ArgumentOutOfRangeException ArgumentOutOfRangeException ArgumentOutOfRangeException ArgumentOutOfRangeException Class

定義

當引數值超出了叫用 (Invoke) 方法所定義值的容許範圍時所擲回的例外狀況。The exception that is thrown when the value of an argument is outside the allowable range of values as defined by the invoked method.

public ref class ArgumentOutOfRangeException : ArgumentException
[System.Runtime.InteropServices.ComVisible(true)]
[System.Serializable]
public class ArgumentOutOfRangeException : ArgumentException
type ArgumentOutOfRangeException = class
    inherit ArgumentException
    interface ISerializable
Public Class ArgumentOutOfRangeException
Inherits ArgumentException
繼承
屬性
實作

範例

下列範例會定義類別可以包含受邀的來賓的相關資訊。The following example defines a class to contain information about an invited guest. 如果客體是 21 歲ArgumentOutOfRangeException擲回例外狀況。If the guest is younger than 21, an ArgumentOutOfRangeException exception is thrown.

using System;

class Program
{
    static void Main(string[] args)
    {
        try
        {
            Guest guest1 = new Guest("Ben", "Miller", 17);
            Console.WriteLine(guest1.GuestInfo());
        }
        catch (ArgumentOutOfRangeException outOfRange)
        {

            Console.WriteLine("Error: {0}", outOfRange.Message);
        }
    }
}

class Guest
{
    private string FirstName;
    private string LastName;
    private int Age;

    public Guest(string fName, string lName, int age)
    {
        FirstName = fName;
        LastName = lName;
        if (age < 21)
            throw new ArgumentOutOfRangeException("age","All guests must be 21-years-old or older.");
        else
            Age = age;
    }

    public string GuestInfo()
    {
        string gInfo = FirstName + " " + LastName + ", " + Age.ToString();
        return(gInfo);
    }
}
Module Module1
   Public Sub Main()
       Try
           Dim guest1 As Guest = New Guest("Ben", "Miller", 17)
           Console.WriteLine(guest1.GuestInfo)
       Catch outOfRange As ArgumentOutOfRangeException
           Console.WriteLine("Error: {0}", outOfRange.Message)
       End Try
   End Sub
End Module

Class Guest
    Private FirstName As String
    Private LastName As String
    Private Age As Integer

    Public Sub New(ByVal fName As String, ByVal lName As String, ByVal age As Integer)
        MyBase.New()
        FirstName = fName
        LastName = lName
        If (age < 21) Then
            Throw New ArgumentOutOfRangeException("age", "All guests must be 21-years-old or older.")
        Else
            age = age
        End If
    End Sub

    Public Function GuestInfo() As String
        Dim gInfo As String = (FirstName + (" " _
                    + (Me.LastName + (", " + Me.Age.ToString))))
        Return gInfo
    End Function
End Class

備註

ArgumentOutOfRangeException時叫用方法,且至少其中一個傳遞給方法的引數不擲回例外狀況null和包含無效的值不是預期的引數的值集合的成員。An ArgumentOutOfRangeException exception is thrown when a method is invoked and at least one of the arguments passed to the method is not null and contains an invalid value that is not a member of the set of values expected for the argument. ParamName屬性會識別無效的引數,而ActualValue屬性,如果值存在,會識別無效的值。The ParamName property identifies the invalid argument, and the ActualValue property, if a value is present, identifies the invalid value.

一般而言,ArgumentOutOfRangeException天時,開發人員的錯誤。Typically, an ArgumentOutOfRangeException results from developer error. 而不是處理中的例外狀況try / catch區塊中,您應該刪除例外狀況的原因,或如果方法呼叫所傳回的引數或由使用者輸入才能傳遞至方法,會擲回例外狀況您應該驗證引數,再將它們傳遞至方法。Instead of handling the exception in a try/catch block, you should eliminate the cause of the exception or, if the argument is returned by a method call or input by the user before being passed to the method that throws the exception, you should validate arguments before passing them to the method.

ArgumentOutOfRangeException 經常使用:ArgumentOutOfRangeException is used extensively by:

情況ArgumentOutOfRangeException擲回例外狀況包含下列項目:The conditions in which an ArgumentOutOfRangeException exception is thrown include the following:

您要的索引編號,來擷取集合的成員和索引編號無效。You are retrieving the member of a collection by its index number, and the index number is invalid.
這是最常見的原因ArgumentOutOfRangeException例外狀況。This is the most common cause of an ArgumentOutOfRangeException exception. 通常,索引編號是無效的三個原因之一:Typically, the index number is invalid for one of three reasons:

  • 集合具有任何成員,和您的程式碼會假設它沒有。The collection has no members, and your code assumes that it does. 下列範例會嘗試擷取第一個元素的集合,其中沒有任何項目:The following example attempts to retrieve the first element of a collection that has no elements:

    using System;
    using System.Collections.Generic;
    
    public class Example
    {
       public static void Main()
       {
          var list = new List<String>();
          Console.WriteLine("Number of items: {0}", list.Count);
          try {
             Console.WriteLine("The first item: '{0}'", list[0]);
          }
          catch (ArgumentOutOfRangeException e) {
             Console.WriteLine(e.Message);
          }
       }
    }
    // The example displays the following output:
    //   Number of items: 0
    //   Index was out of range. Must be non-negative and less than the size of the collection.
    //   Parameter name: index
    
    Imports System.Collections.Generic
    
    Module Example
       Public Sub Main()
          Dim list As New List(Of String)
          Console.WriteLine("Number of items: {0}", list.Count)
          Try
             Console.WriteLine("The first item: '{0}'", list(0))
          Catch e As ArgumentOutOfRangeException
             Console.WriteLine(e.Message)
          End Try
       End Sub
    End Module
    ' The example displays the following output:
    '   Number of items: 0
    '   Index was out of range. Must be non-negative and less than the size of the collection.
    '   Parameter name: index
    

