ArgumentOutOfRangeException 類別

定義

當引數值超出叫用方法所定義之值的容許範圍時,所擲回的例外狀況。

public ref class ArgumentOutOfRangeException : ArgumentException
public class ArgumentOutOfRangeException : ArgumentException
[System.Serializable]
public class ArgumentOutOfRangeException : ArgumentException
[System.Serializable]
[System.Runtime.InteropServices.ComVisible(true)]
public class ArgumentOutOfRangeException : ArgumentException
type ArgumentOutOfRangeException = class
    inherit ArgumentException
type ArgumentOutOfRangeException = class
    inherit ArgumentException
    interface ISerializable
[<System.Serializable>]
type ArgumentOutOfRangeException = class
    inherit ArgumentException
    interface ISerializable
[<System.Serializable>]
[<System.Runtime.InteropServices.ComVisible(true)>]
type ArgumentOutOfRangeException = class
    inherit ArgumentException
    interface ISerializable
Public Class ArgumentOutOfRangeException
Inherits ArgumentException
繼承
ArgumentOutOfRangeException
繼承
ArgumentOutOfRangeException
屬性
實作

範例

下列範例會定義 類別,以包含受邀來賓的相關資訊。 如果來賓小於 21, ArgumentOutOfRangeException 則會擲回例外狀況。

using System;
using static System.Console;

public class Program
{
    public static void Main(string[] args)
    {
        try
        {
            var guest1 = new Guest("Ben", "Miller", 17);
            WriteLine(guest1.GuestInfo);
        }
        catch (ArgumentOutOfRangeException argumentOutOfRangeException)
        {
            WriteLine($"Error: {argumentOutOfRangeException.Message}");
        }
    }
}

class Guest
{
    private const int minimumRequiredAge = 21;

    private string firstName;
    private string lastName;
    private int age;

    public Guest(string firstName, string lastName, int age)
    {
        if (age < minimumRequiredAge)
            throw new ArgumentOutOfRangeException(nameof(age), $"All guests must be {minimumRequiredAge}-years-old or older.");

        this.firstName = firstName;
        this.lastName = lastName;
        this.age = age;
    }

    public string GuestInfo => $"{firstName} {lastName}, {age}";
}
open System

type Guest(fName: string, lName: string, age: int) =
    let minimumRequiredAge = 21

    do if age < minimumRequiredAge then 
        raise (ArgumentOutOfRangeException(nameof age, $"All guests must be {minimumRequiredAge}-years-old or older."))

    member _.FirstName = fName
    member _.LastName = lName
    member _.GuestInfo() = $"{fName} {lName}, {age}"

try
    let guest1 = Guest("Ben", "Miller", 17);
    printfn $"{guest1.GuestInfo()}"
with
| :? ArgumentOutOfRangeException as e ->
    printfn $"Error: {e.Message}"
Module Module1
   Public Sub Main()
       Try
           Dim guest1 As Guest = New Guest("Ben", "Miller", 17)
           Console.WriteLine(guest1.GuestInfo)
       Catch outOfRange As ArgumentOutOfRangeException
           Console.WriteLine("Error: {0}", outOfRange.Message)
       End Try
   End Sub
End Module

Class Guest
    Private FirstName As String
    Private LastName As String
    Private Age As Integer

    Public Sub New(ByVal fName As String, ByVal lName As String, ByVal age As Integer)
        MyBase.New()
        FirstName = fName
        LastName = lName
        If (age < 21) Then
            Throw New ArgumentOutOfRangeException("age", "All guests must be 21-years-old or older.")
        Else
            age = age
        End If
    End Sub

    Public Function GuestInfo() As String
        Dim gInfo As String = (FirstName + (" " _
                    + (Me.LastName + (", " + Me.Age.ToString))))
        Return gInfo
    End Function
End Class

備註

ArgumentOutOfRangeException叫用方法且至少傳遞至方法的其中一個引數不是 null ,且包含不正確值,不是引數預期值集合的成員時,就會擲回例外狀況。 屬性 ParamName 會識別不正確引數,如果存在值,則 ActualValue 屬性會識別不正確值。

一般而言, ArgumentOutOfRangeException 開發人員錯誤的結果。 您不應該在區塊中 try / catch 處理例外狀況,而是應該消除例外狀況的原因,或者,如果在將引數傳遞至擲回例外狀況的方法之前,由使用者呼叫或輸入傳回引數,您應該先驗證引數,再將它們傳遞至 方法。

ArgumentOutOfRangeException 廣泛使用方式如下:

擲回例外狀況的條件 ArgumentOutOfRangeException 包括:

  • 您正依其索引編號擷取集合的成員,而且索引編號無效。

    這是例外狀況最常見的 ArgumentOutOfRangeException 原因。 一般而言,索引編號無效,原因有四個:

    1. 集合沒有成員,而您的程式碼會假設它確實存在。 下列範例會嘗試擷取沒有專案之集合的第一個專案:

      using System;
      using System.Collections.Generic;
      
      public class Example4
      {
         public static void Main()
         {
            var list = new List<string>();
            Console.WriteLine("Number of items: {0}", list.Count);
            try {
               Console.WriteLine("The first item: '{0}'", list[0]);
            }
            catch (ArgumentOutOfRangeException e) {
               Console.WriteLine(e.Message);
            }
         }
      }
      // The example displays the following output:
      //   Number of items: 0
      //   Index was out of range. Must be non-negative and less than the size of the collection.
      //   Parameter name: index
      
      open System
      
      
      let list = ResizeArray<string>()
      printfn $"Number of items: {list.Count}"
      try
          printfn $"The first item: '{list[0]}'"
      with 
      | :? ArgumentOutOfRangeException as e ->
          printfn $"{e.Message}"
      
      // The example displays the following output:
      //   Number of items: 0
      //   Index was out of range. Must be non-negative and less than the size of the collection. (Parameter 'index')
      
      Imports System.Collections.Generic
      
      Module Example
         Public Sub Main()
            Dim list As New List(Of String)
            Console.WriteLine("Number of items: {0}", list.Count)
            Try
               Console.WriteLine("The first item: '{0}'", list(0))
            Catch e As ArgumentOutOfRangeException
               Console.WriteLine(e.Message)
            End Try
         End Sub
      End Module
      ' The example displays the following output:
      '   Number of items: 0
      '   Index was out of range. Must be non-negative and less than the size of the collection.
      '   Parameter name: index
      

