檢視類型資訊

System.Type 類別是反映的核心。 Common Language Runtime 會在反映提出要求時,建立載入類型的 類型。 您可以使用 類型 物件的方法、欄位、屬性和巢狀類別,找出有關該類型的所有資訊。

使用 Assembly.GetTypeAssembly.GetTypes,從尚未載入、但以類型名稱或您想要的類型名稱傳遞的組件中,取得 類型 物件。 使用Type.GetType取得 類型 已載入的組件的物件。 使用 Module.GetTypeModule.GetTypes 取得模組 類型 物件。

注意

如果您想要檢查和操作泛型型別和方法,請參閱反映和泛用型別提供的其他資訊,以及如何:使用反映檢查和具現化泛型型別

下例示範為組件取得 Assembly 物件和模組的必要語法。

// Gets the mscorlib assembly in which the object is defined.
Assembly^ a = Object::typeid->Module->Assembly;
// Gets the mscorlib assembly in which the object is defined.
Assembly a = typeof(object).Module.Assembly;
' Gets the mscorlib assembly in which the object is defined.
Dim a As Assembly = GetType(Object).Module.Assembly

下例示範從載入的組件中取得 類型 物件。

// Loads an assembly using its file name.
Assembly^ a = Assembly::LoadFrom("MyExe.exe");
// Gets the type names from the assembly.
array<Type^>^ types2 = a->GetTypes();
for each (Type^ t in types2)
{
    Console::WriteLine(t->FullName);
}
// Loads an assembly using its file name.
Assembly a = Assembly.LoadFrom("MyExe.exe");
// Gets the type names from the assembly.
Type[] types2 = a.GetTypes();
foreach (Type t in types2)
{
    Console.WriteLine(t.FullName);
}
' Loads an assembly using its file name.
Dim a As Assembly = Assembly.LoadFrom("MyExe.exe")
' Gets the type names from the assembly.
Dim types2() As Type = a.GetTypes()
For Each t As Type In types2
    Console.WriteLine(t.FullName)
Next t

一旦取得 類型,就有許多方式可以探索該類型成員的相關資訊。 例如,您可以呼叫 Type.GetMembers 方法找出類型的所有成員,它會取得 MemberInfo 物件的陣列,描述目前類型的每一個成員。

您也可以對 類型 類別使用方法,擷取按名稱指定的一或多個建構函式、方法、事件、欄位或屬性的相關資訊。 例如,Type.GetConstructor 會封裝目前類別的特定建構函式。

如果您有 類型,您可以使用 Type.Module 屬性,取得封裝模組的物件,而此模組包含該類型。 使用 Module.Assembly 屬性找出封裝組件的物件,而此組件包含模組。 您可以使用 Type.Assembly 屬性直接取得封裝類型的組件。

System.Type 和 ConstructorInfo

下例示範如何列出類別的建構函式,本例中為 String 類別。

// This program lists all the public constructors
// of the System.String class.
using namespace System;
using namespace System::Reflection;

class ListMembers
{
public:
    static void Main()
    {
        Type^ t = System::String::typeid;
        Console::WriteLine ("Listing all the public constructors of the {0} type", t);
        // Constructors.
        array<ConstructorInfo^>^ ci = t->GetConstructors(BindingFlags::Public | BindingFlags::Instance);
        Console::WriteLine ("//Constructors");
        PrintMembers(ci);
    }

    static void PrintMembers(array<MemberInfo^>^ ms)
    {
        for each (MemberInfo^ m in ms)
        {
            Console::WriteLine ("{0}{1}", "     ", m);
        }
        Console::WriteLine();
    }
};

int main()
{
    ListMembers::Main();
}
// This program lists all the public constructors
// of the System.String class.
using System;
using System.Reflection;

class ListMembers
{
    public static void Main()
    {
        Type t = typeof(System.String);
        Console.WriteLine("Listing all the public constructors of the {0} type", t);
        // Constructors.
        ConstructorInfo[] ci = t.GetConstructors(BindingFlags.Public | BindingFlags.Instance);
        Console.WriteLine("//Constructors");
        PrintMembers(ci);
    }

    public static void PrintMembers(MemberInfo[] ms)
    {
        foreach (MemberInfo m in ms)
        {
            Console.WriteLine("{0}{1}", "     ", m);
        }
        Console.WriteLine();
    }
}
' This program lists all the public constructors
' of the System.String class.