    若要避免這個例外狀況,請檢查是否在集合的Count屬性大於零,再嘗試擷取任何成員,如下列程式碼片段。To prevent the exception, check whether the collection's Count property is greater than zero before attempting to retrieve any members, as the following code fragment does.

    if (list.Count > 0)
       Console.WriteLine("The first item: '{0}'", list[0]);
    
    If list.Count > 0 Then
       Console.WriteLine("The first item: '{0}'", list(0))
    End If
    

    在某些情況下,這可能是因為您嘗試將成員新增至集合,使用索引不存在,而不是呼叫方法,例如Add,,有針對此目的。In some cases, this may occur because you are attempting to add a member to a collection by using an index that does not exist, rather than by calling the method, such as Add, that exists for this purpose. 下列範例會嘗試將項目新增至集合中,使用不存在的索引,而不是呼叫List<T>.Add方法。The following example attempts to add an element to a collection by using a non-existent index rather than calling the List<T>.Add method.

    using System;
    using System.Collections.Generic;
    
    public class Example
    {
       public static void Main()
       {
          var numbers = new List<int>();
          numbers.AddRange( new int[] { 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 20 } );
          
          var squares = new List<int>();
          for (int ctr = 0; ctr < numbers.Count; ctr++)
             squares[ctr] = (int) Math.Pow(numbers[ctr], 2); 
       }
    }
    // The example displays the following output:
    //    Unhandled Exception: System.ArgumentOutOfRangeException: Index was out of range. Must be non-negative and less than the size of the collection.
    //    Parameter name: index
    //       at System.ThrowHelper.ThrowArgumentOutOfRangeException(ExceptionArgument argument, ExceptionResource resource)
    //       at Example.Main()
    
    Imports System.Collections.Generic
    
    Module Example
       Public Sub Main()
          Dim numbers As New List(Of Integer)
          numbers.AddRange( { 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 20 } )
          
          Dim squares As New List(Of Integer)
          For ctr As Integer = 0 To numbers.Count - 1
             squares(ctr) = CInt(numbers(ctr) ^ 2) 
          Next
       End Sub
    End Module
    ' The example displays the following output:
    '    Unhandled Exception: System.ArgumentOutOfRangeException: Index was out of range. Must be non-negative and less than the size of the collection.
    '    Parameter name: index
    '       at System.ThrowHelper.ThrowArgumentOutOfRangeException(ExceptionArgument argument, ExceptionResource resource)
    '       at Example.Main()
    

    下列程式碼片段會更正這個錯誤:The following code fragment corrects this error:

    var squares = new List<int>();
    for (int ctr = 0; ctr < numbers.Count; ctr++)
       squares.Add((int) Math.Pow(numbers[ctr], 2)); 
    
    Dim squares As New List(Of Integer)
    For ctr As Integer = 0 To numbers.Count - 1
       squares.Add(CInt(numbers(ctr) ^ 2)) 
    Next
    
  • 您嘗試擷取其索引是負值的項目。You're attempting to retrieve an item whose index is negative. 這通常是因為您搜尋特定項目的索引集合,錯誤地假設搜尋已成功。This usually occurs because you've searched a collection for the index of a particular element and have erroneously assumed that the search is successful. 在下列範例中,呼叫List<T>.FindIndex(Predicate<T>)方法無法找到字串等於"Z",因此會傳回-1。In the following example, the call to the List<T>.FindIndex(Predicate<T>) method fails to find a string equal to "Z" and so returns -1. 不過,這是無效的索引值。However, this is an invalid index value.

    using System;
    using System.Collections.Generic;
    
    public class Example
    {
       public static void Main()
       {
          var list = new List<String>(); 
          list.AddRange( new String[] { "A", "B", "C" } );
          // Get the index of the element whose value is "Z".
          int index = list.FindIndex((new StringSearcher("Z")).FindEquals);
          try {
             Console.WriteLine("Index {0} contains '{1}'", index, list[index]); 
          }
          catch (ArgumentOutOfRangeException e) {
             Console.WriteLine(e.Message);
          }
       }
    }
    
    internal class StringSearcher
    {
       String value;
       
       public StringSearcher(String value)
       {
          this.value = value;
       }
       
       public bool FindEquals(String s) 
       {
          return s.Equals(value, StringComparison.InvariantCulture); 
       }
    }
    // The example displays the following output:
    //   Index was out of range. Must be non-negative and less than the size of the collection.
    //   Parameter name: index
    
    Imports System.Collections.Generic
    
    Module Example
       Public Sub Main()
          Dim list As New List(Of String) 
          list.AddRange( { "A", "B", "C" } )
          ' Get the index of the element whose value is "Z".
          Dim index As Integer = list.FindIndex(AddressOf (New StringSearcher("Z")).FindEquals)
          Try
             Console.WriteLine("Index {0} contains '{1}'", index, list(index)) 
          Catch e As ArgumentOutOfRangeException
             Console.WriteLine(e.Message)
          End Try
       End Sub
    End Module
    
    Friend Class StringSearcher
       Dim value As String
       
       Public Sub New(value As String)
          Me.value = value
       End Sub
       
       Public Function FindEquals(s As String) As Boolean
          Return s.Equals(value, StringComparison.InvariantCulture) 
       End Function
    End Class
    ' The example displays the following output:
    '   Index was out of range. Must be non-negative and less than the size of the collection.
    '   Parameter name: index
    

    若要避免這個例外狀況,請檢查確定傳回的索引大於或等於零,再嘗試從集合擷取項目,如以下程式碼片段會搜尋已成功。To prevent the exception, check that the search is successful by making sure that the returned index is greater than or equal to zero before attempting to retrieve the item from the collection, as the following code fragment does.

