interval means more requests landing on your endpoint in any given time period).
  • 產生健康情況檢查的位置數目 (您可以預期這些檢查列在上述常見問題集的 IP 位址)。the number of locations from where the health checks originate (the IP addresses from where you can expect these checks is listed in the preceding FAQ).

如果我的其中一個端點關閉,我如何取得通知?How can I get notified if one of my endpoints goes down?

流量管理員所提供的其中一個計量是設定檔中端點的健全狀態。One of the metrics provided by Traffic Manager is the health status of endpoints in a profile. 您可以將此視為設定檔中所有端點的彙總 (例如,您的端點中 75% 是健康的),或是依端點層級的端點彙總。You can see this as an aggregate of all endpoints inside a profile (for example, 75% of your endpoints are healthy), or, at a per endpoint level. 流量管理員計量是透過 Azure 監視器公開,因此您可以使用它的警示功能,在端點的健全狀態變更時取得通知。Traffic Manager metrics are exposed through Azure Monitor and you can use its alerting capabilities to get notifications when there is a change in the health status of your endpoint. 如需詳細資訊,請參閱流量管理員的計量與警示For more details, see Traffic Manager metrics and alerts.

流量管理員巢狀設定檔Traffic Manager nested profiles

如何設定巢狀設定檔?How do I configure nested profiles?

您可以使用 Azure Resource Manager 和傳統 Azure REST API、Azure PowerShell Cmdlet 及跨平台 Azure CLI 命令來設定巢狀流量管理員設定檔。Nested Traffic Manager profiles can be configured using both the Azure Resource Manager and the classic Azure REST APIs, Azure PowerShell cmdlets and cross-platform Azure CLI commands. 透過新的 Azure 入口網站也支援它們。They are also supported via the new Azure portal.

流量管理員支援幾層巢狀結構?How many layers of nesting does Traffic Manger support?

設定檔的巢狀結構深度最多可達 10 層。You can nest profiles up to 10 levels deep. 不允許使用「迴圈」。'Loops' are not permitted.

在同一個「流量管理員」設定檔中,是否可以將其他端點類型與巢狀子設定檔混合使用?Can I mix other endpoint types with nested child profiles, in the same Traffic Manager profile?

是。Yes. 對於在設定檔內如何結合不同類型的端點,並沒有任何限制。There are no restrictions on how you combine endpoints of different types within a profile.

巢狀設定檔如何套用計費模型?How does the billing model apply for Nested profiles?

使用巢狀設定檔並沒有計價上的負面影響。There is no negative pricing impact of using nested profiles.

流量管理員計費有兩個要素︰端點健康狀態檢查和數百萬個 DNS 查詢Traffic Manager billing has two components: endpoint health checks and millions of DNS queries

  • 端點健康情況檢查:當子設定檔被設定為父設定檔中的端點時,並不會針對該子設定檔收費。Endpoint health checks: There is no charge for a child profile when configured as an endpoint in a parent profile. 監視子設定檔中的端點將以一般方式計費。Monitoring of the endpoints in the child profile is billed in the usual way.
  • DNS 查詢:每個查詢只計算一次。DNS queries: Each query is only counted once. 查詢父設定檔而從子設定檔傳回端點時,只計入父設定檔內。A query against a parent profile that returns an endpoint from a child profile is counted against the parent profile only.

如需完整的詳細資料,請參閱流量管理員定價頁面For full details, see the Traffic Manager pricing page.

巢狀設定檔是否會對效能造成影響?Is there a performance impact for nested profiles?

沒有。No. 使用巢狀設定檔不會影響效能。There is no performance impact incurred when using nested profiles.

在處理每個 DNS 查詢時,流量管理員名稱伺服器會周遊設定檔階層內部。The Traffic Manager name servers traverse the profile hierarchy internally when processing each DNS query. 父設定檔的 DNS 查詢可能會收到從子設定檔傳回端點的 DNS 回應。A DNS query to a parent profile can receive a DNS response with an endpoint from a child profile. 不論您使用單一設定檔或巢狀設定檔,都只會使用單一 CNAME 記錄。A single CNAME record is used whether you are using a single profile or nested profiles. 不需要為階層中的每個設定檔建立 CNAME 記錄。There is no need to create a CNAME record for each profile in the hierarchy.

流量管理員如何計算父設定檔中的巢狀端點健康狀態?How does Traffic Manager compute the health of a nested endpoint in a parent profile?

父設定檔不會直接對子系執行健康狀態檢查,The parent profile doesn't perform health checks on the child directly. 子設定檔端點的健康狀態會用來計算子設定檔的整體健康狀態。Instead, the health of the child profile's endpoints are used to calculate the overall health of the child profile. 這項資訊會在巢狀設定檔階層中往上傳播,以判斷巢狀端點的健康狀態。This information is propagated up the nested profile hierarchy to determine the health of the nested endpoint. 父設定檔會使用此彙總健康狀態,以決定是否可以將流量導向子設定檔。The parent profile uses this aggregated health to determine whether the traffic can be directed to the child.

下表描述流量管理員檢查巢狀端點健康狀態時的行為。The following table describes the behavior of Traffic Manager health checks for a nested endpoint.

子設定檔監視狀態Child Profile Monitor status 父端點監視狀態Parent Endpoint Monitor status 注意Notes
已停用。Disabled. 已停用子設定檔。The child profile has been disabled. 已停止Stopped 父端點狀態為「已停止」,不是「已停用」。The parent endpoint state is Stopped, not Disabled. 「已停用」狀態會保留,表示您已停用父設定檔中的端點。The Disabled state is reserved for indicating that you have disabled the endpoint in the parent profile.
已降級。Degraded. 至少有一個子設定檔端點的狀態為「已降級」。At least one child profile endpoint is in a Degraded state. 線上︰子設定檔中「線上」端點的數目至少等於 MinChildEndpoints 的值。Online: the number of Online endpoints in the child profile is at least the value of MinChildEndpoints.
CheckingEndpoint︰子設定檔中「線上」加 CheckingEndpoint 端點的數目至少等於 MinChildEndpoints 的值。CheckingEndpoint: the number of Online plus CheckingEndpoint endpoints in the child profile is at least the value of MinChildEndpoints.
已降級︰其他情況。Degraded: otherwise.
系統會將流量傳遞給狀態為 CheckingEndpoint 的端點。Traffic is routed to an endpoint of status CheckingEndpoint. 如果 MinChildEndpoints 設定太高,則端點一律會降級。If MinChildEndpoints is set too high, the endpoint is always degraded.
線上。Online. 至少有一個子設定檔端點處於「線上」狀態。At least one child profile endpoint is an Online state. 沒有端點處於「已降級」狀態。No endpoint is in the Degraded state. 請參閱上方。See above.
CheckingEndpoints。CheckingEndpoints. 至少有一個子設定檔端點是 'CheckingEndpoint'。At least one child profile endpoint is 'CheckingEndpoint'. 沒有端點是「線上」或「已降級」。No endpoints are 'Online' or 'Degraded' 同上。Same as above.
非使用中。Inactive. 所有子設定檔端點不是「已停用」就是「已停止」,或者此設定檔沒有任何端點All child profile endpoints are either Disabled or Stopped, or this profile has no endpoints. 已停止Stopped

後續步驟:Next steps: