BindingFlags BindingFlags BindingFlags BindingFlags Enum

定義

指定控制繫結的旗標和由反映執行的成員和類型搜尋方式。Specifies flags that control binding and the way in which the search for members and types is conducted by reflection.

此列舉具有 FlagsAttribute 個屬性允許以位元方式合併其成員值。

public enum class BindingFlags
[System.Flags]
[System.Runtime.InteropServices.ComVisible(true)]
[System.Serializable]
public enum BindingFlags
type BindingFlags = 
Public Enum BindingFlags
繼承
屬性

欄位

CreateInstance CreateInstance CreateInstance CreateInstance 512

指定反映應該建立指定類型的執行個體。Specifies that reflection should create an instance of the specified type. 呼叫符合指定引數的建構函式。Calls the constructor that matches the given arguments. 所提供的成員名稱會被忽略。The supplied member name is ignored. 如果未指定查閱類型,則會套用 (Instance | Public)。If the type of lookup is not specified, (Instance | Public) will apply. 無法呼叫類型初始設定式。It is not possible to call a type initializer.

這個旗標會傳遞至 InvokeMember 方法以叫用建構函式。This flag is passed to an InvokeMember method to invoke a constructor.

DeclaredOnly DeclaredOnly DeclaredOnly DeclaredOnly 2

指定只應考慮在所提供類型之階層層級宣告的成員。Specifies that only members declared at the level of the supplied type's hierarchy should be considered. 不考慮繼承的成員。Inherited members are not considered.

Default Default Default Default 0

指定不定義任何繫結旗標。Specifies that no binding flags are defined.

DoNotWrapExceptions DoNotWrapExceptions DoNotWrapExceptions DoNotWrapExceptions 33554432
ExactBinding ExactBinding ExactBinding ExactBinding 65536

指定所提供的引數類型必須完全符合對應的型式參數類型。Specifies that types of the supplied arguments must exactly match the types of the corresponding formal parameters. 如果呼叫端提供非 Null 的 Binder 物件,則反映會擲回例外狀況,因為那表示呼叫端正在提供會選擇適當方法的 BindToXXX 實作。Reflection throws an exception if the caller supplies a non-null Binder object, since that implies that the caller is supplying BindToXXX implementations that will pick the appropriate method. 預設繫結器會忽略此旗標,而自訂繫結器則可實作此旗標的語意。The default binder ignores this flag, while custom binders can implement the semantics of this flag.

FlattenHierarchy FlattenHierarchy FlattenHierarchy FlattenHierarchy 64

指定應傳回在階層架構上的公用和受保護的靜態成員。Specifies that public and protected static members up the hierarchy should be returned. 不會傳回繼承類別中的私用靜態成員。Private static members in inherited classes are not returned. 靜態成員包括欄位、方法、事件和屬性。Static members include fields, methods, events, and properties. 不會傳回巢狀類型。Nested types are not returned.

GetField GetField GetField GetField 1024

指定應傳回所指定欄位的值。Specifies that the value of the specified field should be returned.

這個旗標會傳遞至 InvokeMember 方法以取得欄位值。This flag is passed to an InvokeMember method to get a field value.

GetProperty GetProperty GetProperty GetProperty 4096

指定應傳回所指定屬性的值。Specifies that the value of the specified property should be returned.

這個旗標會傳遞至 InvokeMember 方法以叫用屬性 getter。This flag is passed to an InvokeMember method to invoke a property getter.

IgnoreCase IgnoreCase IgnoreCase IgnoreCase 1

指定繫結時不應考慮成員名稱的大小寫。Specifies that the case of the member name should not be considered when binding.

IgnoreReturn IgnoreReturn IgnoreReturn IgnoreReturn 16777216

用於 COM Interop 以指定可忽略成員的傳回值。Used in COM interop to specify that the return value of the member can be ignored.

Instance Instance Instance Instance 4

指定要在搜尋中包含執行個體成員。Specifies that instance members are to be included in the search.

InvokeMethod InvokeMethod InvokeMethod InvokeMethod 256

指定要叫用方法。Specifies that a method is to be invoked. 這不能是建構函式或類型初始設定式。This must not be a constructor or a type initializer.

這個旗標會傳遞至 InvokeMember 方法以叫用方法。This flag is passed to an InvokeMember method to invoke a method.

NonPublic NonPublic NonPublic NonPublic 32

指定要在搜尋中包含非公用成員。Specifies that non-public members are to be included in the search.

OptionalParamBinding OptionalParamBinding OptionalParamBinding OptionalParamBinding 262144

傳回成員集,其參數計數會符合所提供的引數數目。Returns the set of members whose parameter count matches the number of supplied arguments. 這個繫結旗標可用於其參數具有預設值的方法,以及具有變數引數 (varargs) 的方法。This binding flag is used for methods with parameters that have default values and methods with variable arguments (varargs). 這個旗標應該只搭配 InvokeMember(String, BindingFlags, Binder, Object, Object[], ParameterModifier[], CultureInfo, String[]) 使用。This flag should only be used with InvokeMember(String, BindingFlags, Binder, Object, Object[], ParameterModifier[], CultureInfo, String[]).

具有預設值的參數僅限用於省略最後一個引數的呼叫。Parameters with default values are used only in calls where trailing arguments are omitted. 它們必須是最後一個引數。They must be the last arguments.

Public Public Public Public 16

指定要在搜尋中包含公用成員。Specifies that public members are to be included in the search.

PutDispProperty PutDispProperty PutDispProperty PutDispProperty 16384

指定應叫用 COM 物件上的 PROPPUT 成員。Specifies that the PROPPUT member on a COM object should be invoked. PROPPUT 會指定使用值的屬性設定函式。PROPPUT specifies a property-setting function that uses a value. 如果屬性同時具有 PROPPUTPROPPUTREF,而且必須區分呼叫哪一個,則使用 PutDispPropertyUse PutDispProperty if a property has both PROPPUT and PROPPUTREF and you need to distinguish which one is called.