    // Get the index of the element whose value is "Z".
    int index = list.FindIndex((new StringSearcher("Z")).FindEquals);
    if (index >= 0)
       Console.WriteLine("'Z' is found at index {0}", list[index]); 
    
    ' Get the index of the element whose value is "Z".
    Dim index As Integer = list.FindIndex(AddressOf (New StringSearcher("Z")).FindEquals)
    If index >= 0 Then
       Console.WriteLine("Index {0} contains '{1}'", index, list(index)) 
    End If
    
  • 您嘗試擷取其索引為集合的值相等的項目Count屬性,如下列範例說明。You're attempting to retrieve an element whose index is equal to the value of the collection's Count property, as the following example illustrates.

    using System;
    using System.Collections.Generic;
    
    public class Example
    {
       public static void Main()
       {
          var list = new List<String>(); 
          list.AddRange( new String[] { "A", "B", "C" } );
          try {
             // Display the elements in the list by index.
             for (int ctr = 0; ctr <= list.Count; ctr++) 
                Console.WriteLine("Index {0}: {1}", ctr, list[ctr]);
          } 
          catch (ArgumentOutOfRangeException e) {
             Console.WriteLine(e.Message);
          }
       }
    }
    // The example displays the following output:
    //   Index 0: A
    //   Index 1: B
    //   Index 2: C
    //   Index was out of range. Must be non-negative and less than the size of the collection.
    //   Parameter name: index
    
    Imports System.Collections.Generic
    
    Module Example
       Public Sub Main()
          Dim list As New List(Of String) 
          list.AddRange( { "A", "B", "C" } )
          Try
             ' Display the elements in the list by index.
             For ctr As Integer = 0 To list.Count 
                Console.WriteLine("Index {0}: {1}", ctr, list(ctr)) 
             Next   
          Catch e As ArgumentOutOfRangeException
             Console.WriteLine(e.Message)
          End Try
       End Sub
    End Module
    ' The example displays the following output:
    '   Index 0: A
    '   Index 1: B
    '   Index 2: C
    '   Index was out of range. Must be non-negative and less than the size of the collection.
    '   Parameter name: index
    

    因為.NET Framework 中的集合會使用以零為起始的索引,集合的第一個元素位於索引 0,而且最後一個元素位於索引Count-1。Because collections in the .NET Framework use zero-based indexing, the first element of the collection is at index 0, and the last element is at index Count - 1. 您可以讓您存取索引處的最後一個元素,以避免錯誤Count-1,如下列程式碼。You can eliminate the error by ensuring that you access the last element at index Count - 1, as the following code does.

    // Display the elements in the list by index.
    for (int ctr = 0; ctr < list.Count; ctr++) 
       Console.WriteLine("Index {0}: {1}", ctr, list[ctr]);
    
    ' Display the elements in the list by index.
    For ctr As Integer = 0 To list.Count - 1 
       Console.WriteLine("Index {0}: {1}", ctr, list(ctr)) 
    Next   
    

您嘗試呼叫字串操作方法,來執行字串作業,並在字串中沒有起始的索引。You are attempting to perform a string operation by calling a string manipulation method, and the starting index does not exist in the string.
例如這類方法的多載String.CompareString.CompareOrdinalString.IndexOfIndexOfAnyString.InsertString.LastIndexOfString.LastIndexOfAnyRemove,或String.Substring,可讓您指定的起始索引作業都需要索引字串內的有效位置。Overloads of methods such as such as String.Compare, String.CompareOrdinal, String.IndexOf, IndexOfAny, String.Insert, String.LastIndexOf, String.LastIndexOfAny, Remove, or String.Substring that allow you to specify the starting index of the operation require that the index be a valid position within the string. 有效索引範圍從 0 到String.Length-1。Valid indexes range from 0 to String.Length - 1.

有四個常見的原因,這個ArgumentOutOfRangeException例外狀況:There are four common causes of this ArgumentOutOfRangeException exception:

  • 您正在使用空字串,或String.EmptyYou are working with an empty string, or String.Empty. 因為其String.Length屬性會傳回 0,操作索引會擲回的任何嘗試ArgumentOutOfRangeException例外狀況。Because its String.Length property returns 0, any attempt to manipulate it by index throws an ArgumentOutOfRangeException exception. 下列範例中,定義GetFirstCharacter方法會傳回字串的第一個字元。The following example, defines a GetFirstCharacter method that returns the first character of a string. 如果字串是空的最終字串傳遞至方法,方法會擲回ArgumentOutOfRangeException例外狀況。If the string is empty, as the final string passed to the method is, the method throws an ArgumentOutOfRangeException exception.

    using System;
    
    public class Example
    {
       public static void Main()
       {
           String[] words = { "the", "today", "tomorrow", " ", "" };
           foreach (var word in words)
              Console.WriteLine("First character of '{0}': '{1}'", 
                                word, GetFirstCharacter(word));
       }
       
       private static char GetFirstCharacter(String s)
       {
          return s[0];
       }
    }
    // The example displays the following output:
    //    First character of //the//: //t//
    //    First character of //today//: //t//
    //    First character of //tomorrow//: //t//
    //    First character of // //: // //
    //    
    //    Unhandled Exception: System.IndexOutOfRangeException: Index was outside the bounds of the array.
    //       at Example.Main()
    
    Module Example
       Public Sub Main()
           Dim words() As String = { "the", "today", "tomorrow", " ", "" }
           For Each word In words
              Console.WriteLine("First character of '{0}': '{1}'", 
                                word, GetFirstCharacter(word))
           Next                     
       End Sub
       
       Private Function GetFirstCharacter(s As String) As Char
          Return s(0)
       End Function
    End Module
    ' The example displays the following output:
    '    First character of 'the': 't'
    '    First character of 'today': 't'
    '    First character of 'tomorrow': 't'
    '    First character of ' ': ' '
    '    
    '    Unhandled Exception: System.IndexOutOfRangeException: Index was outside the bounds of the array.
    '       at Example.Main()
    

    您可以藉由測試來消除例外狀況是否的字串String.Length大於零,或藉由呼叫IsNullOrEmpty方法,以確保字串不是null或空白。You can eliminate the exception by testing whether the string's String.Length is greater than zero or by calling the IsNullOrEmpty method to ensure that the string is not null or empty. 下列程式碼片段會執行第二個項目。The following code fragment does the latter. 在此情況下,該字串是否null或空的GetFirstCharacter方法會傳回 u+0000。In this case, if the string is null or empty, the GetFirstCharacter method returns U+0000.

    static char GetFirstCharacter(String s)
    {
       if (String.IsNullOrEmpty(s)) 
          return '\u0000';
       else   
          return s[0];
    }
    
    Function GetFirstCharacter(s As String) As Char
       If String.IsNullOrEmpty(s) Then 
          Return ChrW(0)
       Else   
          Return s(0)
       End If   
    End Function
    
  • 裡面的字串,該字串,內子字串的位置為基礎,您已無法判斷是否已確實找到子字串。You're manipulating a string based on the position of a substring within that string, and you've failed to determine whether the substring was actually found.