      若要避免例外狀況,請先檢查集合 Count 的 屬性是否大於零,然後再嘗試擷取任何成員,如下列程式碼片段所示。

      if (list.Count > 0)
         Console.WriteLine("The first item: '{0}'", list[0]);
      
      if list.Count > 0 then
          printfn $"The first item: '{list[0]}'"
      
      If list.Count > 0 Then
         Console.WriteLine("The first item: '{0}'", list(0))
      End If
      
    2. 在某些情況下,可能會發生例外狀況,因為您嘗試使用不存在的索引將成員加入至集合,而不是呼叫 方法,例如 Add 基於此目的而存在的 。 下列範例會嘗試使用不存在的索引,而不是呼叫 List<T>.Add 方法,將專案新增至集合。

      using System;
      using System.Collections.Generic;
      
      public class Example13
      {
         public static void Main()
         {
            var numbers = new List<int>();
            numbers.AddRange( new int[] { 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 20 } );
      
            var squares = new List<int>();
            for (int ctr = 0; ctr < numbers.Count; ctr++)
               squares[ctr] = (int) Math.Pow(numbers[ctr], 2);
         }
      }
      // The example displays the following output:
      //    Unhandled Exception: System.ArgumentOutOfRangeException: Index was out of range. Must be non-negative and less than the size of the collection.
      //    Parameter name: index
      //       at System.ThrowHelper.ThrowArgumentOutOfRangeException(ExceptionArgument argument, ExceptionResource resource)
      //       at Example.Main()
      
      let numbers = ResizeArray<int>()
      numbers.AddRange [ 0; 1; 2; 3; 4; 5; 6; 7; 8; 9; 20 ]
      
      let squares = ResizeArray<int>()
      for  ctr = 0 to numbers.Count - 1 do
          squares[ctr] <- int (float numbers[ctr] ** 2)
      
      // The example displays the following output:
      //    Unhandled Exception: System.ArgumentOutOfRangeException: Index was out of range. Must be non-negative and less than the size of the collection. (Parameter 'index')
      //       at System.ThrowHelper.ThrowArgumentOutOfRangeException(ExceptionArgument argument, ExceptionResource resource)
      //       at <StartupCode$argumentoutofrangeexception>.$NoElements.main@()
      
      Imports System.Collections.Generic
      
      Module Example
         Public Sub Main()
            Dim numbers As New List(Of Integer)
            numbers.AddRange( { 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 20 } )
            
            Dim squares As New List(Of Integer)
            For ctr As Integer = 0 To numbers.Count - 1
               squares(ctr) = CInt(numbers(ctr) ^ 2) 
            Next
         End Sub
      End Module
      ' The example displays the following output:
      '    Unhandled Exception: System.ArgumentOutOfRangeException: Index was out of range. Must be non-negative and less than the size of the collection.
      '    Parameter name: index
      '       at System.ThrowHelper.ThrowArgumentOutOfRangeException(ExceptionArgument argument, ExceptionResource resource)
      '       at Example.Main()
      

      下列程式碼片段會更正此錯誤:

      var squares = new List<int>();
      for (int ctr = 0; ctr < numbers.Count; ctr++)
         squares.Add((int) Math.Pow(numbers[ctr], 2));
      
      let squares = ResizeArray<int>()
      for ctr = 0 to numbers.Count - 1 do
          squares.Add(int (float numbers[ctr] ** 2))
      
      Dim squares As New List(Of Integer)
      For ctr As Integer = 0 To numbers.Count - 1
         squares.Add(CInt(numbers(ctr) ^ 2)) 
      Next
      
    3. 您嘗試擷取索引為負數的專案。 這通常是因為您已搜尋特定元素的索引集合,並誤假設搜尋成功。 在下列範例中 List<T>.FindIndex(Predicate<T>) ,呼叫 方法找不到等於 「Z」 的字串,因此會傳回 -1。 不過,這是不正確索引值。

      using System;
      using System.Collections.Generic;
      
      public class Example
      {
         public static void Main()
         {
            var list = new List<string>();
            list.AddRange( new String[] { "A", "B", "C" } );
            // Get the index of the element whose value is "Z".
            int index = list.FindIndex((new StringSearcher("Z")).FindEquals);
            try {
               Console.WriteLine("Index {0} contains '{1}'", index, list[index]);
            }
            catch (ArgumentOutOfRangeException e) {
               Console.WriteLine(e.Message);
            }
         }
      }
      
      internal class StringSearcher
      {
         string value;
      
         public StringSearcher(string value)
         {
            this.value = value;
         }
      
         public bool FindEquals(string s)
         {
            return s.Equals(value, StringComparison.InvariantCulture);
         }
      }
      // The example displays the following output:
      //   Index was out of range. Must be non-negative and less than the size of the collection.
      //   Parameter name: index
      
      open System
      
      module StringSearcher =
          let findEquals (s: string) value =
              s.Equals(value, StringComparison.InvariantCulture)
      
      let list = ResizeArray<string>()
      list.AddRange [ "A"; "B"; "C" ]
      // Get the index of the element whose value is "Z".
      let index = list.FindIndex(StringSearcher.findEquals "Z")
      try 
          printfn $"Index {index} contains '{list[index]}'"
      with 
      | :? ArgumentOutOfRangeException as e ->
          printfn $"{e.Message}" 
      
      // The example displays the following output:
      //   Index was out of range. Must be non-negative and less than the size of the collection. (Parameter 'index')
      
      Imports System.Collections.Generic
      
      Module Example
         Public Sub Main()
            Dim list As New List(Of String) 
            list.AddRange( { "A", "B", "C" } )
            ' Get the index of the element whose value is "Z".
            Dim index As Integer = list.FindIndex(AddressOf (New StringSearcher("Z")).FindEquals)
            Try
               Console.WriteLine("Index {0} contains '{1}'", index, list(index)) 
            Catch e As ArgumentOutOfRangeException
               Console.WriteLine(e.Message)
            End Try
         End Sub
      End Module
      