PutRefDispProperty PutRefDispProperty PutRefDispProperty PutRefDispProperty 32768

指定應叫用 COM 物件上的 PROPPUTREF 成員。Specifies that the PROPPUTREF member on a COM object should be invoked. PROPPUTREF 會指定使用參考而非值的屬性設定函式。PROPPUTREF specifies a property-setting function that uses a reference instead of a value. 如果屬性同時具有 PROPPUTPROPPUTREF,而且必須區分呼叫哪一個,則使用 PutRefDispPropertyUse PutRefDispProperty if a property has both PROPPUT and PROPPUTREF and you need to distinguish which one is called.

SetField SetField SetField SetField 2048

指定應設定所指定欄位的值。Specifies that the value of the specified field should be set.

這個旗標會傳遞至 InvokeMember 方法以設定欄位值。This flag is passed to an InvokeMember method to set a field value.

SetProperty SetProperty SetProperty SetProperty 8192

指定應設定所指定屬性的值。Specifies that the value of the specified property should be set. 對於 COM 屬性來說,指定這個繫結旗標等同於指定 PutDispPropertyPutRefDispPropertyFor COM properties, specifying this binding flag is equivalent to specifying PutDispProperty and PutRefDispProperty.

這個旗標會傳遞至 InvokeMember 方法以叫用屬性 setter。This flag is passed to an InvokeMember method to invoke a property setter.

Static Static Static Static 8

指定要在搜尋中包含靜態成員。Specifies that static members are to be included in the search.

SuppressChangeType SuppressChangeType SuppressChangeType SuppressChangeType 131072

未實作。Not implemented.

範例

下列範例示範許多系結旗標。The following example demonstrates many of the binding flags.

using namespace System;
using namespace System::Collections;
using namespace System::Reflection;
using namespace System::IO;

//namespace BindingFlagsSnippet {
public ref class TestClass
{
public:
   String^ Name;

private:
   array<Object^>^ values;
   int methodCalled;

public:

   property Object^ Item [int]
   {
      Object^ get( int index )
      {
         return values[ index ];
      }

      void set( int index, Object^ value )
      {
         values[ index ] = value;
      }
   }

   property Object^ Value
   {
      Object^ get()
      {
         return "the value";
      }
   }

   TestClass() 
   {
      Name = "initialName";
      values = gcnew array<Object^> {(int^)0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9};
      methodCalled = 0;
   }
   
   TestClass(String^ initName)
   {
      Name = initName;
      values = gcnew array<Object^> {(int^)0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9};
      methodCalled = 0;
   }

   static void SayHello()
   {
      Console::WriteLine( "Hello" );
   }

   void AddUp()
   {
      methodCalled++;
      Console::WriteLine( "AddUp Called {0} times", methodCalled );
   }

   static double ComputeSum( double d1, double d2 )
   {
      return d1 + d2;
   }

   static void PrintName( String^ firstName, String^ lastName )
   {
      Console::WriteLine( "{0},{1}", lastName, firstName );
   }

   void PrintTime()
   {
      Console::WriteLine( DateTime::Now );
   }

   void Swap( interior_ptr<int> a, interior_ptr<int> b )
   {
      int x =  *a;
       *a =  *b;
       *b = x;
   }
};


[DefaultMemberAttribute("PrintTime")]
public ref class TestClass2
{
public:
   void PrintTime()
   {
      Console::WriteLine( DateTime::Now );
   }

};

public ref class Base
{
private:
    static int BaseOnlyPrivate = 0;
protected:
    static int BaseOnly = 0;
};

public ref class Derived : Base
{
public:
    static int DerivedOnly = 0;
};

public ref class MostDerived : Derived {};

void main()
{
   array<Object^>^ noArguments;

   // BindingFlags::InvokeMethod
   // Call a static method.
   Type^ t = TestClass::typeid;
   Console::WriteLine();
   Console::WriteLine( "Invoking a static method." );
   Console::WriteLine( "-------------------------" );
   t->InvokeMember( "SayHello", BindingFlags::InvokeMethod | BindingFlags::Public | BindingFlags::Static, 
         nullptr, nullptr, noArguments );

   // BindingFlags::InvokeMethod
   // Call an instance method.
   TestClass^ c = gcnew TestClass;
   Console::WriteLine();
   Console::WriteLine( "Invoking an instance method." );
   Console::WriteLine( "----------------------------" );
   c->GetType()->InvokeMember( "AddUp", BindingFlags::InvokeMethod, nullptr, c, noArguments );
   c->GetType()->InvokeMember( "AddUp", BindingFlags::InvokeMethod, nullptr, c, noArguments );

   // BindingFlags::InvokeMethod
   // Call a method with parameters.
   array<Object^>^args = {100.09,184.45};
   Object^ result;
   Console::WriteLine();
   Console::WriteLine( "Invoking a method with parameters." );
   Console::WriteLine( "---------------------------------" );
   result = t->InvokeMember( "ComputeSum", BindingFlags::InvokeMethod, nullptr, nullptr, args );
   Console::WriteLine( " {0} + {1} = {2}", args[ 0 ], args[ 1 ], result );

   // BindingFlags::GetField, SetField
   Console::WriteLine();
   Console::WriteLine( "Invoking a field (getting and setting.)" );
   Console::WriteLine( "--------------------------------------" );

   // Get a field value.
   result = t->InvokeMember( "Name", BindingFlags::GetField, nullptr, c, noArguments );
   Console::WriteLine( "Name == {0}", result );

