什麼是 Windows 虛擬桌面?What is Windows Virtual Desktop?

Windows 虛擬桌面是可以在雲端執行的桌面與應用程式虛擬化服務。Windows Virtual Desktop is a desktop and app virtualization service that runs on the cloud.

以下是您在 Azure 上執行 Windows 虛擬桌面時可以執行的作業:Here's what you can do when you run Windows Virtual Desktop on Azure:

  • 設定多工作階段的 Windows 10 部署,以提供具有延展性的完整 Windows 10Set up a multi-session Windows 10 deployment that delivers a full Windows 10 with scalability
  • 將 Microsoft 365 Apps 企業版虛擬化,並將其最佳化以在多使用者的虛擬案例中執行Virtualize Microsoft 365 Apps for enterprise and optimize it to run in multi-user virtual scenarios
  • 提供具有免費擴充安全性更新的 Windows 7 虛擬桌面Provide Windows 7 virtual desktops with free Extended Security Updates
  • 將您現有的遠端桌面服務 (RDS) 和 Windows Server 桌面和應用程式帶到任何電腦Bring your existing Remote Desktop Services (RDS) and Windows Server desktops and apps to any computer
  • 將桌面和應用程式虛擬化Virtualize both desktops and apps
  • 透過統一的管理體驗管理 Windows 10、Windows Server 和 Windows 7 桌面和應用程式Manage Windows 10, Windows Server, and Windows 7 desktops and apps with a unified management experience

簡介影片Introductory video

了解 Windows 虛擬桌面、其獨特性,以及這部影片中的新增內容:Learn about Windows Virtual Desktop, why it's unique, and what's new in this video:



如需更多有關於 Windows 虛擬桌面的影片,請參閱我們的播放清單For more videos about Windows Virtual Desktop, see our playlist.

主要功能Key capabilities

透過 Windows 虛擬桌面,您可以設定可調整且具有彈性的環境:With Windows Virtual Desktop, you can set up a scalable and flexible environment:

  • 在您的 Azure 訂用帳戶中建立完整桌面虛擬化環境,而不必執行任何額外的閘道伺服器。Create a full desktop virtualization environment in your Azure subscription without having to run any additional gateway servers.
  • 發佈您所需數量的主機集區,以因應您的各種工作負載。Publish as many host pools as you need to accommodate your diverse workloads.
  • 自備用於生產工作負載的映像,或從 Azure 資源庫進行測試。Bring your own image for production workloads or test from the Azure Gallery.
  • 利用集區式、多重工作階段的資源降低成本。Reduce costs with pooled, multi-session resources. 使用 Windows 伺服器上 Windows 虛擬桌面和遠端桌面工作階段主機 (RDSH) 角色專用的新 Windows 10 企業版多重工作階段功能,可以大幅降低虛擬機器數目和作業系統 (OS) 額外負荷,同時仍為使用者提供相同的資源。With the new Windows 10 Enterprise multi-session capability exclusive to Windows Virtual Desktop and Remote Desktop Session Host (RDSH) role on Windows Server, you can greatly reduce the number of virtual machines and operating system (OS) overhead while still providing the same resources to your users.
  • 透過個人 (持續性) 桌面提供個別擁有權。Provide individual ownership through personal (persistent) desktops.

您可以部署及管理虛擬桌面:You can deploy and manage virtual desktops:

  • 使用 Azure 入口網站、Windows 虛擬桌面 PowerShell 和 REST 介面,設定主機集區、建立應用程式群組、指派使用者,以及發佈資源。Use the Azure portal, Windows Virtual Desktop PowerShell and REST interfaces to configure the host pools, create app groups, assign users, and publish resources.
  • 從單一主機集區發佈完整桌面或個別遠端應用程式、為不同的使用者集合建立個別的應用程式群組,或甚至將使用者指派給多個應用程式群組,以減少映像數目。Publish full desktop or individual remote apps from a single host pool, create individual app groups for different sets of users, or even assign users to multiple app groups to reduce the number of images.
  • 如同您管理您的環境,使用內建委派的存取權來指派角色和收集診斷,以了解各種組態或使用者錯誤。As you manage your environment, use built-in delegated access to assign roles and collect diagnostics to understand various configuration or user errors.
  • 使用新的診斷服務來進行錯誤疑難排解。Use the new Diagnostics service to troubleshoot errors.
  • 只要管理映像和虛擬機器,而不管理基礎結構。Only manage the image and virtual machines, not the infrastructure. 您不需要像處理遠端桌面服務一樣,親自管理遠端桌面角色,只要管理您 Azure 訂用帳戶中的虛擬機器。You don't need to personally manage the Remote Desktop roles like you do with Remote Desktop Services, just the virtual machines in your Azure subscription.

您也可以指派使用者並將其連線到您的虛擬桌面:You can also assign and connect users to your virtual desktops:

  • 指派之後,使用者即可啟動任何 Windows 虛擬桌面用戶端,以將使用者連線到其發佈的 Windows 桌面和應用程式。Once assigned, users can launch any Windows Virtual Desktop client to connect users to their published Windows desktops and applications. 從任何裝置透過裝置上的原生應用程式或 Windows 虛擬桌面 HTML5 web 用戶端進行連線。Connect from any device through either a native application on your device or the Windows Virtual Desktop HTML5 web client.
  • 透過服務反向連線安全地建立使用者,因此您永遠不必讓任何輸入連接埠保持開啟。Securely establish users through reverse connections to the service, so you never have to leave any inbound ports open.

需求Requirements

您需要進行 Windows 虛擬桌面的一些設定,才能讓使用者成功連線到其 Windows 桌面和應用程式。There are a few things you need to set up Windows Virtual Desktop and successfully connect your users to their Windows desktops and applications.

我們支援下列作業系統,因此,針對您打算部署的桌面和應用程式,請確定您的使用者有適當的授權We support the following operating systems, so make sure you have the appropriate licenses for your users based on the desktop and apps you plan to deploy:

OSOS 必要授權Required license
Windows 10 企業版的多重工作階段或 Windows 10 企業版Windows 10 Enterprise multi-session or Windows 10 Enterprise Microsoft 365 E3、E5、A3、A5、F3、Business、PremiumMicrosoft 365 E3, E5, A3, A5, F3, Business Premium
Windows E3、E5、A3、A5Windows E3, E5, A3, A5
Windows 7 企業版Windows 7 Enterprise Microsoft 365 E3、E5、A3、A5、F3、Business、PremiumMicrosoft 365 E3, E5, A3, A5, F3, Business Premium
Windows E3、E5、A3、A5Windows E3, E5, A3, A5
Windows Server 2012 R2、2016、2019Windows Server 2012 R2, 2016, 2019 具有軟體保證的 RDS 用戶端存取使用權 (CAL)RDS Client Access License (CAL) with Software Assurance

您的基礎結構需要下列項目才能支援 Windows 虛擬桌面:Your infrastructure needs the following things to support Windows Virtual Desktop:

  • Azure Active DirectoryAn Azure Active Directory.
  • 與 Azure Active Directory 同步的 Windows Server Active Directory。A Windows Server Active Directory in sync with Azure Active Directory. 您可以使用 Azure AD Connect (適用於混合式組織) 或 Azure AD Domain Services (適用於混合式或雲端組織) 來進行設定。You can configure this using Azure AD Connect (for hybrid organizations) or Azure AD Domain Services (for hybrid or cloud organizations).
    • 與 Azure Active Directory 同步的 Windows Server AD。A Windows Server AD in sync with Azure Active Directory. 使用者來自 Windows Server AD,而 Windows 虛擬桌面 VM 會加入到 Windows Server AD 網域。User is sourced from Windows Server AD and the Windows Virtual Desktop VM is joined to Windows Server AD domain.
    • 與 Azure Active Directory 同步的 Windows Server AD。A Windows Server AD in sync with Azure Active Directory. 使用者來自 Windows Server AD,而 Windows 虛擬桌面 VM 會加入到 Azure AD Domain Services 網域。User is sourced from Windows Server AD and the Windows Virtual Desktop VM is joined to Azure AD Domain Services domain.
    • Azure AD Domain Services 網域。A Azure AD Domain Services domain. 使用者來自 Azure Active Directory,而 Windows 虛擬桌面 VM 會加入到 Azure AD Domain Services 網域。User is sourced from Azure Active Directory, and the Windows Virtual Desktop VM is joined to Azure AD Domain Services domain.
  • Azure 訂用帳戶,其父代為相同的 Azure AD 租用戶,其中包含的虛擬網路包含或已連線到 Windows Server Active Directory 或 Azure AD DS 執行個體。An Azure subscription, parented to the same Azure AD tenant, that contains a virtual network that either contains or is connected to the Windows Server Active Directory or Azure AD DS instance.