    下列範例會擷取兩個字片語的第二個文字。The following example extracts the second word of a two-word phrase. 它會擲回ArgumentOutOfRangeException片語和組成只有一個字,因此不包含內嵌的空格字元,如果例外狀況。It throws an ArgumentOutOfRangeException exception if the phrase consists of only one word, and therefore does not contain an embedded space character. 這是因為呼叫String.IndexOf(String)方法會傳回-1,表示搜尋失敗,而且這個無效的值再傳遞給String.Substring(Int32)方法。This occurs because the call to the String.IndexOf(String) method returns -1 to indicate that the search failed, and this invalid value is then passed to the String.Substring(Int32) method.

    using System;
    
    public class Example
    {
       public static void Main()
       {
          String[] phrases = { "ocean blue", "concerned citizen", 
                               "runOnPhrase" };
          foreach (var phrase in phrases)
             Console.WriteLine("Second word is {0}", GetSecondWord(phrase));
       }
      
       static String GetSecondWord(String s)
       {
          int pos = s.IndexOf(" ");
          return s.Substring(pos).Trim();
       }
    }
    // The example displays the following output:
    //    Second word is blue
    //    Second word is citizen
    //    
    //    Unhandled Exception: System.ArgumentOutOfRangeException: StartIndex cannot be less than zero.
    //    Parameter name: startIndex
    //       at System.String.Substring(Int32 startIndex, Int32 length)
    //       at Example.GetSecondWord(String s)
    //       at Example.Main()
    
    Module Example
       Public Sub Main()
          Dim phrases() As String = { "ocean blue", "concerned citizen", 
                                      "runOnPhrase" }
          For Each phrase In phrases
             Console.WriteLine("Second word is {0}", GetSecondWord(phrase))
          Next                            
      End Sub
      
      Function GetSecondWord(s As String) As String
         Dim pos As Integer = s.IndexOf(" ")
         Return s.Substring(pos).Trim()
      End Function
    End Module
    ' The example displays the following output:
    '       Second word is blue
    '       Second word is citizen
    '       
    '       Unhandled Exception: System.ArgumentOutOfRangeException: StartIndex cannot be less than zero.
    '       Parameter name: startIndex
    '          at System.String.Substring(Int32 startIndex, Int32 length)
    '          at Example.GetSecondWord(String s)
    '          at Example.Main()
    

    若要排除例外狀況,驗證字串搜尋方法之前呼叫的字串操作方法傳回的值。To eliminate the exception, validate the value returned by the string search method before calling the string manipulation method.

    using System;
    
    public class Example
    {
       public static void Main()
       {
          String[] phrases = { "ocean blue", "concerned citizen", 
                               "runOnPhrase" };
          foreach (var phrase in phrases) {
             String word = GetSecondWord(phrase);
             if (! String.IsNullOrEmpty(word))
                Console.WriteLine("Second word is {0}", word);
          }   
       }
      
       static String GetSecondWord(String s)
       {
          int pos = s.IndexOf(" ");
          if (pos >= 0)
             return s.Substring(pos).Trim();
          else
             return String.Empty;   
       }
    }
    // The example displays the following output:
    //       Second word is blue
    //       Second word is citizen
    
    Module Example
       Public Sub Main()
          Dim phrases() As String = { "ocean blue", "concerned citizen", 
                                      "runOnPhrase" }
          For Each phrase In phrases
             Dim word As String = GetSecondWord(phrase)
             If Not String.IsNullOrEmpty(word) Then _
                Console.WriteLine("Second word is {0}", word)
          Next                            
       End Sub
      
       Function GetSecondWord(s As String) As String
          Dim pos As Integer = s.IndexOf(" ")
          If pos >= 0
              Return s.Substring(pos).Trim()
          Else
             Return String.Empty
          End If
      End Function
    End Module
    ' The example displays the following output:
    '       Second word is blue
    '       Second word is citizen
    
  • 您已嘗試擷取目前字串的範圍之外的子字串。You've attempted to extract a substring that is outside the range of the current string.
    擷取所有需要您指定的子字串,並不會繼續的子字串中的字元數的字串結尾的子字串的開始位置的子字串的方法。The methods that extract substrings all require that you specify the starting position of the substring and, for substrings that do not continue to the end of the string, the number of characters in the substring. 請注意,這不是index子字串中的最後一個字元。Note that this is not the index of the last character in the substring.