   // Set a field.
   array<Object^>^obj2 = {"NewName"};
   t->InvokeMember( "Name", BindingFlags::SetField, nullptr, c, obj2 );
   result = t->InvokeMember( "Name", BindingFlags::GetField, nullptr, c, noArguments );
   Console::WriteLine( "Name == {0}", result );
   Console::WriteLine();
   Console::WriteLine( "Invoking an indexed property (getting and setting.)" );
   Console::WriteLine( "--------------------------------------------------" );

   // BindingFlags::GetProperty
   // Get an indexed property value.
   int index = 3;
   array<Object^>^obj3 = {index};
   result = t->InvokeMember( "Item", BindingFlags::GetProperty, nullptr, c, obj3 );
   Console::WriteLine( "Item->Item[ {0}] == {1}", index, result );

   // BindingFlags::SetProperty
   // Set an indexed property value.
   index = 3;
   array<Object^>^obj4 = {index,"NewValue"};
   t->InvokeMember( "Item", BindingFlags::SetProperty, nullptr, c, obj4 );
   result = t->InvokeMember( "Item", BindingFlags::GetProperty, nullptr, c, obj3 );
   Console::WriteLine( "Item->Item[ {0}] == {1}", index, result );
   Console::WriteLine();
   Console::WriteLine( "Getting a field or property." );
   Console::WriteLine( "----------------------------" );

   // BindingFlags::GetField
   // Get a field or property.
   result = t->InvokeMember( "Name", static_cast<BindingFlags>(BindingFlags::GetField | 
       BindingFlags::GetProperty), nullptr, c, noArguments );
   Console::WriteLine( "Name == {0}", result );

   // BindingFlags::GetProperty
   result = t->InvokeMember( "Value", static_cast<BindingFlags>(BindingFlags::GetField | 
       BindingFlags::GetProperty), nullptr, c, noArguments );
   Console::WriteLine( "Value == {0}", result );
   Console::WriteLine();
   Console::WriteLine( "Invoking a method with named parameters." );
   Console::WriteLine( "---------------------------------------" );

   // BindingFlags::InvokeMethod
   // Call a method using named parameters.
   array<Object^>^argValues = {"Mouse","Micky"};
   array<String^>^argNames = {"lastName","firstName"};
   t->InvokeMember( "PrintName", BindingFlags::InvokeMethod, nullptr, nullptr, argValues, nullptr, 
       nullptr, argNames );
   Console::WriteLine();
   Console::WriteLine( "Invoking a default member of a type." );
   Console::WriteLine( "------------------------------------" );

   // BindingFlags::Default
   // Call the default member of a type.
   Type^ t3 = TestClass2::typeid;
   t3->InvokeMember( "", static_cast<BindingFlags>(BindingFlags::InvokeMethod | BindingFlags::Default), 
        nullptr, gcnew TestClass2, noArguments );

   // BindingFlags::Static, NonPublic, and Public
   // Invoking a member with ref parameters.
   Console::WriteLine();
   Console::WriteLine( "Invoking a method with ref parameters." );
   Console::WriteLine( "--------------------------------------" );
   MethodInfo^ m = t->GetMethod( "Swap" );
   args = gcnew array<Object^>(2);
   args[ 0 ] = 1;
   args[ 1 ] = 2;
   m->Invoke( gcnew TestClass, args );
   Console::WriteLine( "{0}, {1}", args[ 0 ], args[ 1 ] );

   // BindingFlags::CreateInstance
   // Creating an instance with a parameterless constructor.
   Console::WriteLine();
   Console::WriteLine( "Creating an instance with a parameterless constructor." );
   Console::WriteLine( "------------------------------------------------------" );
   Object^ obj = t->InvokeMember( "TestClass", static_cast<BindingFlags>(BindingFlags::Public | 
       BindingFlags::Instance | BindingFlags::CreateInstance), nullptr, nullptr, noArguments );
   Console::WriteLine("Instance of {0} created.", obj->GetType()->Name);

   // Creating an instance with a constructor that has parameters.
   Console::WriteLine();
   Console::WriteLine( "Creating an instance with a constructor that has parameters." );
   Console::WriteLine( "------------------------------------------------------------" );
   obj = t->InvokeMember( "TestClass", static_cast<BindingFlags>(BindingFlags::Public | 
       BindingFlags::Instance | BindingFlags::CreateInstance), nullptr, nullptr, 
       gcnew array<Object^> { "Hello, World!" } );
   Console::WriteLine("Instance of {0} created with initial value '{1}'.", obj->GetType()->Name, 
       obj->GetType()->InvokeMember("Name", BindingFlags::GetField, nullptr, obj, noArguments));

   // BindingFlags::DeclaredOnly
   Console::WriteLine();
   Console::WriteLine( "DeclaredOnly instance members." );
   Console::WriteLine( "------------------------------" );
   array<System::Reflection::MemberInfo^>^memInfo = t->GetMembers( BindingFlags::DeclaredOnly | 
       BindingFlags::Instance | BindingFlags::Public);
   for ( int i = 0; i < memInfo->Length; i++ )
   {
      Console::WriteLine( memInfo[ i ]->Name );

   }

   // BindingFlags::IgnoreCase
   Console::WriteLine();
   Console::WriteLine( "Using IgnoreCase and invoking the PrintName method." );
   Console::WriteLine( "---------------------------------------------------" );
   t->InvokeMember( "printname", static_cast<BindingFlags>(BindingFlags::IgnoreCase | 
                BindingFlags::Static | BindingFlags::Public | BindingFlags::InvokeMethod), 
                nullptr, nullptr, gcnew array<Object^> {"Brad","Smith"});