      Friend Class StringSearcher
         Dim value As String
         
         Public Sub New(value As String)
            Me.value = value
         End Sub
         
         Public Function FindEquals(s As String) As Boolean
            Return s.Equals(value, StringComparison.InvariantCulture) 
         End Function
      End Class
      ' The example displays the following output:
      '   Index was out of range. Must be non-negative and less than the size of the collection.
      '   Parameter name: index
      

      若要避免例外狀況,請檢查搜尋是否成功,方法是確定傳回的索引大於或等於零,然後再嘗試從集合擷取專案,如下列程式碼片段所示。

      // Get the index of the element whose value is "Z".
      int index = list.FindIndex((new StringSearcher("Z")).FindEquals);
      if (index >= 0)
         Console.WriteLine("'Z' is found at index {0}", list[index]);
      
      // Get the index of the element whose value is "Z".
      let index = list.FindIndex(StringSearcher.findEquals "Z")
      if index >= 0 then
          printfn $"'Z' is found at index {list[index]}"
      
      ' Get the index of the element whose value is "Z".
      Dim index As Integer = list.FindIndex(AddressOf (New StringSearcher("Z")).FindEquals)
      If index >= 0 Then
         Console.WriteLine("Index {0} contains '{1}'", index, list(index)) 
      End If
      
    4. 您嘗試擷取索引等於集合 Count 屬性值的專案,如下列範例所示。

      using System;
      using System.Collections.Generic;
      
      public class Example8
      {
         public static void Main()
         {
            var list = new List<string>();
            list.AddRange( new String[] { "A", "B", "C" } );
            try {
               // Display the elements in the list by index.
               for (int ctr = 0; ctr <= list.Count; ctr++)
                  Console.WriteLine("Index {0}: {1}", ctr, list[ctr]);
            }
            catch (ArgumentOutOfRangeException e) {
               Console.WriteLine(e.Message);
            }
         }
      }
      // The example displays the following output:
      //   Index 0: A
      //   Index 1: B
      //   Index 2: C
      //   Index was out of range. Must be non-negative and less than the size of the collection.
      //   Parameter name: index
      
      open System
      
      let list = ResizeArray<string>()
      list.AddRange [ "A"; "B"; "C" ] 
      try
          // Display the elements in the list by index.
          for i = 0 to list.Count do
              printfn $"Index {i}: {list[i]}"
      with 
      | :? ArgumentOutOfRangeException as e ->
          printfn $"{e.Message}" 
            
      // The example displays the following output:
      //   Index 0: A
      //   Index 1: B
      //   Index 2: C
      //   Index was out of range. Must be non-negative and less than the size of the collection. (Parameter 'index')
      
      Imports System.Collections.Generic
      
      Module Example
         Public Sub Main()
            Dim list As New List(Of String) 
            list.AddRange( { "A", "B", "C" } )
            Try
               ' Display the elements in the list by index.
               For ctr As Integer = 0 To list.Count
                  Console.WriteLine("Index {0}: {1}", ctr, list(ctr)) 
               Next   
            Catch e As ArgumentOutOfRangeException
               Console.WriteLine(e.Message)
            End Try
         End Sub
      End Module
      ' The example displays the following output:
      '   Index 0: A
      '   Index 1: B
      '   Index 2: C
      '   Index was out of range. Must be non-negative and less than the size of the collection.
      '   Parameter name: index
      

      因為 .NET 中的集合使用以零起始的索引,所以集合的第一個元素位於索引 0,最後一個元素位於 index Count - 1。 您可以藉由確保您存取 index Count - 1 的最後一個專案,藉此消除錯誤,如下列程式碼所示。

      // Display the elements in the list by index.
      for (int ctr = 0; ctr < list.Count; ctr++)
         Console.WriteLine("Index {0}: {1}", ctr, list[ctr]);
      
      // Display the elements in the list by index.
      for i = 0 to list.Count - 1 do
          printfn $"Index {i}: {list[i]}"
      
      ' Display the elements in the list by index.
      For ctr As Integer = 0 To list.Count - 1 
         Console.WriteLine("Index {0}: {1}", ctr, list(ctr)) 
      Next
      
  • 您嘗試藉由呼叫字串操作方法來執行字串作業,而起始索引不存在於字串中。

    方法的多載,例如 、、、、 String.LastIndexOf String.Insert IndexOfAny String.LastIndexOfAny Remove 、、 或 String.Substring ,可讓您指定作業的起始索引,要求索引是字串內的有效位置。 String.IndexOf String.CompareOrdinal String.Compare 有效的索引範圍從 0 到 String.Length - 1。

    ArgumentOutOfRangeException 例外狀況有四個常見原因:

    1. 您正在使用空字串或 String.Empty 。 因為其 String.Length 屬性會傳回 0,所以任何透過索引操作它的嘗試都會 ArgumentOutOfRangeException 擲回例外狀況。 下列範例會 GetFirstCharacter 定義傳回字串第一個字元的方法。 如果字串是空的,因為傳遞至 方法的最後一個 ArgumentOutOfRangeException 字串是 ,此方法會擲回例外狀況。

      using System;
      
      public class Example1
      {
          public static void Main()
          {
              String[] words = { "the", "today", "tomorrow", " ", "" };
              foreach (var word in words)
                  Console.WriteLine("First character of '{0}': '{1}'",
                                    word, GetFirstCharacter(word));
          }
      
          private static char GetFirstCharacter(string s)
          {
              return s[0];
          }
      }
      // The example displays the following output:
      //    First character of //the//: //t//
      //    First character of //today//: //t//
      //    First character of //tomorrow//: //t//
      //    First character of // //: // //
      //
      //    Unhandled Exception: System.IndexOutOfRangeException: Index was outside the bounds of the array.
      //       at Example.Main()
      
      open System
      
      let getFirstCharacter (s: string) = s[0]
      
      let words = [ "the"; "today"; "tomorrow"; " "; "" ]
      for word in words do
          printfn $"First character of '{word}': '{getFirstCharacter word}'"
      
      // The example displays the following output:
      //    First character of 'the': 't'
      //    First character of 'today': 't'
      //    First character of 'tomorrow': 't'
      //    First character of ' ': ' '
      //
      //    Unhandled Exception: System.IndexOutOfRangeException: Index was outside the bounds of the array.
      //       at <StartupCode$argumentoutofrangeexception>.$EmptyString1.main@()
      