ArgumentOutOfRangeException例外狀況通常是因為擲回在此情況下計算您所不正確的子字串中的字元數。An ArgumentOutOfRangeException exception is typically thrown in this case because you've incorrectly calculated the number of characters in the substring. 如果您使用的搜尋方法,例如String.IndexOf找出的起始和結束位置的子字串:If you are using a search method like String.IndexOf to identify the starting and ending positions of a substring:

  • 如果所傳回的結束位置中的字元String.IndexOf是指要包含在子字串中,公式所指定的子字串的結束位置If the character in the ending position returned by String.IndexOf is to be included in the substring, the ending position of the substring is given by the formula

    endIndex - startIndex + 1  
    
  • 如果所傳回的結束位置中的字元String.IndexOf要排除的子字串,從公式所指定的子字串的結束位置If the character in the ending position returned by String.IndexOf is to be excluded from the substring, the ending position of the substring is given by the formula

    endIndex - startIndex   
    

下列範例會定義FindWords方法,以使用String.IndexOfAny(Char[], Int32)方法,以識別空白字元和標點符號標記字串中,並傳回陣列,其中包含字串中找到的單字。The following example defines a FindWords method that uses the String.IndexOfAny(Char[], Int32) method to identify space characters and punctuation marks in a string and returns an array that contains the words found in the string.

using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;

public class Example
{
   public static void Main()
   {
      String sentence = "This is a simple, short sentence.";
      Console.WriteLine("Words in '{0}':", sentence);
      foreach (var word in FindWords(sentence))
         Console.WriteLine("   '{0}'", word);
   }
   
   static String[] FindWords(String s)
   {
      int start = 0, end = 0;
      Char[] delimiters = { ' ', '.', ',', ';', ':', '(', ')' };
      var words = new List<String>();

      while (end >= 0) {
         end = s.IndexOfAny(delimiters, start);
         if (end >= 0) {
            if (end - start > 0)
               words.Add(s.Substring(start, end - start)); 

            start = end++;
         }
         else {
            if (start < s.Length - 1)
               words.Add(s.Substring(start));
         }
      }    
      return words.ToArray();                         
   }
}
// The example displays the following output:
//       Words in 'This is a simple, short sentence.':
//          'This'
//          'is'
//          'a'
//          'simple'
//          'short'
//          'sentence'
Imports System.Collections.Generic

Module Example
   Public Sub Main()
      Dim sentence As String = "This is a simple, short sentence."
      Console.WriteLine("Words in '{0}':", sentence)
      For Each word In FindWords(sentence)
         Console.WriteLine("   '{0}'", word)
      Next
   End Sub
   
   Function FindWords(s As String) As String()
      Dim start, ending As Integer
      Dim delimiters() As Char = { " "c, "."c, ","c, ";"c, ":"c,
                                   "("c, ")"c }
      Dim words As New List(Of String)()

      Do While ending >= 0
         ending = s.IndexOfAny(delimiters, start)
         If ending >= 0
            If ending - start > 0 Then
               words.Add(s.Substring(start, ending - start)) 
            End If
            start = ending + 1
         Else
            If start < s.Length - 1 Then
               words.Add(s.Substring(start))
            End If      
         End If
      Loop    
      Return words.ToArray()                         
   End Function
End Module
' The example displays the following output:
'       Words in 'This is a simple, short sentence.':
'          'This'
'          'is'
'          'a'
'          'simple'
'          'short'
'          'sentence'

負數的數字給方法的引數,只需要正數和零,或經過為負數或零到需要只正數的引數的方法。You have passed a negative number to a method with an argument that requires only positive numbers and zero, or you have passed either a negative number or zero to a method with an argument that requires only positive numbers.
例如,Array.CreateInstance(Type, Int32, Int32, Int32)方法會要求您指定的項目數的二維陣列的每個維度中; 每個維度的有效值的範圍從 0 到Int32.MaxValueFor example, the Array.CreateInstance(Type, Int32, Int32, Int32) method requires that you specify the number of elements in each dimension of a two-dimensional array; valid values for each dimension can range from 0 to Int32.MaxValue. 但因為維度引數,在下列範例中的值是負數,方法會擲回ArgumentOutOfRangeException例外狀況。But because the dimension argument in the following example has a negative value, the method throws an ArgumentOutOfRangeException exception.

using System;

public class Example
{
   public static void Main()
   {
      int dimension1 = 10;
      int dimension2 = -1;
      try {
         Array arr = Array.CreateInstance(typeof(String), 
                                          dimension1, dimension2);
      }
      catch (ArgumentOutOfRangeException e) {
         if (e.ActualValue != null)
            Console.WriteLine("{0} is an invalid value for {1}: ", e.ActualValue, e.ParamName);
         Console.WriteLine(e.Message);
      }
   }
}
// The example displays the following output:
//     Non-negative number required.
//     Parameter name: length2
Module Example
   Public Sub Main()
      Dim dimension1 As Integer = 10
      Dim dimension2 As Integer = -1
      Try
         Dim arr AS Array = Array.CreateInstance(GetType(String), 
                                                 dimension1, dimension2)
      Catch e As ArgumentOutOfRangeException
         If e.ActualValue IsNot Nothing Then
            Console.WriteLine("{0} is an invalid value for {1}: ", 
                              e.ActualValue, e.ParamName)
         End If                     
         Console.WriteLine(e.Message)
      End Try
   End Sub
End Module
' The example displays the following output:
'     Non-negative number required.
'     Parameter name: length2

若要更正錯誤,請確定無效的引數的值為非負數。To correct the error, ensure that the value of the invalid argument is non-negative. 您可以藉由提供有效的值,如下列程式碼片段。You can do this by providing a valid value, as the following code fragment does.

int dimension1 = 10;
int dimension2 = 10;
Array arr = Array.CreateInstance(typeof(String), 
                                 dimension1, dimension2);   
Dim dimension1 As Integer = 10
Dim dimension2 As Integer = 10
Dim arr As Array = Array.CreateInstance(GetType(String), 
                                        dimension1, dimension2)   

您可以也驗證輸入,如果它是無效的採取某些動作。You can also validate the input and, if it is invalid, take some action. 下列程式碼片段會顯示一則錯誤訊息而不是呼叫方法。The following code fragment displays an error message instead of calling the method.

if (dimension1 < 0 || dimension2 < 0) {
   Console.WriteLine("Unable to create the array.");
   Console.WriteLine("Specify non-negative values for the two dimensions.");
}   
else {
   arr = Array.CreateInstance(typeof(String), 
                              dimension1, dimension2);   
}
If dimension1 < 0 OrElse dimension2 < 0 Then
   Console.WriteLine("Unable to create the array.")
   Console.WriteLine("Specify non-negative values for the two dimensions.")
Else
   arr = Array.CreateInstance(GetType(String), 
                              dimension1, dimension2)   
End If