   // BindingFlags::FlattenHierarchy
   Console::WriteLine();
   Console::WriteLine( "Using FlattenHierarchy to get inherited static protected and public members." );
   Console::WriteLine( "----------------------------------------------------------------------------" );
   array<FieldInfo^>^ finfos = MostDerived::typeid->GetFields(BindingFlags::NonPublic | 
         BindingFlags::Public | BindingFlags::Static | BindingFlags::FlattenHierarchy);
   for each (FieldInfo^ finfo in finfos)
   {
       Console::WriteLine("{0} defined in {1}.", finfo->Name, finfo->DeclaringType->Name);
   }

   Console::WriteLine();
   Console::WriteLine("Without FlattenHierarchy." );
   Console::WriteLine("-------------------------");
   finfos = MostDerived::typeid->GetFields(BindingFlags::NonPublic | BindingFlags::Public |
         BindingFlags::Static);
   for each (FieldInfo^ finfo in finfos)
   {
       Console::WriteLine("{0} defined in {1}.", finfo->Name, finfo->DeclaringType->Name);
   }
};

/* This example produces output similar to the following:

Invoking a static method.
-------------------------
Hello

Invoking an instance method.
----------------------------
AddUp Called 1 times
AddUp Called 2 times

Invoking a method with parameters.
---------------------------------
 100.09 + 184.45 = 284.54

Invoking a field (getting and setting.)
--------------------------------------
Name == initialName
Name == NewName

Invoking an indexed property (getting and setting.)
--------------------------------------------------
Item->Item[ 3] == 3
Item->Item[ 3] == NewValue

Getting a field or property.
----------------------------
Name == NewName
Value == the value

Invoking a method with named parameters.
---------------------------------------
Mouse,Micky

Invoking a default member of a type.
------------------------------------
12/23/2009 4:19:06 PM

Invoking a method with ref parameters.
--------------------------------------
2, 1

Creating an instance with a parameterless constructor.
------------------------------------------------------
Instance of TestClass created.

Creating an instance with a constructor that has parameters.
------------------------------------------------------------
Instance of TestClass created with initial value 'Hello, World!'.

DeclaredOnly instance members.
------------------------------
get_Item
set_Item
get_Value
AddUp
PrintTime
Swap
.ctor
.ctor
Value
Item
Name
methodCalled

Using IgnoreCase and invoking the PrintName method.
---------------------------------------------------
Smith,Brad

Using FlattenHierarchy to get inherited static protected and public members.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------
DerivedOnly defined in Derived.
BaseOnly defined in Base.

Without FlattenHierarchy.
-------------------------

 */
using System;
using System.Reflection;
using System.IO;

namespace BindingFlagsSnippet
{
    class Example
    {
        static void Main()
        {
            // BindingFlags.InvokeMethod
            // Call a static method.
            Type t = typeof (TestClass);

            Console.WriteLine();
            Console.WriteLine("Invoking a static method.");
            Console.WriteLine("-------------------------");
            t.InvokeMember ("SayHello", BindingFlags.InvokeMethod | BindingFlags.Public | 
                BindingFlags.Static, null, null, new object [] {});

            // BindingFlags.InvokeMethod
            // Call an instance method.
            TestClass c = new TestClass ();
            Console.WriteLine();
            Console.WriteLine("Invoking an instance method.");
            Console.WriteLine("----------------------------");
            c.GetType().InvokeMember ("AddUp", BindingFlags.InvokeMethod, null, c, new object [] {});
            c.GetType().InvokeMember ("AddUp", BindingFlags.InvokeMethod, null, c, new object [] {});

            // BindingFlags.InvokeMethod
            // Call a method with parameters.
            object [] args = new object [] {100.09, 184.45};
            object result;
            Console.WriteLine();
            Console.WriteLine("Invoking a method with parameters.");
            Console.WriteLine("---------------------------------");
            result = t.InvokeMember ("ComputeSum", BindingFlags.InvokeMethod, null, null, args);
            Console.WriteLine ("{0} + {1} = {2}", args[0], args[1], result);

            // BindingFlags.GetField, SetField
            Console.WriteLine();
            Console.WriteLine("Invoking a field (getting and setting.)");
            Console.WriteLine("--------------------------------------");
            // Get a field value.
            result = t.InvokeMember ("Name", BindingFlags.GetField, null, c, new object [] {});
            Console.WriteLine ("Name == {0}", result);
            // Set a field.
            t.InvokeMember ("Name", BindingFlags.SetField, null, c, new object [] {"NewName"});
            result = t.InvokeMember ("Name", BindingFlags.GetField, null, c, new object [] {});
            Console.WriteLine ("Name == {0}", result);

            Console.WriteLine();
            Console.WriteLine("Invoking an indexed property (getting and setting.)");
            Console.WriteLine("--------------------------------------------------");
            // BindingFlags.GetProperty
            // Get an indexed property value.
            int  index = 3;
            result = t.InvokeMember ("Item", BindingFlags.GetProperty, null, c, new object [] {index});
            Console.WriteLine ("Item[{0}] == {1}", index, result);
            // BindingFlags.SetProperty
            // Set an indexed property value.
            index = 3;
            t.InvokeMember ("Item", BindingFlags.SetProperty, null, c, new object [] {index, "NewValue"});
            result = t.InvokeMember ("Item", BindingFlags.GetProperty , null, c, new object [] {index});
            Console.WriteLine ("Item[{0}] == {1}", index, result);

            Console.WriteLine();
            Console.WriteLine("Getting a field or property.");
            Console.WriteLine("----------------------------");
            // BindingFlags.GetField
            // Get a field or property.
            result = t.InvokeMember ("Name", BindingFlags.GetField | BindingFlags.GetProperty, null, c, 
                new object [] {});
            Console.WriteLine ("Name == {0}", result);
            // BindingFlags.GetProperty
            result = t.InvokeMember ("Value", BindingFlags.GetField | BindingFlags.GetProperty, null, c, 
                new object [] {});
            Console.WriteLine ("Value == {0}", result);