      Module Example
         Public Sub Main()
             Dim words() As String = { "the", "today", "tomorrow", " ", "" }
             For Each word In words
                Console.WriteLine("First character of '{0}': '{1}'", 
                                  word, GetFirstCharacter(word))
             Next                     
         End Sub
         
         Private Function GetFirstCharacter(s As String) As Char
            Return s(0)
         End Function
      End Module
      ' The example displays the following output:
      '    First character of 'the': 't'
      '    First character of 'today': 't'
      '    First character of 'tomorrow': 't'
      '    First character of ' ': ' '
      '    
      '    Unhandled Exception: System.IndexOutOfRangeException: Index was outside the bounds of the array.
      '       at Example.Main()
      

      您可以藉由測試字串 String.Length 的 是否大於零,或呼叫 IsNullOrEmpty 方法來確保字串不是 null 或空白,來消除例外狀況。 下列程式碼片段會執行後者。 在此情況下,如果字串為 null 或空白,此方法 GetFirstCharacter 會傳回 U+0000。

      static char GetFirstCharacter(string s)
      {
          if (string.IsNullOrEmpty(s))
              return '\u0000';
          else
              return s[0];
      }
      
      let getFirstCharacter (s: string) =
         if String.IsNullOrEmpty s then
            '\u0000'
         else
            s[0]
      
      Function GetFirstCharacter(s As String) As Char
         If String.IsNullOrEmpty(s) Then 
            Return ChrW(0)
         Else   
            Return s(0)
         End If   
      End Function
      
    2. 您正在根據該字串內的子字串位置操作字串,而且您無法判斷是否確實找到子字串。

      下列範例會擷取雙字片語的第二個字。 如果片語只包含一個單字,因此不包含內嵌空白字元,則會擲 ArgumentOutOfRangeException 回例外狀況。 這是因為呼叫 String.IndexOf(String) 方法會傳回 -1,以指出搜尋失敗,然後這個不正確值會傳遞至 String.Substring(Int32) 方法。

      using System;
      
      public class Example17
      {
         public static void Main()
         {
            String[] phrases = { "ocean blue", "concerned citizen",
                                 "runOnPhrase" };
            foreach (var phrase in phrases)
               Console.WriteLine("Second word is {0}", GetSecondWord(phrase));
         }
      
         static string GetSecondWord(string s)
         {
            int pos = s.IndexOf(" ");
            return s.Substring(pos).Trim();
         }
      }
      // The example displays the following output:
      //    Second word is blue
      //    Second word is citizen
      //
      //    Unhandled Exception: System.ArgumentOutOfRangeException: StartIndex cannot be less than zero.
      //    Parameter name: startIndex
      //       at System.String.Substring(Int32 startIndex, Int32 length)
      //       at Example17.GetSecondWord(String s)
      //       at Example17.Main()
      
      let getSecondWord (s: string) =
          let pos = s.IndexOf " "
          s.Substring(pos).Trim()
      
      let phrases = [ "ocean blue"; "concerned citizen"; "runOnPhrase" ]
      for phrase in phrases do
          printfn $"Second word is {getSecondWord phrase}"
      
      // The example displays the following output:
      //    Second word is blue
      //    Second word is citizen
      //
      //    Unhandled Exception: System.ArgumentOutOfRangeException: StartIndex cannot be less than zero. (Parameter 'startIndex')
      //       at System.String.Substring(Int32 startIndex, Int32 length)
      //       at System.String.Substring(Int32 startIndex)
      //       at NoFind1.getSecondWord(String s)
      //       at <StartupCode$argumentoutofrangeexception>.$NoFind1.main@()
      
      Module Example
         Public Sub Main()
            Dim phrases() As String = { "ocean blue", "concerned citizen", 
                                        "runOnPhrase" }
            For Each phrase In phrases
               Console.WriteLine("Second word is {0}", GetSecondWord(phrase))
            Next                            
        End Sub
        
        Function GetSecondWord(s As String) As String
           Dim pos As Integer = s.IndexOf(" ")
           Return s.Substring(pos).Trim()
        End Function
      End Module
      ' The example displays the following output:
      '       Second word is blue
      '       Second word is citizen
      '       
      '       Unhandled Exception: System.ArgumentOutOfRangeException: StartIndex cannot be less than zero.
      '       Parameter name: startIndex
      '          at System.String.Substring(Int32 startIndex, Int32 length)
      '          at Example.GetSecondWord(String s)
      '          at Example.Main()
      

      若要消除例外狀況,請先驗證字串搜尋方法傳回的值,再呼叫字串操作方法。

      using System;
      
      public class Example18
      {
         public static void Main()
         {
            String[] phrases = { "ocean blue", "concerned citizen",
                                 "runOnPhrase" };
            foreach (var phrase in phrases) {
               string word = GetSecondWord(phrase);
               if (! string.IsNullOrEmpty(word))
                  Console.WriteLine("Second word is {0}", word);
            }
         }
      
         static string GetSecondWord(string s)
         {
            int pos = s.IndexOf(" ");
            if (pos >= 0)
               return s.Substring(pos).Trim();
            else
               return string.Empty;
         }
      }
      // The example displays the following output:
      //       Second word is blue
      //       Second word is citizen
      
      open System
      
      let getSecondWord (s: string) =
          let pos = s.IndexOf " "
          if pos >= 0 then
              s.Substring(pos).Trim()
          else 
              String.Empty
      
      let phrases = [ "ocean blue"; "concerned citizen"; "runOnPhrase" ]
      for phrase in phrases do
          let word = getSecondWord phrase
          if not (String.IsNullOrEmpty word) then
              printfn $"Second word is {word}"
      
      // The example displays the following output:
      //       Second word is blue
      //       Second word is citizen
      
      Module Example
         Public Sub Main()
            Dim phrases() As String = { "ocean blue", "concerned citizen", 
                                        "runOnPhrase" }
            For Each phrase In phrases
               Dim word As String = GetSecondWord(phrase)
               If Not String.IsNullOrEmpty(word) Then _
                  Console.WriteLine("Second word is {0}", word)
            Next                            
         End Sub
        
         Function GetSecondWord(s As String) As String
            Dim pos As Integer = s.IndexOf(" ")
            If pos >= 0
                Return s.Substring(pos).Trim()
            Else
               Return String.Empty
            End If
        End Function
      End Module
      ' The example displays the following output:
      '       Second word is blue
      '       Second word is citizen
      