應用程式是多執行緒或工作,以非同步方式執行,並更新陣列或集合中出現競爭情形。A race condition exists in an app that is multithreaded or has tasks that execute asynchronously and that updates an array or collection.
下列範例會使用List<T>要填入集合物件Continent物件。The following example uses a List<T> object to populate a collection of Continent objects. 它會擲回ArgumentOutOfRangeException如果範例會嘗試將完全填入集合之前,顯示 7 個項目集合中的例外狀況。It throws an ArgumentOutOfRangeException exception if the example attempts to display the seven items in the collection before the collection is fully populated.

using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;
using System.Threading;

public class Continent
{
   public String Name { get; set; }
   public int Population { get; set; }
   public Decimal Area { get; set; }   
}

public class Example
{
   static List<Continent> continents = new List<Continent>();
   static String msg; 
   
   public static void Main()
   {
      String[] names = { "Africa", "Antarctica", "Asia", 
                         "Australia", "Europe", "North America",
                         "South America" };
      // Populate the list.
      foreach (var name in names) {
         var th = new Thread(PopulateContinents);
         th.Start(name);
      }              
      Console.WriteLine(msg);
      Console.WriteLine();

      // Display the list.
      for (int ctr = 0; ctr < names.Length; ctr++) {
         var continent = continents[ctr];
         Console.WriteLine("{0}: Area: {1}, Population {2}", 
                           continent.Name, continent.Population,
                           continent.Area);
      }
   }
   
   private static void PopulateContinents(Object obj)
   {
      String name = obj.ToString();
      msg += String.Format("Adding '{0}' to the list.\n", name);
      var continent = new Continent();
      continent.Name = name;
      // Sleep to simulate retrieving remaining data.
      Thread.Sleep(50);
      continents.Add(continent);
   }
}
// The example displays output like the following:
//    Adding //Africa// to the list.
//    Adding //Antarctica// to the list.
//    Adding //Asia// to the list.
//    Adding //Australia// to the list.
//    Adding //Europe// to the list.
//    Adding //North America// to the list.
//    Adding //South America// to the list.
//    
//    
//    
//    Unhandled Exception: System.ArgumentOutOfRangeException: Index was out of range. Must be non-negative and less than the size of the collection.
//    Parameter name: index
//       at System.ThrowHelper.ThrowArgumentOutOfRangeException(ExceptionArgument argument, ExceptionResource resource)
//       at Example.Main()
Imports System.Collections.Generic
Imports System.Threading

Public Class Continent
   Public Property Name As String
   Public Property Population As Integer
   Public Property Area As Decimal  
End Class

Module Example
   Dim continents As New List(Of Continent)
   Dim msg As String 
      
   Public Sub Main()
      Dim names() As String = { "Africa", "Antarctica", "Asia", 
                                     "Australia", "Europe", "North America",
                                     "South America" }
      ' Populate the list.
      For Each name In names
         Dim th As New Thread(AddressOf PopulateContinents)
         th.Start(name)
      Next              
      Console.WriteLine(msg)
      Console.WriteLine()

      ' Display the list.
      For ctr As Integer = 0 To names.Length - 1
         Dim continent = continents(ctr)
         Console.WriteLine("{0}: Area: {1}, Population {2}", 
                           continent.Name, continent.Population,
                           continent.Area)
      Next
   End Sub
   
   Private Sub PopulateContinents(obj As Object)
      Dim name As String = obj.ToString()
      msg += String.Format("Adding '{0}' to the list.{1}", name, vbCrLf)
      Dim continent As New Continent()
      continent.Name = name
      ' Sleep to simulate retrieving remaining data.
      Thread.Sleep(50)
      continents.Add(continent)
   End Sub
End Module
' The example displays output like the following:
'    Adding 'Africa' to the list.
'    Adding 'Antarctica' to the list.
'    Adding 'Asia' to the list.
'    Adding 'Australia' to the list.
'    Adding 'Europe' to the list.
'    Adding 'North America' to the list.
'    Adding 'South America' to the list.
'    
'    
'    
'    Unhandled Exception: System.ArgumentOutOfRangeException: Index was out of range. Must be non-negative and less than the size of the collection.
'    Parameter name: index
'       at System.ThrowHelper.ThrowArgumentOutOfRangeException(ExceptionArgument argument, ExceptionResource resource)
'       at Example.Main()

在此情況下,從多個執行緒存取兩個資源:In this case, two resources are accessed from multiple threads:

  • continents 集合。The continents collection. List<T>.Add從多個執行緒呼叫方法。Its List<T>.Add method is called from multiple threads. 此外,主要執行緒會假設它會逐一查看其成員時,內含七個元素完全填入集合。In addition, the main or primary thread assumes the collection is fully populated with seven elements when it iterates its members.

  • msg從多個執行緒會串連的字串。The msg string, which is concatenated from multiple threads.

若要更正錯誤,請確定共用的狀態以執行緒安全的方式,在中,如下所示存取。To correct the error, ensure that shared state is accessed in a thread-safe way, as follows.

  • 如果您的應用程式會使用陣列或集合的物件,請考慮使用安全執行緒集合類別,例如中的型別System.Collections.Concurrent命名空間或System.Collections.Immutable外的頻外版本。if your app uses an array or collection object, consider using a thread-safe collection class, such as the types in the System.Collections.Concurrent namespace or the System.Collections.Immutable out-of-band release.

  • 確定共用的狀態 (亦即,資源可以由多個執行緒存取) 存取具備執行緒安全的方式,以便一次只有一個執行緒擁有資源的獨佔存取權。Ensure that shared state (that is, resources that can be accessed by multiple threads) is accessed in a thread-safe way, so that only one thread at a time has exclusive access to the resources. 大量的類別,例如CountdownEventInterlockedMonitor,和Mutex,可用來同步處理資源的存取權。A large number of classes, such as CountdownEvent, Interlocked, Monitor, and Mutex, are available to synchronize access to resources. 如需詳細資訊,請參閱 < 執行緒For more information, see Threading. 此外,語言支援是透過鎖定C# 中的陳述式並SyncLock建構在 Visual Basic 中。In addition, language support is available through the lock statement in C# and the SyncLock construct in Visual Basic.