            Console.WriteLine();
            Console.WriteLine("Invoking a method with named parameters.");
            Console.WriteLine("---------------------------------------");
            // BindingFlags.InvokeMethod
            // Call a method using named parameters.
            object[] argValues = new object [] {"Mouse", "Micky"};
            String [] argNames = new String [] {"lastName", "firstName"};
            t.InvokeMember ("PrintName", BindingFlags.InvokeMethod, null, null, argValues, null, null, 
                argNames);

            Console.WriteLine();
            Console.WriteLine("Invoking a default member of a type.");
            Console.WriteLine("------------------------------------");
            // BindingFlags.Default
            // Call the default member of a type.
            Type t3 = typeof (TestClass2);
            t3.InvokeMember ("", BindingFlags.InvokeMethod | BindingFlags.Default, null, new TestClass2(), 
                new object [] {});

            // BindingFlags.Static, NonPublic, and Public
            // Invoking a member with ref parameters.
            Console.WriteLine();
            Console.WriteLine("Invoking a method with ref parameters.");
            Console.WriteLine("--------------------------------------");
            MethodInfo m = t.GetMethod("Swap");
            args = new object[2];
            args[0] = 1;
            args[1] = 2;
            m.Invoke(new TestClass(),args);
            Console.WriteLine ("{0}, {1}", args[0], args[1]);

            // BindingFlags.CreateInstance
            // Creating an instance with a parameterless constructor.
            Console.WriteLine();
            Console.WriteLine("Creating an instance with a parameterless constructor.");
            Console.WriteLine("------------------------------------------------------");
            object cobj = t.InvokeMember ("TestClass", BindingFlags.Public |
                BindingFlags.Instance | BindingFlags.CreateInstance,
                null, null, new object [] {});
            Console.WriteLine("Instance of {0} created.", cobj.GetType().Name);

            // Creating an instance with a constructor that has parameters.
            Console.WriteLine();
            Console.WriteLine("Creating an instance with a constructor that has parameters.");
            Console.WriteLine("------------------------------------------------------------");
            cobj = t.InvokeMember ("TestClass", BindingFlags.Public |
                BindingFlags.Instance | BindingFlags.CreateInstance,
                null, null, new object [] { "Hello, World!" });
            Console.WriteLine("Instance of {0} created with initial value '{1}'.", cobj.GetType().Name,
                cobj.GetType().InvokeMember("Name", BindingFlags.GetField, null, cobj, null));

            // BindingFlags.DeclaredOnly
            Console.WriteLine();
            Console.WriteLine("DeclaredOnly instance members.");
            Console.WriteLine("------------------------------");
            System.Reflection.MemberInfo[] memInfo =
                t.GetMembers(BindingFlags.DeclaredOnly | BindingFlags.Instance | 
                BindingFlags.Public);
            for(int i=0;i<memInfo.Length;i++)
            {
                Console.WriteLine(memInfo[i].Name);
            }

            // BindingFlags.IgnoreCase
            Console.WriteLine();
            Console.WriteLine("Using IgnoreCase and invoking the PrintName method.");
            Console.WriteLine("---------------------------------------------------");
            t.InvokeMember("printname", BindingFlags.IgnoreCase | BindingFlags.Static | 
                BindingFlags.Public | BindingFlags.InvokeMethod, null, null, new object[]
                {"Brad","Smith"});

            // BindingFlags.FlattenHierarchy
            Console.WriteLine();
            Console.WriteLine("Using FlattenHierarchy to get inherited static protected and public members." );
            Console.WriteLine("----------------------------------------------------------------------------");
            FieldInfo[] finfos = typeof(MostDerived).GetFields(BindingFlags.NonPublic | BindingFlags.Public |
                  BindingFlags.Static | BindingFlags.FlattenHierarchy);
            foreach (FieldInfo finfo in finfos)
            {
                Console.WriteLine("{0} defined in {1}.", finfo.Name, finfo.DeclaringType.Name);
            }

            Console.WriteLine();
            Console.WriteLine("Without FlattenHierarchy." );
            Console.WriteLine("-------------------------");
            finfos = typeof(MostDerived).GetFields(BindingFlags.NonPublic | BindingFlags.Public |
                  BindingFlags.Static);
            foreach (FieldInfo finfo in finfos)
            {
                Console.WriteLine("{0} defined in {1}.", finfo.Name, finfo.DeclaringType.Name);
            }
        }
    }

    public class TestClass
    {
        public String Name;
        private Object [] values = new Object [] {0, 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9};

        public Object this [int index]
        {
            get
            {
                return values[index];
            }
            set
            {
                values[index] = value;
            }
        }

        public Object Value
        {
            get
            {
                return "the value";
            }
        }

        public TestClass () : this("initialName") {}
        public TestClass (string initName)
        {
            Name = initName;
        }

        int methodCalled = 0;

        public static void SayHello ()
        {
            Console.WriteLine ("Hello");
        }

        public void AddUp ()
        {
            methodCalled++;
            Console.WriteLine ("AddUp Called {0} times", methodCalled);
        }

        public static double ComputeSum (double d1, double d2)
        {
            return d1 + d2;
        }

        public static void PrintName (String firstName, String lastName)
        {
            Console.WriteLine ("{0},{1}", lastName,firstName);
        }

        public void PrintTime ()
        {
            Console.WriteLine (DateTime.Now);
        }

        public void Swap(ref int a, ref int b)
        {
            int x = a;
            a = b;
            b = x;
        }
    }

    [DefaultMemberAttribute ("PrintTime")]
    public class TestClass2
    {
        public void PrintTime ()
        {
            Console.WriteLine (DateTime.Now);
        }
    }

    public class Base
    {
        static int BaseOnlyPrivate = 0;
        protected static int BaseOnly = 0;
    }
    public class Derived : Base
    {
        public static int DerivedOnly = 0;
    }
    public class MostDerived : Derived {}
}