    3. 您嘗試擷取超出目前字串範圍的子字串。

      擷取子字串的方法都需要您指定子字串的起始位置,而且對於不繼續到字串結尾的子字串,則子字串中的字元數。 請注意,這不是子字串中最後一個字元的 索引

      ArgumentOutOfRangeException在此情況下通常會擲回例外狀況,因為您不正確地計運算元字串中的字元數。 如果您使用類似 String.IndexOf 的搜尋方法來識別子字串的開始和結束位置:

      • 如果 所傳回 String.IndexOf 之結束位置中的字元要包含在子字串中,則公式會提供子字串的結束位置

        endIndex - startIndex + 1
        
      • 如果 所傳回 String.IndexOf 結尾位置中的字元要從子字串中排除,則公式會提供子字串的結束位置

        endIndex - startIndex
        

        下列範例會 FindWords 定義方法,這個方法會使用 String.IndexOfAny(Char[], Int32) 方法來識別字串中的空白字元和標點符號,並傳回陣列,其中包含字串中找到的字組。

        using System;
        using System.Collections.Generic;
        
        public class Example19
        {
           public static void Main()
           {
              string sentence = "This is a simple, short sentence.";
              Console.WriteLine("Words in '{0}':", sentence);
              foreach (var word in FindWords(sentence))
                 Console.WriteLine("   '{0}'", word);
           }
        
           static String[] FindWords(string s)
           {
              int start = 0, end = 0;
              Char[] delimiters = { ' ', '.', ',', ';', ':', '(', ')' };
              var words = new List<string>();
        
              while (end >= 0) {
                 end = s.IndexOfAny(delimiters, start);
                 if (end >= 0) {
                    if (end - start > 0)
                       words.Add(s.Substring(start, end - start));
        
                    start = end + 1;
                 }
                 else {
                    if (start < s.Length - 1)
                       words.Add(s.Substring(start));
                 }
              }
              return words.ToArray();
           }
        }
        // The example displays the following output:
        //       Words in 'This is a simple, short sentence.':
        //          'This'
        //          'is'
        //          'a'
        //          'simple'
        //          'short'
        //          'sentence'
        
        
        let findWords (s: string) =
            let mutable start, end' = 0, 0
            let delimiters = [| ' '; '.'; ','; ';'; ':'; '('; ')' |]
            let words = ResizeArray<string>()
            while end' >= 0 do
                end' <- s.IndexOfAny(delimiters, start)
                if end' >= 0 then
                    if end' - start > 0 then
                        words.Add(s.Substring(start, end' - start))
                    start <- end' + 1
                elif start < s.Length - 1 then
                    words.Add(s.Substring start)
            words.ToArray()
        
        let sentence = "This is a simple, short sentence."
        printfn $"Words in '{sentence}':"
        for word in findWords sentence do
            printfn $"   '{word}'"
        
        // The example displays the following output:
        //       Words in 'This is a simple, short sentence.':
        //          'This'
        //          'is'
        //          'a'
        //          'simple'
        //          'short'
        //          'sentence'
        
        Imports System.Collections.Generic
        
        Module Example
           Public Sub Main()
              Dim sentence As String = "This is a simple, short sentence."
              Console.WriteLine("Words in '{0}':", sentence)
              For Each word In FindWords(sentence)
                 Console.WriteLine("   '{0}'", word)
              Next
           End Sub
           
           Function FindWords(s As String) As String()
              Dim start, ending As Integer
              Dim delimiters() As Char = { " "c, "."c, ","c, ";"c, ":"c,
                                           "("c, ")"c }
              Dim words As New List(Of String)()
        
              Do While ending >= 0
                 ending = s.IndexOfAny(delimiters, start)
                 If ending >= 0
                    If ending - start > 0 Then
                       words.Add(s.Substring(start, ending - start)) 
                    End If
                    start = ending + 1
                 Else
                    If start < s.Length - 1 Then
                       words.Add(s.Substring(start))
                    End If      
                 End If
              Loop    
              Return words.ToArray()                         
           End Function
        End Module
        ' The example displays the following output:
        '       Words in 'This is a simple, short sentence.':
        '          'This'
        '          'is'
        '          'a'
        '          'simple'
        '          'short'
        '          'sentence'
        
  • 您已將負數傳遞至具有只需要正數和零之引數的方法,或者您已將負數或零傳遞給具有只需要正數之引數的方法。

    例如, Array.CreateInstance(Type, Int32, Int32, Int32) 方法需要您在二維陣列的每個維度中指定元素數目;每個維度的有效值範圍可以從 0 到 Int32.MaxValue 。 但是,因為下列範例中的維度引數具有負值,所以 方法會 ArgumentOutOfRangeException 擲回例外狀況。

    using System;
    
    public class Example01
    {
        public static void Main()
        {
            int dimension1 = 10;
            int dimension2 = -1;
            try
            {
                Array arr = Array.CreateInstance(typeof(string),
                                                 dimension1, dimension2);
            }
            catch (ArgumentOutOfRangeException e)
            {
                if (e.ActualValue != null)
                    Console.WriteLine("{0} is an invalid value for {1}: ", e.ActualValue, e.ParamName);
                Console.WriteLine(e.Message);
            }
        }
    }
    // The example displays the following output:
    //     Non-negative number required.
    //     Parameter name: length2
    
    open System
    
    let dimension1 = 10
    let dimension2 = -1
    try
        let arr = Array.CreateInstance(typeof<string>, dimension1, dimension2)
        printfn "%A" arr
    with 
    | :? ArgumentOutOfRangeException as e ->
        if not (isNull e.ActualValue) then
            printfn $"{e.ActualValue} is an invalid value for {e.ParamName}: "
        printfn $"{e.Message}"
    
    // The example displays the following output:
    //     Non-negative number required. (Parameter 'length2')
    