Imports System.Reflection

Class ListMembers
    Public Shared Sub Main()
        Dim t As Type = GetType(String)
        Console.WriteLine("Listing all the public constructors of the {0} type", t)
        ' Constructors.
        Dim ci As ConstructorInfo() = t.GetConstructors((BindingFlags.Public Or BindingFlags.Instance))
        Console.WriteLine("//Constructors")
        PrintMembers(ci)
    End Sub
    Public Shared Sub PrintMembers(ms() As MemberInfo)
        Dim m As MemberInfo
        For Each m In ms
            Console.WriteLine("{0}{1}", "     ", m)
        Next m
        Console.WriteLine()
    End Sub
End Class

MemberInfo、MethodInfo、FieldInfo 和 PropertyInfo

使用 MemberInfoMethodInfoFieldInfoPropertyInfo 物件,取得類型方法、屬性、事件和欄位的相關資訊。

下例使用 MemberInfo 列出 System.IO.File 類別中的成員數目,並使用 IsPublic 屬性判斷類別的可見度。

using namespace System;
using namespace System::IO;
using namespace System::Reflection;

public ref class MyMemberInfo
{
public:
    static void Main()
    {
        Console::WriteLine ("\nReflection.MemberInfo");
        // Gets the Type and MemberInfo.
        Type^ myType = Type::GetType("System.IO.File");
        array<MemberInfo^>^ myMemberInfoArray = myType->GetMembers();
        // Gets and displays the DeclaringType method.
        Console::WriteLine("\nThere are {0} members in {1}.",
            myMemberInfoArray->Length, myType->FullName);
        Console::WriteLine("{0}.", myType->FullName);
        if (myType->IsPublic)
        {
            Console::WriteLine("{0} is public.", myType->FullName);
        }
    }
};

int main()
{
    MyMemberInfo::Main();
}
using System;
using System.IO;
using System.Reflection;

class MyMemberInfo
{
    public static void Main()
    {
        Console.WriteLine ("\nReflection.MemberInfo");
        // Gets the Type and MemberInfo.
        Type myType = Type.GetType("System.IO.File");
        MemberInfo[] myMemberInfoArray = myType.GetMembers();
        // Gets and displays the DeclaringType method.
        Console.WriteLine("\nThere are {0} members in {1}.",
            myMemberInfoArray.Length, myType.FullName);
        Console.WriteLine("{0}.", myType.FullName);
        if (myType.IsPublic)
        {
            Console.WriteLine("{0} is public.", myType.FullName);
        }
    }
}
Imports System.IO
Imports System.Reflection

Class MyMemberInfo
    Public Shared Sub Main()
        Console.WriteLine("\nReflection.MemberInfo")
        ' Gets the Type and MemberInfo.
        Dim myType As Type = Type.GetType("System.IO.File")
        Dim myMemberInfoArray() As MemberInfo = myType.GetMembers()
        ' Gets and displays the DeclaringType method.
        Console.WriteLine("\nThere are {0} members in {1}.",
            myMemberInfoArray.Length, myType.FullName)
        Console.WriteLine("{0}.", myType.FullName)
        If myType.IsPublic
            Console.WriteLine("{0} is public.", myType.FullName)
        End If
    End Sub
End Class

下例會檢查指定的成員類型。 它會對 MemberInfo 類別的成員執行反映,列出其類型。

// This code displays information about the GetValue method of FieldInfo.
using namespace System;
using namespace System::Reflection;

public ref class MyMethodInfo
{
public:
    static int Main()
    {
        Console::WriteLine("Reflection.MethodInfo");
        // Gets and displays the Type.
        Type^ myType = Type::GetType("System.Reflection.FieldInfo");
        // Specifies the member for which you want type information.
        MethodInfo^ myMethodInfo = myType->GetMethod("GetValue");
        Console::WriteLine(myType->FullName + "." + myMethodInfo->Name);
        // Gets and displays the MemberType property.
        MemberTypes myMemberTypes = myMethodInfo->MemberType;
        if (MemberTypes::Constructor == myMemberTypes)
        {
            Console::WriteLine("MemberType is of type All");
        }
        else if (MemberTypes::Custom == myMemberTypes)
        {
            Console::WriteLine("MemberType is of type Custom");
        }
        else if (MemberTypes::Event == myMemberTypes)
        {
            Console::WriteLine("MemberType is of type Event");
        }
        else if (MemberTypes::Field == myMemberTypes)
        {
            Console::WriteLine("MemberType is of type Field");
        }
        else if (MemberTypes::Method == myMemberTypes)
        {
            Console::WriteLine("MemberType is of type Method");
        }
        else if (MemberTypes::Property == myMemberTypes)
        {
            Console::WriteLine("MemberType is of type Property");
        }
        else if (MemberTypes::TypeInfo == myMemberTypes)
        {
            Console::WriteLine("MemberType is of type TypeInfo");
        }
        return 0;
    }
};

int main()
{
    MyMethodInfo::Main();
}
// This code displays information about the GetValue method of FieldInfo.
using System;
using System.Reflection;