/* This example produces output similar to the following:

Invoking a static method.
-------------------------
Hello

Invoking an instance method.
----------------------------
AddUp Called 1 times
AddUp Called 2 times

Invoking a method with parameters.
---------------------------------
100.09 + 184.45 = 284.54

Invoking a field (getting and setting.)
--------------------------------------
Name == initialName
Name == NewName

Invoking an indexed property (getting and setting.)
--------------------------------------------------
Item[3] == 3
Item[3] == NewValue

Getting a field or property.
----------------------------
Name == NewName
Value == the value

Invoking a method with named parameters.
---------------------------------------
Mouse,Micky

Invoking a default member of a type.
------------------------------------
12/23/2009 4:29:21 PM

Invoking a method with ref parameters.
--------------------------------------
2, 1

Creating an instance with a parameterless constructor.
------------------------------------------------------
Instance of TestClass created.

Creating an instance with a constructor that has parameters.
------------------------------------------------------------
Instance of TestClass created with initial value 'Hello, World!'.

DeclaredOnly instance members.
------------------------------
get_Item
set_Item
get_Value
AddUp
PrintTime
Swap
.ctor
.ctor
Item
Value
Name

Using IgnoreCase and invoking the PrintName method.
---------------------------------------------------
Smith,Brad

Using FlattenHierarchy to get inherited static protected and public members.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------
DerivedOnly defined in Derived.
BaseOnly defined in Base.

Without FlattenHierarchy.
-------------------------

 */
Imports System
Imports System.Reflection
Imports System.IO

Class Invoke

    Public Shared Sub Main()
        ' BindingFlags.InvokeMethod
        ' Call a static method.
        Dim t As Type = GetType(TestClass)

        Console.WriteLine()
        Console.WriteLine("Invoking a static method.")
        Console.WriteLine("-------------------------")
        t.InvokeMember("SayHello", BindingFlags.InvokeMethod Or BindingFlags.Public _
            Or BindingFlags.Static, Nothing, Nothing, New Object() {})

        ' BindingFlags.InvokeMethod
        ' Call an instance method.
        Dim c As New TestClass()
        Console.WriteLine()
        Console.WriteLine("Invoking an instance method.")
        Console.WriteLine("----------------------------")
        c.GetType().InvokeMember("AddUp", BindingFlags.InvokeMethod, Nothing, c, New Object() {})
        c.GetType().InvokeMember("AddUp", BindingFlags.InvokeMethod, Nothing, c, New Object() {})

        ' BindingFlags.InvokeMethod
        ' Call a method with parameters.
        Dim args() As Object = {100.09, 184.45}
        Dim result As Object
        Console.WriteLine()
        Console.WriteLine("Invoking a method with parameters.")
        Console.WriteLine("---------------------------------")
        result = t.InvokeMember("ComputeSum", BindingFlags.InvokeMethod, Nothing, Nothing, args)
        Console.WriteLine("{0} + {1} = {2}", args(0), args(1), result)

        ' BindingFlags.GetField, SetField
        Console.WriteLine()
        Console.WriteLine("Invoking a field (getting and setting.)")
        Console.WriteLine("--------------------------------------")
        ' Get a field value.
        result = t.InvokeMember("Name", BindingFlags.GetField, Nothing, c, New Object() {})
        Console.WriteLine("Name == {0}", result)
        ' Set a field.
        t.InvokeMember("Name", BindingFlags.SetField, Nothing, c, New Object() {"NewName"})
        result = t.InvokeMember("Name", BindingFlags.GetField, Nothing, c, New Object() {})
        Console.WriteLine("Name == {0}", result)

        Console.WriteLine()
        Console.WriteLine("Invoking an indexed property (getting and setting.)")
        Console.WriteLine("--------------------------------------------------")
        ' BindingFlags.GetProperty 
        ' Get an indexed property value.
        Dim index As Integer = 3
        result = t.InvokeMember("Item", BindingFlags.GetProperty, Nothing, c, New Object() {index})
        Console.WriteLine("Item[{0}] == {1}", index, result)
        ' BindingFlags.SetProperty
        ' Set an indexed property value.
        index = 3
        t.InvokeMember("Item", BindingFlags.SetProperty, Nothing, c, New Object() {index, "NewValue"})
        result = t.InvokeMember("Item", BindingFlags.GetProperty, Nothing, c, New Object() {index})
        Console.WriteLine("Item[{0}] == {1}", index, result)

        Console.WriteLine()
        Console.WriteLine("Getting a field or property.")
        Console.WriteLine("----------------------------")
        ' BindingFlags.GetField
        ' Get a field or property.
        result = t.InvokeMember("Name", BindingFlags.GetField Or BindingFlags.GetProperty, Nothing, _
            c, New Object() {})
        Console.WriteLine("Name == {0}", result)
        ' BindingFlags.GetProperty
        result = t.InvokeMember("Value", BindingFlags.GetField Or BindingFlags.GetProperty, Nothing, _
            c, New Object() {})
        Console.WriteLine("Value == {0}", result)

        Console.WriteLine()
        Console.WriteLine("Invoking a method with named parameters.")
        Console.WriteLine("---------------------------------------")
        ' BindingFlags.InvokeMethod
        ' Call a method using named parameters.
        Dim argValues() As Object = {"Mouse", "Micky"}
        Dim argNames() As [String] = {"lastName", "firstName"}
        t.InvokeMember("PrintName", BindingFlags.InvokeMethod, Nothing, Nothing, argValues, Nothing, _
            Nothing, argNames)

        Console.WriteLine()
        Console.WriteLine("Invoking a default member of a type.")
        Console.WriteLine("------------------------------------")
        ' BindingFlags.Default
        ' Call the default member of a type.
        Dim t3 As Type = GetType(TestClass2)
        t3.InvokeMember("", BindingFlags.InvokeMethod Or BindingFlags.Default, Nothing, _
            New TestClass2(), New Object() {})