    Module Example
       Public Sub Main()
          Dim dimension1 As Integer = 10
          Dim dimension2 As Integer = -1
          Try
             Dim arr AS Array = Array.CreateInstance(GetType(String), 
                                                     dimension1, dimension2)
          Catch e As ArgumentOutOfRangeException
             If e.ActualValue IsNot Nothing Then
                Console.WriteLine("{0} is an invalid value for {1}: ", 
                                  e.ActualValue, e.ParamName)
             End If                     
             Console.WriteLine(e.Message)
          End Try
       End Sub
    End Module
    ' The example displays the following output:
    '     Non-negative number required.
    '     Parameter name: length2
    

    若要更正錯誤,請確定無效引數的值不是負數。 您可以藉由提供有效的值來執行此動作,如下列程式碼片段所示。

    int dimension1 = 10;
    int dimension2 = 10;
    Array arr = Array.CreateInstance(typeof(string),
                                     dimension1, dimension2);
    
    let dimension1 = 10
    let dimension2 = 10
    let arr = Array.CreateInstance(typeof<string>, dimension1, dimension2)
    printfn "%A" arr
    
    Dim dimension1 As Integer = 10
    Dim dimension2 As Integer = 10
    Dim arr As Array = Array.CreateInstance(GetType(String), 
                                            dimension1, dimension2)
    

    您也可以驗證輸入,如果輸入無效,請採取一些動作。 下列程式碼片段會顯示錯誤訊息,而不是呼叫 方法。

    if (dimension1 < 0 || dimension2 < 0)
    {
        Console.WriteLine("Unable to create the array.");
        Console.WriteLine("Specify non-negative values for the two dimensions.");
    }
    else
    {
        arr = Array.CreateInstance(typeof(string),
                                   dimension1, dimension2);
    }
    
    if dimension1 < 0 || dimension2 < 0 then
        printfn "Unable to create the array."
        printfn "Specify non-negative values for the two dimensions."
    else
        let arr = Array.CreateInstance(typeof<string>, dimension1, dimension2)
        printfn "%A" arr
    
    If dimension1 < 0 OrElse dimension2 < 0 Then
       Console.WriteLine("Unable to create the array.")
       Console.WriteLine("Specify non-negative values for the two dimensions.")
    Else
       arr = Array.CreateInstance(GetType(String), 
                                  dimension1, dimension2)   
    End If
    
  • 競爭條件存在於多執行緒或具有非同步執行的工作,以及更新陣列或集合的工作中。

    下列範例會使用 List<T> 物件來填入 物件的集合 Continent 。 如果範例嘗試在完整填入集合之前顯示集合中的七個專案,則會擲 ArgumentOutOfRangeException 回 。

    using System;
    using System.Collections.Generic;
    using System.Threading;
    
    public class Continent
    {
       public string Name { get; set; }
       public int Population { get; set; }
       public Decimal Area { get; set; }
    }
    
    public class Example11
    {
       static List<Continent> continents = new List<Continent>();
       static string msg;
    
       public static void Main()
       {
          String[] names = { "Africa", "Antarctica", "Asia",
                             "Australia", "Europe", "North America",
                             "South America" };
          // Populate the list.
          foreach (var name in names) {
             var th = new Thread(PopulateContinents);
             th.Start(name);
          }
          Console.WriteLine(msg);
          Console.WriteLine();
    
          // Display the list.
          for (int ctr = 0; ctr < names.Length; ctr++) {
             var continent = continents[ctr];
             Console.WriteLine("{0}: Area: {1}, Population {2}",
                               continent.Name, continent.Population,
                               continent.Area);
          }
       }
    
       private static void PopulateContinents(Object obj)
       {
          string name = obj.ToString();
          msg += string.Format("Adding '{0}' to the list.\n", name);
          var continent = new Continent();
          continent.Name = name;
          // Sleep to simulate retrieving remaining data.
          Thread.Sleep(50);
          continents.Add(continent);
       }
    }
    // The example displays output like the following:
    //    Adding //Africa// to the list.
    //    Adding //Antarctica// to the list.
    //    Adding //Asia// to the list.
    //    Adding //Australia// to the list.
    //    Adding //Europe// to the list.
    //    Adding //North America// to the list.
    //    Adding //South America// to the list.
    //
    //
    //
    //    Unhandled Exception: System.ArgumentOutOfRangeException: Index was out of range. Must be non-negative and less than the size of the collection.
    //    Parameter name: index
    //       at System.ThrowHelper.ThrowArgumentOutOfRangeException(ExceptionArgument argument, ExceptionResource resource)
    //       at Example.Main()
    
    open System.Threading
    
    type Continent =
        { Name: string
          Population: int
          Area: decimal }
    
    let continents = ResizeArray<Continent>()
    let mutable msg = ""
    
    let names = 
        [ "Africa"; "Antarctica"; "Asia"
          "Australia"; "Europe"; "North America"
          "South America" ]
    
    let populateContinents obj = 
        let name = string obj
        msg <- msg + $"Adding '{name}' to the list.\n"
        // Sleep to simulate retrieving data.
        Thread.Sleep 50
        let continent = 
            { Name = name
              Population = 0
              Area = 0M }
        continents.Add continent
          
    // Populate the list.
    for name in names do
        let th = Thread(ParameterizedThreadStart populateContinents)
        th.Start name
          
    printfn $"{msg}\n"
    
    // Display the list.
    for i = 0 to names.Length - 1 do
        let continent = continents[i]
        printfn $"{continent.Name}: Area: {continent.Population}, Population {continent.Area}"
    
    // The example displays output like the following:
    //    Unhandled Exception: System.ArgumentOutOfRangeException: Index was out of range. Must be non-negative and less than the size of the collection. (Parameter 'index')
    //       at System.Collections.Generic.List`1.get_Item(Int32 index)
    //       at <StartupCode$argumentoutofrangeexception>.$Race1.main@()
    
    Imports System.Collections.Generic
    Imports System.Threading
    
    Public Class Continent
       Public Property Name As String
       Public Property Population As Integer
       Public Property Area As Decimal  
    End Class
    
    Module Example
       Dim continents As New List(Of Continent)
       Dim msg As String 
          
       Public Sub Main()
          Dim names() As String = { "Africa", "Antarctica", "Asia", 
                                         "Australia", "Europe", "North America",
                                         "South America" }
          ' Populate the list.
          For Each name In names
             Dim th As New Thread(AddressOf PopulateContinents)
             th.Start(name)
          Next              
          Console.WriteLine(msg)
          Console.WriteLine()
    