下列範例位址ArgumentOutOfRangeException例外狀況和上一個範例中的其他問題。The following example addresses the ArgumentOutOfRangeException exception and the other issues from the previous example. 它會取代List<T>物件ConcurrentBag<T>物件,以確定對集合的存取是安全執行緒,會使用CountdownEvent物件,以確定應用程式執行緒會繼續其他執行緒已執行,並使用鎖定來確保之後,才只有一個執行緒可以存取msg變數一次。It replaces the List<T> object with a ConcurrentBag<T> object to ensure that access to the collection is thread-safe, uses a CountdownEvent object to ensure that the application thread continues only after other threads have executed, and uses a lock to ensure that only one thread can access the msg variable at a time.

using System;
using System.Collections.Concurrent;
using System.Threading;

public class Continent
{
   public String Name { get; set; }
   public int Population { get; set; }
   public Decimal Area { get; set; }   
}

public class Example
{
   static ConcurrentBag<Continent> continents = new ConcurrentBag<Continent>();
   static CountdownEvent gate;
   static String msg = String.Empty;

   public static void Main()
   {
      String[] names = { "Africa", "Antarctica", "Asia", 
                         "Australia", "Europe", "North America",
                         "South America" };
      gate = new CountdownEvent(names.Length);
      
      // Populate the list.
      foreach (var name in names) {
         var th = new Thread(PopulateContinents);
         th.Start(name);
      }              

      // Display the list.
      gate.Wait();
      Console.WriteLine(msg);
      Console.WriteLine();

      var arr = continents.ToArray();
      for (int ctr = 0; ctr < names.Length; ctr++) {
         var continent = arr[ctr];
         Console.WriteLine("{0}: Area: {1}, Population {2}", 
                           continent.Name, continent.Population,
                           continent.Area);
      }
   }
   
   private static void PopulateContinents(Object obj)
   {
      String name = obj.ToString();
      lock(msg) { 
         msg += String.Format("Adding '{0}' to the list.\n", name);
      }
      var continent = new Continent();
      continent.Name = name;
      // Sleep to simulate retrieving remaining data.
      Thread.Sleep(25);
      continents.Add(continent);
      gate.Signal();
   }
}
// The example displays output like the following:
//       Adding 'Africa' to the list.
//       Adding 'Antarctica' to the list.
//       Adding 'Asia' to the list.
//       Adding 'Australia' to the list.
//       Adding 'Europe' to the list.
//       Adding 'North America' to the list.
//       Adding 'South America' to the list.
//       
//       
//       Africa: Area: 0, Population 0
//       Antarctica: Area: 0, Population 0
//       Asia: Area: 0, Population 0
//       Australia: Area: 0, Population 0
//       Europe: Area: 0, Population 0
//       North America: Area: 0, Population 0
//       South America: Area: 0, Population 0
Imports System.Collections.Concurrent
Imports System.Threading

Public Class Continent
   Public Property Name As String
   Public Property Population As Integer
   Public Property Area As Decimal  
End Class

Module Example
   Dim continents As New ConcurrentBag(Of Continent)
   Dim gate As CountdownEvent
   Dim msg As String = String.Empty
      
   Public Sub Main()
      Dim names() As String = { "Africa", "Antarctica", "Asia", 
                                "Australia", "Europe", "North America",
                                "South America" }
      gate = new CountdownEvent(names.Length)
      
      ' Populate the list.
      For Each name In names
         Dim th As New Thread(AddressOf PopulateContinents)
         th.Start(name)
      Next              

      ' Display the list.
      gate.Wait()
      Console.WriteLine(msg)
      Console.WriteLine()

      For ctr As Integer = 0 To names.Length - 1
         Dim continent = continents(ctr)
         Console.WriteLine("{0}: Area: {1}, Population {2}", 
                           continent.Name, continent.Population,
                           continent.Area)
      Next
   End Sub
   
   Private Sub PopulateContinents(obj As Object)
      Dim name As String = obj.ToString()
      SyncLock msg 
         msg += String.Format("Adding '{0}' to the list.{1}", name, vbCrLf)
      End SyncLock
      Dim continent As New Continent()
      continent.Name = name
      ' Sleep to simulate retrieving remaining data.
      Thread.Sleep(25)
      continents.Add(continent)
      gate.Signal()
   End Sub
End Module
' The example displays output like the following:
'    Adding 'Africa' to the list.
'    Adding 'Antarctica' to the list.
'    Adding 'Asia' to the list.
'    Adding 'Australia' to the list.
'    Adding 'Europe' to the list.
'    Adding 'North America' to the list.
'    Adding 'South America' to the list.
'    
'    
'    Africa: Area: 0, Population 0
'    Antarctica: Area: 0, Population 0
'    Asia: Area: 0, Population 0
'    Australia: Area: 0, Population 0
'    Europe: Area: 0, Population 0
'    North America: Area: 0, Population 0
'    South America: Area: 0, Population 0

ArgumentOutOfRangeException 會使用 HRESULT COR_E_ARGUMENTOUTOFRANGE,其值 0x80131502。ArgumentOutOfRangeException uses the HRESULT COR_E_ARGUMENTOUTOFRANGE, which has the value 0x80131502.

如需執行個體的初始屬性值的清單ArgumentOutOfRangeException,請參閱ArgumentOutOfRangeException建構函式。For a list of initial property values for an instance of ArgumentOutOfRangeException, see the ArgumentOutOfRangeException constructors.

建構函式

ArgumentOutOfRangeException() ArgumentOutOfRangeException() ArgumentOutOfRangeException() ArgumentOutOfRangeException()

初始化 ArgumentOutOfRangeException 類別的新執行個體。Initializes a new instance of the ArgumentOutOfRangeException class.