        Console.WriteLine()
        Console.WriteLine("Invoking a method with ByRef parameters.")
        Console.WriteLine("----------------------------------------")
        ' BindingFlags.Static, NonPublic, and Public
        ' Invoking a member by reference.
        Dim m As MethodInfo = t.GetMethod("Swap")
        args = New Object(1) {}
        args(0) = 1
        args(1) = 2
        m.Invoke(New TestClass(), args)
        Console.WriteLine("{0}, {1}", args(0), args(1))

        ' BindingFlags.CreateInstance
        ' Creating an instance.
        Console.WriteLine()
        Console.WriteLine("Creating an instance with parameterless constructor.")
        Console.WriteLine("----------------------------------------------------")
        Dim obj As Object = GetType(TestClass).InvokeMember("TestClass", BindingFlags.CreateInstance, _
            Nothing, Nothing, New Object() {})
        Console.WriteLine("Instance of {0} created.", obj.GetType().Name)

        Console.WriteLine()
        Console.WriteLine("Creating an instance with a constructor that has parameters.")
        Console.WriteLine("------------------------------------------------------------")
        obj = GetType(TestClass).InvokeMember("TestClass", BindingFlags.CreateInstance, Nothing, _
            Nothing, New Object() { "Hello, World!" })
        Console.WriteLine("Instance of {0} created with initial value '{1}'.", obj.GetType().Name, _
            obj.GetType().InvokeMember("Name", BindingFlags.GetField, Nothing, obj, Nothing))

        ' BindingFlags.DeclaredOnly
        Console.WriteLine()
        Console.WriteLine("DeclaredOnly instance members.")
        Console.WriteLine("------------------------------")
        Dim memInfo As System.Reflection.MemberInfo() = t.GetMembers(BindingFlags.DeclaredOnly Or _
            BindingFlags.Public Or BindingFlags.Instance)
        Dim i As Integer
        For i = 0 To memInfo.Length - 1
            Console.WriteLine(memInfo(i).Name)
        Next i

        ' BindingFlags.IgnoreCase
        Console.WriteLine()
        Console.WriteLine("Using IgnoreCase and invoking the PrintName method.")
        Console.WriteLine("---------------------------------------------------")
        t.InvokeMember("printname", BindingFlags.IgnoreCase Or BindingFlags.Public Or _
            BindingFlags.Static Or BindingFlags.InvokeMethod, Nothing, Nothing, _
            New Object() {"Brad", "Smith"})

        ' BindingFlags.FlattenHierarchy
        Console.WriteLine()
        Console.WriteLine("Using FlattenHierarchy to get inherited static protected and public members." )
        Console.WriteLine("----------------------------------------------------------------------------")
        Dim finfos() As FieldInfo = GetType(MostDerived).GetFields(BindingFlags.NonPublic Or _
              BindingFlags.Public Or BindingFlags.Static Or BindingFlags.FlattenHierarchy)
        For Each finfo As FieldInfo In finfos
            Console.WriteLine("{0} defined in {1}.", finfo.Name, finfo.DeclaringType.Name)
        Next

        Console.WriteLine()
        Console.WriteLine("Without FlattenHierarchy." )
        Console.WriteLine("-------------------------")
        finfos = GetType(MostDerived).GetFields(BindingFlags.NonPublic Or BindingFlags.Public Or _
              BindingFlags.Static)
        For Each finfo As FieldInfo In finfos
            Console.WriteLine("{0} defined in {1}.", finfo.Name, finfo.DeclaringType.Name)
        Next
    End Sub
End Class

Public Class TestClass
    Public Name As String
    Private values() As [Object] = {0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9}

    Default Public Property Item(ByVal index As Integer) As [Object]
        Get
            Return values(index)
        End Get
        Set(ByVal Value As [Object])
            values(index) = Value
        End Set
    End Property

    Public ReadOnly Property Value() As [Object]
        Get
            Return "the value"
        End Get
    End Property

    Public Sub New(ByVal initName As String)
        Name = initName
    End Sub 

    Public Sub New()
        MyClass.New("initialName")
    End Sub 

    Private methodCalled As Integer = 0

    Public Shared Sub SayHello()
        Console.WriteLine("Hello")
    End Sub 

    Public Sub AddUp()
        methodCalled += 1
        Console.WriteLine("AddUp Called {0} times", methodCalled)
    End Sub 

    Public Shared Function ComputeSum(ByVal d1 As Double, ByVal d2 As Double) As Double
        Return d1 + d2
    End Function 

    Public Shared Sub PrintName(ByVal firstName As [String], ByVal lastName As [String])
        Console.WriteLine("{0},{1}", lastName, firstName)
    End Sub 

    Public Sub PrintTime()
        Console.WriteLine(DateTime.Now)
    End Sub 

    Public Sub Swap(ByRef a As Integer, ByRef b As Integer)
        Dim x As Integer = a
        a = b
        b = x
    End Sub
End Class

<DefaultMemberAttribute("PrintTime")> _
Public Class TestClass2

    Public Sub PrintTime()
        Console.WriteLine(DateTime.Now)
    End Sub 
End Class

Public Class Base
    Shared BaseOnlyPrivate As Integer = 0
    Protected Shared BaseOnly As Integer = 0
End Class

Public Class Derived 
    Inherits Base
    Public Shared DerivedOnly As Integer = 0
End Class