          ' Display the list.
          For ctr As Integer = 0 To names.Length - 1
             Dim continent = continents(ctr)
             Console.WriteLine("{0}: Area: {1}, Population {2}", 
                               continent.Name, continent.Population,
                               continent.Area)
          Next
       End Sub
       
       Private Sub PopulateContinents(obj As Object)
          Dim name As String = obj.ToString()
          msg += String.Format("Adding '{0}' to the list.{1}", name, vbCrLf)
          Dim continent As New Continent()
          continent.Name = name
          ' Sleep to simulate retrieving remaining data.
          Thread.Sleep(50)
          continents.Add(continent)
       End Sub
    End Module
    ' The example displays output like the following:
    '    Adding 'Africa' to the list.
    '    Adding 'Antarctica' to the list.
    '    Adding 'Asia' to the list.
    '    Adding 'Australia' to the list.
    '    Adding 'Europe' to the list.
    '    Adding 'North America' to the list.
    '    Adding 'South America' to the list.
    '    
    '    
    '    
    '    Unhandled Exception: System.ArgumentOutOfRangeException: Index was out of range. Must be non-negative and less than the size of the collection.
    '    Parameter name: index
    '       at System.ThrowHelper.ThrowArgumentOutOfRangeException(ExceptionArgument argument, ExceptionResource resource)
    '       at Example.Main()
    

    在此情況下,會從多個執行緒存取兩個資源:

    • continents 集合。 從多個執行緒呼叫其 List<T>.Add 方法。 此外,主執行緒或主要執行緒會假設集合在逐一查看其成員時,會完全填入七個元素。

    • msg字串,從多個執行緒串連。

    若要更正錯誤,請確定以安全線程的方式存取共用狀態,如下所示。

    • 如果您的應用程式使用陣列或集合物件,請考慮使用安全線程集合類別,例如命名空間中的 System.Collections.Concurrent 類型或 System.Collections.Immutable 頻外版本。

    • 請確定共用狀態 (也就是說,多個執行緒可以存取的資源) 會以安全線程的方式存取,因此一次只有一個執行緒具有資源的獨佔存取權。 有許多類別,例如 CountdownEventInterlockedMonitor 、 和 Mutex ,可用來同步存取資源。 如需詳細資訊,請參閱 執行緒。 此外,語言支援可透過 C# 中的lock語句和 Visual Basic 中的SyncLock建構來取得。

    下列範例會解決 ArgumentOutOfRangeException 上一個範例中的 和 其他問題。 它會將 物件取代 List<T>ConcurrentBag<T> 物件,以確保集合的存取是安全線程、使用 CountdownEvent 物件來確保只有在執行其他執行緒之後,應用程式執行緒才會繼續,並使用鎖定來確保一次只能有一個執行緒存取 msg 變數。

    using System;
    using System.Collections.Concurrent;
    using System.Threading;
    
    public class ContinentD
    {
       public string Name { get; set; }
       public int Population { get; set; }
       public Decimal Area { get; set; }
    }
    
    public class Example12
    {
       static ConcurrentBag<ContinentD> ContinentDs = new ConcurrentBag<ContinentD>();
       static CountdownEvent gate;
       static string msg = string.Empty;
    
       public static void Main()
       {
          String[] names = { "Africa", "Antarctica", "Asia",
                             "Australia", "Europe", "North America",
                             "South America" };
          gate = new CountdownEvent(names.Length);
    
          // Populate the list.
          foreach (var name in names) {
             var th = new Thread(PopulateContinentDs);
             th.Start(name);
          }
    
          // Display the list.
          gate.Wait();
          Console.WriteLine(msg);
          Console.WriteLine();
    
          var arr = ContinentDs.ToArray();
          for (int ctr = 0; ctr < names.Length; ctr++) {
             var ContinentD = arr[ctr];
             Console.WriteLine("{0}: Area: {1}, Population {2}",
                               ContinentD.Name, ContinentD.Population,
                               ContinentD.Area);
          }
       }
    
       private static void PopulateContinentDs(Object obj)
       {
          string name = obj.ToString();
          lock(msg) {
             msg += string.Format("Adding '{0}' to the list.\n", name);
          }
          var ContinentD = new ContinentD();
          ContinentD.Name = name;
          // Sleep to simulate retrieving remaining data.
          Thread.Sleep(25);
          ContinentDs.Add(ContinentD);
          gate.Signal();
       }
    }
    // The example displays output like the following:
    //       Adding 'Africa' to the list.
    //       Adding 'Antarctica' to the list.
    //       Adding 'Asia' to the list.
    //       Adding 'Australia' to the list.
    //       Adding 'Europe' to the list.
    //       Adding 'North America' to the list.
    //       Adding 'South America' to the list.
    //
    //
    //       Africa: Area: 0, Population 0
    //       Antarctica: Area: 0, Population 0
    //       Asia: Area: 0, Population 0
    //       Australia: Area: 0, Population 0
    //       Europe: Area: 0, Population 0
    //       North America: Area: 0, Population 0
    //       South America: Area: 0, Population 0
    
    open System.Collections.Concurrent
    open System.Threading
    
    type Continent =
        { Name: string
          Population: int
          Area: decimal }
    
    let continents = ConcurrentBag<Continent>();
    let mutable msg = ""
    
    let names = 
        [ "Africa"; "Antarctica"; "Asia"
          "Australia"; "Europe"; "North America"
          "South America" ]
    
    let gate = new CountdownEvent(names.Length)
    
    let populateContinents obj = 
        let name = string obj
        lock msg (fun () -> 
            msg <- msg + $"Adding '{name}' to the list.\n" )
    
        // Sleep to simulate retrieving remaining data.
        let continent = 
            { Name = name
              Population = 0
              Area = 0M }
        Thread.Sleep 25
        continents.Add continent
        gate.Signal() |> ignore
    
    // Populate the list.
    for name in names do
        let th = Thread(ParameterizedThreadStart populateContinents)
        th.Start name
    
    // Display the list.
    gate.Wait();
    printfn $"{msg}\n"
    
    let arr = continents.ToArray();
    for i = 0 to names.Length - 1 do
        let continent = arr[i]
        printfn $"{continent.Name}: Area: {continent.Population}, Population {continent.Area}"
    