要連線到 Windows 虛擬桌面的使用者需求:User requirements to connect to Windows Virtual Desktop:

  • 使用者必須來自與 Azure AD 連線的相同 Active Directory。The user must be sourced from the same Active Directory that's connected to Azure AD. Windows 虛擬桌面不支援 B2B 或 MSA 帳戶。Windows Virtual Desktop does not support B2B or MSA accounts.
  • 您用來訂閱 Windows 虛擬桌面的 UPN 必須存在於 VM 所加入的 Active Directory 網域。The UPN you use to subscribe to Windows Virtual Desktop must exist in the Active Directory domain the VM is joined to.

您為 Windows 虛擬桌面建立的 Azure 虛擬機器必須:The Azure virtual machines you create for Windows Virtual Desktop must be:

注意

如果需要 Azure 訂用帳戶,您可以註冊一個月的免費試用If you need an Azure subscription, you can sign up for a one-month free trial. 如果您使用 Azure 免費試用版,您應該使用 Azure AD Domain Services 讓您的 Windows Server Active Directory 與 Azure Active Directory 保持同步。If you're using the free trial version of Azure, you should use Azure AD Domain Services to keep your Windows Server Active Directory in sync with Azure Active Directory.

如需 URL 的清單,您應該解除封鎖以讓 Windows 虛擬桌面部署如預期般運作,請參閱我們的安全 URL 清單For a list of URLs you should unblock for your Windows Virtual Desktop deployment to work as intended, see our Safe URL list.

Windows 虛擬桌面包含您交付給使用者的 Windows 桌面與應用程式,以及由 Microsoft 在 Azure 上裝載為服務的管理解決方案。Windows Virtual Desktop comprises the Windows desktops and apps you deliver to users and the management solution, which is hosted as a service on Azure by Microsoft. 桌面和應用程式都可以部署在任何 Azure 區域的虛擬機器 (VM) 中,而這些 VM 的管理解決方案和資料都會位於美國。Desktops and apps can be deployed on virtual machines (VMs) in any Azure region, and the management solution and data for these VMs will reside in the United States. 這可能會導致資料轉送到美國。This may result in data transfer to the United States.

為了達到最佳效能,請確定您的網路符合下列需求:For optimal performance, make sure your network meets the following requirements:

  • 從用戶端的網路到主機集區部署所在 Azure 區域的來回行程 (RTT) 延遲應少於 150 毫秒。Round-trip (RTT) latency from the client's network to the Azure region where host pools have been deployed should be less than 150 ms. 使用體驗估算器來檢視您的連線健康情況和建議的 Azure 區域。Use the Experience Estimator to view your connection health and recommended Azure region.
  • 當裝載桌面和應用程式的 VM 連線至管理服務時,網路流量可能會送到國家/地區以外。Network traffic may flow outside country/region borders when VMs that host desktops and apps connect to the management service.
  • 若要將網路效能最佳化,我們建議讓工作階段主機的 VM 共置在與管理服務相同的 Azure 區域中。To optimize for network performance, we recommend that the session host's VMs are collocated in the same Azure region as the management service.