Public Class MostDerived 
    Inherits Derived
End Class

' This example produces output similar to the following:
'
'Invoking a static method.
'-------------------------
'Hello
'
'Invoking an instance method.
'----------------------------
'AddUp Called 1 times
'AddUp Called 2 times
'
'Invoking a method with parameters.
'---------------------------------
'100.09 + 184.45 = 284.54
'
'Invoking a field (getting and setting.)
'--------------------------------------
'Name == initialName
'Name == NewName
'
'Invoking an indexed property (getting and setting.)
'--------------------------------------------------
'Item[3] == 3
'Item[3] == NewValue
'
'Getting a field or property.
'----------------------------
'Name == NewName
'Value == the value
'
'Invoking a method with named parameters.
'---------------------------------------
'Mouse,Micky
'
'Invoking a default member of a type.
'------------------------------------
'12/23/2009 4:34:22 PM
'
'Invoking a method with ByRef parameters.
'----------------------------------------
'2, 1
'
'Creating an instance with parameterless constructor.
'----------------------------------------------------
'Instance of TestClass created.
'
'Creating an instance with a constructor that has parameters.
'------------------------------------------------------------
'Instance of TestClass created with initial value 'Hello, World!'.
'
'DeclaredOnly instance members.
'------------------------------
'get_Item
'set_Item
'get_Value
'AddUp
'PrintTime
'Swap
'.ctor
'.ctor
'Item
'Value
'Name
'
'Using IgnoreCase and invoking the PrintName method.
'---------------------------------------------------
'Smith,Brad
'
'Using FlattenHierarchy to get inherited static protected and public members.
'----------------------------------------------------------------------------
'DerivedOnly defined in Derived.
'BaseOnly defined in Base.
'
'Without FlattenHierarchy.
'-------------------------
'

備註

這些BindingFlags控制項系結會針對SystemSystem.ReflectionSystem.Runtime命名空間中的絕佳許多類別, 叫用、建立、取得、設定和尋找成員和類型。These BindingFlags control binding for a great many classes in the System, System.Reflection, and System.Runtime namespaces that invoke, create, get, set, and find members and types.

BindingFlags會用於下列Type方法和其他位置, MethodBase.Invoke例如:BindingFlags are used in the following Type methods and other places such as MethodBase.Invoke:

InvokeMemberGetMethod特別重要。InvokeMember and GetMethod are especially important.

系結旗標可以依其識別類型成員的方式來分類, 如下表所列。The binding flags can be categorized by how they identify a type member, as listed in the following table.

由協助工具識別Identified by Accessibility 由系結引數識別Identified by Binding Argument 由作業識別Identified by Operation
DeclaredOnlyDeclaredOnly

FlattenHierarchyFlattenHierarchy

IgnoreCaseIgnoreCase

IgnoreReturnIgnoreReturn

執行個體Instance

非公用NonPublic

PublicPublic

StaticStatic
ExactBindingExactBinding

OptionalParamBindingOptionalParamBinding
CreateInstanceCreateInstance

GetFieldGetField

SetFieldSetField

GetPropertyGetProperty

SetPropertySetProperty

InvokeMethodInvokeMethod

PutDispPropertyPutDispProperty

PutRefDispPropertyPutRefDispProperty

注意

您必須指定InstanceStatic , 以及PublicNonPublic , 否則將不會傳回任何成員。You must specify Instance or Static along with Public or NonPublic or no members will be returned.

下表列出預設Binder.ChangeType執行的強制型轉。The following table lists the coercions performed by the default Binder.ChangeType. 此資料表特別BindingFlags.ExactBinding適用于系結旗標。This table applies especially to the BindingFlags.ExactBinding binding flag. 一般的原則是ChangeType , 應該只執行擴展強制, 這永遠不會遺失資料。The general principle is that ChangeType should perform only widening coercions, which never lose data. 擴展強制型轉的範例會將是32位帶正負號整數的值, 強制為64位帶正負號整數的值。An example of a widening coercion is coercing a value that is a 32-bit signed integer to a value that is a 64-bit signed integer. 這與縮小強制的區別, 這可能會遺失資料。This is distinguished from a narrowing coercion, which may lose data. 縮小強制型轉的範例會將64位帶正負號的整數強迫為32位帶正負號的整數。An example of a narrowing coercion is coercing a 64-bit signed integer to a 32-bit signed integer.

來源類型Source Type 目標型別Target Type
任何型別Any type 其基底類型。Its base type.
任何型別Any type 它所實行的介面。The interface it implements.
Char UInt16, UInt32, Int32, UInt64, Int64, Single, DoubleUInt16, UInt32, Int32, UInt64, Int64, Single, Double
Byte +CharUInt16Int16UInt32Int32UInt64Int64SingleDoubleChar, UInt16, Int16, UInt32, Int32, UInt64, Int64, Single, Double
SByte Int16, Int32, Int64, Single, DoubleInt16, Int32, Int64, Single, Double
UInt16 UInt32, Int32, UInt64, Int64, Single, DoubleUInt32, Int32, UInt64, Int64, Single, Double
Int16 Int32, Int64, Single, DoubleInt32, Int64, Single, Double
UInt32 UInt64, Int64, Single, DoubleUInt64, Int64, Single, Double
Int32 Int64SingleDoubleInt64, Single, Double
UInt64 SingleDoubleSingle, Double
Int64 SingleDoubleSingle, Double
Single Double
非參考Non-reference 傳址方式。By-reference.

BindingFlags.ExactBinding使用系結旗標時, 反映會模型一般型別系統的存取範圍規則。When the BindingFlags.ExactBinding binding flag is used, reflection models the accessibility rules of the common type system. 例如, 如果呼叫端在相同的元件中, 則呼叫端不需要內部成員的特殊許可權。For example, if the caller is in the same assembly, the caller does not need special permissions for internal members. 否則, 呼叫端需要ReflectionPermissionOtherwise, the caller needs ReflectionPermission. 這與查閱受保護、私用等等的成員一致。This is consistent with the lookup of members that are protected, private, and so on.

適用於