ArgumentOutOfRangeException(SerializationInfo, StreamingContext) ArgumentOutOfRangeException(SerializationInfo, StreamingContext) ArgumentOutOfRangeException(SerializationInfo, StreamingContext) ArgumentOutOfRangeException(SerializationInfo, StreamingContext)

使用序列化資料,初始化 ArgumentOutOfRangeException 類別的新執行個體。Initializes a new instance of the ArgumentOutOfRangeException class with serialized data.

ArgumentOutOfRangeException(String) ArgumentOutOfRangeException(String) ArgumentOutOfRangeException(String) ArgumentOutOfRangeException(String)

使用造成這個例外狀況的參數名稱來初始化 ArgumentOutOfRangeException 類別的新執行個體。Initializes a new instance of the ArgumentOutOfRangeException class with the name of the parameter that causes this exception.

ArgumentOutOfRangeException(String, Exception) ArgumentOutOfRangeException(String, Exception) ArgumentOutOfRangeException(String, Exception) ArgumentOutOfRangeException(String, Exception)

使用指定的錯誤訊息和造成這個例外狀況的例外狀況,初始化 ArgumentOutOfRangeException 類別的新執行個體。Initializes a new instance of the ArgumentOutOfRangeException class with a specified error message and the exception that is the cause of this exception.

ArgumentOutOfRangeException(String, Object, String) ArgumentOutOfRangeException(String, Object, String) ArgumentOutOfRangeException(String, Object, String) ArgumentOutOfRangeException(String, Object, String)

使用參數名稱引數值和指定的錯誤訊息,初始化 ArgumentOutOfRangeException 類別的新執行個體。Initializes a new instance of the ArgumentOutOfRangeException class with the parameter name, the value of the argument, and a specified error message.

ArgumentOutOfRangeException(String, String) ArgumentOutOfRangeException(String, String) ArgumentOutOfRangeException(String, String) ArgumentOutOfRangeException(String, String)

使用造成這個例外狀況的參數名稱和指定的錯誤訊息,初始化 ArgumentOutOfRangeException 類別的新執行個體。Initializes a new instance of the ArgumentOutOfRangeException class with the name of the parameter that causes this exception and a specified error message.

屬性

ActualValue ActualValue ActualValue ActualValue

取得造成這個例外狀況的引數值。Gets the argument value that causes this exception.

Data Data Data Data

取得提供例外狀況之其他使用者定義相關資訊的索引鍵/值組集合。Gets a collection of key/value pairs that provide additional user-defined information about the exception.

(Inherited from Exception)
HelpLink HelpLink HelpLink HelpLink

取得或設定與這個例外狀況相關聯的說明檔連結。Gets or sets a link to the help file associated with this exception.

(Inherited from Exception)
HResult HResult HResult HResult

取得或設定 HRESULT,它是指派給特定例外狀況的編碼數值。Gets or sets HRESULT, a coded numerical value that is assigned to a specific exception.

(Inherited from Exception)
InnerException InnerException InnerException InnerException

取得造成目前例外狀況的 Exception 執行個體。Gets the Exception instance that caused the current exception.

(Inherited from Exception)
Message Message Message Message

取得錯誤訊息和無效引數值的字串表示,或如果引數值是 null 時,只取得錯誤訊息。Gets the error message and the string representation of the invalid argument value, or only the error message if the argument value is null.

ParamName ParamName ParamName ParamName

取得造成這個例外狀況的參數名稱。Gets the name of the parameter that causes this exception.

(Inherited from ArgumentException)
Source Source Source Source

取得或設定造成錯誤的應用程式或物件的名稱。Gets or sets the name of the application or the object that causes the error.

(Inherited from Exception)
StackTrace StackTrace StackTrace StackTrace

取得呼叫堆疊上即時運算框架的字串表示。Gets a string representation of the immediate frames on the call stack.

(Inherited from Exception)
TargetSite TargetSite TargetSite TargetSite

取得擲回目前例外狀況的方法。Gets the method that throws the current exception.

(Inherited from Exception)

方法

Equals(Object) Equals(Object) Equals(Object) Equals(Object)

判斷指定的物件是否等於目前的物件。Determines whether the specified object is equal to the current object.

(Inherited from Object)
GetBaseException() GetBaseException() GetBaseException() GetBaseException()

在衍生類別中覆寫時,傳回一或多個後續的例外狀況的根本原因 ExceptionWhen overridden in a derived class, returns the Exception that is the root cause of one or more subsequent exceptions.

(Inherited from Exception)
GetHashCode() GetHashCode() GetHashCode() GetHashCode()

做為預設雜湊函式。Serves as the default hash function.

(Inherited from Object)
GetObjectData(SerializationInfo, StreamingContext) GetObjectData(SerializationInfo, StreamingContext) GetObjectData(SerializationInfo, StreamingContext) GetObjectData(SerializationInfo, StreamingContext)

以無效的引數值和其他例外狀況資訊設定 SerializationInfo 物件。Sets the SerializationInfo object with the invalid argument value and additional exception information.

GetType() GetType() GetType() GetType()

取得目前執行個體的執行階段類型。Gets the runtime type of the current instance.

(Inherited from Exception)
MemberwiseClone() MemberwiseClone() MemberwiseClone() MemberwiseClone()

建立目前 Object 的淺層複製。Creates a shallow copy of the current Object.

(Inherited from Object)
ToString() ToString() ToString() ToString()

建立並傳回目前例外狀況的字串表示。Creates and returns a string representation of the current exception.

(Inherited from Exception)

事件

SerializeObjectState SerializeObjectState SerializeObjectState SerializeObjectState

當例外狀況序列化,以建立包含例外狀況相關序列化資料的例外狀況狀態物件時,就會發生此事件。Occurs when an exception is serialized to create an exception state object that contains serialized data about the exception.

(Inherited from Exception)

適用於

另請參閱