您可以在我們的架構文件中,看到企業 Windows 虛擬桌面的一般架構設定。You can see a typical architectural setup of Windows Virtual Desktop for the enterprise in our architecture documenation.

支援的遠端桌面用戶端Supported Remote Desktop clients

下列遠端桌面用戶端支援 Windows 虛擬桌面:The following Remote Desktop clients support Windows Virtual Desktop:

重要

Windows 虛擬桌面不支援 RemoteApp 和桌面連線 (RADC) 用戶端或遠端桌面連線 (MSTSC) 用戶端。Windows Virtual Desktop doesn't support the RemoteApp and Desktop Connections (RADC) client or the Remote Desktop Connection (MSTSC) client.

若要深入了解您必須解除封鎖以使用用戶端的 URL,請參閱安全 URL 清單To learn more about URLs you must unblock to use the clients, see the Safe URL list.

支援的虛擬機器 OS 映像Supported virtual machine OS images

Windows 虛擬桌面支援下列 x64 作業系統映像:Windows Virtual Desktop supports the following x64 operating system images:

  • Windows 10 企業版的多重工作階段,1809 版或更新版本Windows 10 Enterprise multi-session, version 1809 or later
  • Windows 10 企業版,1809 版或更新版本Windows 10 Enterprise, version 1809 or later
  • Windows 7 企業版Windows 7 Enterprise
  • Windows Server 2019Windows Server 2019
  • Windows Server 2016Windows Server 2016
  • Windows Server 2012 R2Windows Server 2012 R2

Windows 虛擬桌面不支援 x86 (32 位) 、Windows 10 企業版 N、Windows 10 專業版或 Windows 10 企業版 KN 作業系統映射。Windows Virtual Desktop does not support x86 (32-bit), Windows 10 Enterprise N, Windows 10 Pro, or Windows 10 Enterprise KN operating system images. 由於磁區大小的限制,Windows 7 也不支援裝載於受控 Azure 儲存體上的任何 VHD 或 VHDX 型設定檔解決方案。Windows 7 also doesn't support any VHD or VHDX-based profile solutions hosted on managed Azure Storage due to a sector size limitation.

可用的自動化和部署選項取決於您所選的作業系統和版本,如下表所示:Available automation and deployment options depend on which OS and version you choose, as shown in the following table:

作業系統Operating system Azure 映像庫Azure Image Gallery 手動 VM 部署Manual VM deployment Azure Resource Manager 範本整合Azure Resource Manager template integration 在 Azure Marketplace 上佈建主機集區Provision host pools on Azure Marketplace
Windows 10 企業版 (多重工作階段) 2004 版Windows 10 Enterprise (multi-session), version 2004 Yes Yes Yes Yes
Windows 10 企業版 (多重工作階段) 1909 版Windows 10 Enterprise (multi-session), version 1909 Yes Yes Yes Yes
Windows 10 企業版 (多重工作階段) 1903 版Windows 10 Enterprise (multi-session), version 1903 Yes Yes No No
Windows 10 企業版 (多重工作階段) 1809 版Windows 10 Enterprise (multi-session), version 1809 Yes Yes No No
Windows 7 企業版Windows 7 Enterprise Yes Yes No No
Windows Server 2019Windows Server 2019 Yes Yes No No
Windows Server 2016Windows Server 2016 Yes Yes Yes Yes
Windows Server 2012 R2Windows Server 2012 R2 Yes Yes No No

後續步驟Next steps

如果您使用 Windows 虛擬桌面 (傳統版),可以從在 Windows 虛擬桌面中建立租用戶的教學課程開始著手。If you're using Windows Virtual Desktop (classic), you can get started with our tutorial at Create a tenant in Windows Virtual Desktop.

如果您使用的是與 Azure Resource Manager 整合的 Windows 虛擬桌面,必須改為建立主機集區。If you're using the Windows Virtual Desktop with Azure Resource Manager integration, you'll need to create a host pool instead. 請前往下列教學課程以開始著手。Head to the following tutorial to get started.