    // The example displays output like the following:
    //       Adding 'Africa' to the list.
    //       Adding 'Antarctica' to the list.
    //       Adding 'Asia' to the list.
    //       Adding 'Australia' to the list.
    //       Adding 'Europe' to the list.
    //       Adding 'North America' to the list.
    //       Adding 'South America' to the list.
    //
    //
    //       Africa: Area: 0, Population 0
    //       Antarctica: Area: 0, Population 0
    //       Asia: Area: 0, Population 0
    //       Australia: Area: 0, Population 0
    //       Europe: Area: 0, Population 0
    //       North America: Area: 0, Population 0
    //       South America: Area: 0, Population 0
    
    Imports System.Collections.Concurrent
    Imports System.Threading
    
    Public Class Continent
       Public Property Name As String
       Public Property Population As Integer
       Public Property Area As Decimal  
    End Class
    
    Module Example
       Dim continents As New ConcurrentBag(Of Continent)
       Dim gate As CountdownEvent
       Dim msg As String = String.Empty
          
       Public Sub Main()
          Dim names() As String = { "Africa", "Antarctica", "Asia", 
                                    "Australia", "Europe", "North America",
                                    "South America" }
          gate = new CountdownEvent(names.Length)
          
          ' Populate the list.
          For Each name In names
             Dim th As New Thread(AddressOf PopulateContinents)
             th.Start(name)
          Next              
    
          ' Display the list.
          gate.Wait()
          Console.WriteLine(msg)
          Console.WriteLine()
    
          For ctr As Integer = 0 To names.Length - 1
             Dim continent = continents(ctr)
             Console.WriteLine("{0}: Area: {1}, Population {2}", 
                               continent.Name, continent.Population,
                               continent.Area)
          Next
       End Sub
       
       Private Sub PopulateContinents(obj As Object)
          Dim name As String = obj.ToString()
          SyncLock msg 
             msg += String.Format("Adding '{0}' to the list.{1}", name, vbCrLf)
          End SyncLock
          Dim continent As New Continent()
          continent.Name = name
          ' Sleep to simulate retrieving remaining data.
          Thread.Sleep(25)
          continents.Add(continent)
          gate.Signal()
       End Sub
    End Module
    ' The example displays output like the following:
    '    Adding 'Africa' to the list.
    '    Adding 'Antarctica' to the list.
    '    Adding 'Asia' to the list.
    '    Adding 'Australia' to the list.
    '    Adding 'Europe' to the list.
    '    Adding 'North America' to the list.
    '    Adding 'South America' to the list.
    '    
    '    
    '    Africa: Area: 0, Population 0
    '    Antarctica: Area: 0, Population 0
    '    Asia: Area: 0, Population 0
    '    Australia: Area: 0, Population 0
    '    Europe: Area: 0, Population 0
    '    North America: Area: 0, Population 0
    '    South America: Area: 0, Population 0
    

ArgumentOutOfRangeException 會使用 HRESULT COR_E_ARGUMENTOUTOFRANGE,其值為 0x80131502。

如需執行個體的初始屬性值的清單ArgumentOutOfRangeException,請參閱ArgumentOutOfRangeException建構函式。

建構函式

ArgumentOutOfRangeException()

初始化 ArgumentOutOfRangeException 類別的新執行個體。

ArgumentOutOfRangeException(SerializationInfo, StreamingContext)

使用序列化資料,初始化 ArgumentOutOfRangeException 類別的新執行個體。

ArgumentOutOfRangeException(String)

使用造成這個例外狀況的參數名稱來初始化 ArgumentOutOfRangeException 類別的新執行個體。

ArgumentOutOfRangeException(String, Exception)

使用指定的錯誤訊息和造成這個例外狀況的例外狀況,初始化 ArgumentOutOfRangeException 類別的新執行個體。

ArgumentOutOfRangeException(String, Object, String)

使用參數名稱引數值和指定的錯誤訊息,初始化 ArgumentOutOfRangeException 類別的新執行個體。

ArgumentOutOfRangeException(String, String)

使用造成這個例外狀況的參數名稱和指定的錯誤訊息,初始化 ArgumentOutOfRangeException 類別的新執行個體。

屬性

ActualValue

取得造成這個例外狀況的引數值。

Data

取得鍵值組的集合,這些鍵值組會提供關於例外狀況的其他使用者定義資訊。

(繼承來源 Exception)
HelpLink

取得或設定與這個例外狀況相關聯的說明檔連結。

(繼承來源 Exception)
HResult

取得或設定 HRESULT,它是指派給特定例外狀況的編碼數值。

(繼承來源 Exception)
InnerException

取得造成目前例外狀況的 Exception 執行個體。

(繼承來源 Exception)
Message

取得錯誤訊息和無效引數值的字串表示,或如果引數值是 null 時,只取得錯誤訊息。

ParamName

取得造成這個例外狀況的參數名稱。

(繼承來源 ArgumentException)
Source

取得或設定造成錯誤的應用程式或物件的名稱。

(繼承來源 Exception)
StackTrace

取得呼叫堆疊上即時運算框架的字串表示。

(繼承來源 Exception)
TargetSite

取得擲回目前例外狀況的方法。

(繼承來源 Exception)

方法

Equals(Object)

判斷指定的物件是否等於目前的物件。

(繼承來源 Object)
GetBaseException()

在衍生類別中覆寫時,傳回一或多個後續的例外狀況的根本原因 Exception

(繼承來源 Exception)
GetHashCode()

做為預設雜湊函式。

(繼承來源 Object)
GetObjectData(SerializationInfo, StreamingContext)

以無效的引數值和其他例外狀況資訊設定 SerializationInfo 物件。

GetObjectData(SerializationInfo, StreamingContext)

設定具有參數名稱和額外例外狀況資訊的 SerializationInfo 物件。

(繼承來源 ArgumentException)
GetType()

取得目前執行個體的執行階段類型。

(繼承來源 Exception)
MemberwiseClone()

建立目前 Object 的淺層複製。

(繼承來源 Object)
ToString()

建立並傳回目前例外狀況的字串表示。

(繼承來源 Exception)

事件

SerializeObjectState
已過時。

當例外狀況序列化,以建立包含例外狀況相關序列化資料的例外狀況狀態物件時,就會發生此事件。

(繼承來源 Exception)

適用於

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