class MyMethodInfo
{
    public static int Main()
    {
        Console.WriteLine("Reflection.MethodInfo");
        // Gets and displays the Type.
        Type myType = Type.GetType("System.Reflection.FieldInfo");
        // Specifies the member for which you want type information.
        MethodInfo myMethodInfo = myType.GetMethod("GetValue");
        Console.WriteLine(myType.FullName + "." + myMethodInfo.Name);
        // Gets and displays the MemberType property.
        MemberTypes myMemberTypes = myMethodInfo.MemberType;
        if (MemberTypes.Constructor == myMemberTypes)
        {
            Console.WriteLine("MemberType is of type All");
        }
        else if (MemberTypes.Custom == myMemberTypes)
        {
            Console.WriteLine("MemberType is of type Custom");
        }
        else if (MemberTypes.Event == myMemberTypes)
        {
            Console.WriteLine("MemberType is of type Event");
        }
        else if (MemberTypes.Field == myMemberTypes)
        {
            Console.WriteLine("MemberType is of type Field");
        }
        else if (MemberTypes.Method == myMemberTypes)
        {
            Console.WriteLine("MemberType is of type Method");
        }
        else if (MemberTypes.Property == myMemberTypes)
        {
            Console.WriteLine("MemberType is of type Property");
        }
        else if (MemberTypes.TypeInfo == myMemberTypes)
        {
            Console.WriteLine("MemberType is of type TypeInfo");
        }
        return 0;
    }
}
' This code displays information about the GetValue method of FieldInfo.
Imports System.Reflection
Class MyMethodInfo
    Public Shared Sub Main()
        Console.WriteLine("Reflection.MethodInfo")
        ' Gets and displays the Type.
        Dim myType As Type = Type.GetType("System.Reflection.FieldInfo")
        ' Specifies the member for which you want type information.
        Dim myMethodInfo As MethodInfo = myType.GetMethod("GetValue")
        Console.WriteLine((myType.FullName & "." & myMethodInfo.Name))
        ' Gets and displays the MemberType property.
        Dim myMemberTypes As MemberTypes = myMethodInfo.MemberType
        If MemberTypes.Constructor = myMemberTypes Then
            Console.WriteLine("MemberType is of type All")
        ElseIf MemberTypes.Custom = myMemberTypes Then
            Console.WriteLine("MemberType is of type Custom")
        ElseIf MemberTypes.Event = myMemberTypes Then
            Console.WriteLine("MemberType is of type Event")
        ElseIf MemberTypes.Field = myMemberTypes Then
            Console.WriteLine("MemberType is of type Field")
        ElseIf MemberTypes.Method = myMemberTypes Then
            Console.WriteLine("MemberType is of type Method")
        ElseIf MemberTypes.Property = myMemberTypes Then
            Console.WriteLine("MemberType is of type Property")
        ElseIf MemberTypes.TypeInfo = myMemberTypes Then
            Console.WriteLine("MemberType is of type TypeInfo")
        End If
        Return
    End Sub
End Class

下列範例會使用所有反映 * 資訊 類別以及 BindingFlags 來列出指定類別的所有成員 (的) 、欄位、屬性、事件和方法,並將這些成員分割成靜態和實例分類。

// This program lists all the members of the
// System.IO.BufferedStream class.
using namespace System;
using namespace System::IO;
using namespace System::Reflection;

public ref class ListMembers
{
public:
    static void Main()
    {
        // Specifies the class.
        Type^ t = System::IO::BufferedStream::typeid;
        Console::WriteLine("Listing all the members (public and non public) of the {0} type", t);

        // Lists static fields first.
        array<FieldInfo^>^ fi = t->GetFields(BindingFlags::Static |
            BindingFlags::NonPublic | BindingFlags::Public);
        Console::WriteLine("// Static Fields");
        PrintMembers(fi);

        // Static properties.
        array<PropertyInfo^>^ pi = t->GetProperties(BindingFlags::Static |
            BindingFlags::NonPublic | BindingFlags::Public);
        Console::WriteLine("// Static Properties");
        PrintMembers(pi);

        // Static events.
        array<EventInfo^>^ ei = t->GetEvents(BindingFlags::Static |
            BindingFlags::NonPublic | BindingFlags::Public);
        Console::WriteLine("// Static Events");
        PrintMembers(ei);

        // Static methods.
        array<MethodInfo^>^ mi = t->GetMethods (BindingFlags::Static |
            BindingFlags::NonPublic | BindingFlags::Public);
        Console::WriteLine("// Static Methods");
        PrintMembers(mi);

        // Constructors.
        array<ConstructorInfo^>^ ci = t->GetConstructors(BindingFlags::Instance |
            BindingFlags::NonPublic | BindingFlags::Public);
        Console::WriteLine("// Constructors");
        PrintMembers(ci);

        // Instance fields.
        fi = t->GetFields(BindingFlags::Instance | BindingFlags::NonPublic |
            BindingFlags::Public);
        Console::WriteLine("// Instance Fields");
        PrintMembers(fi);

        // Instance properites.
        pi = t->GetProperties(BindingFlags::Instance | BindingFlags::NonPublic |
            BindingFlags::Public);
        Console::WriteLine ("// Instance Properties");
        PrintMembers(pi);

        // Instance events.
        ei = t->GetEvents(BindingFlags::Instance | BindingFlags::NonPublic |
            BindingFlags::Public);
        Console::WriteLine("// Instance Events");
        PrintMembers(ei);

        // Instance methods.
        mi = t->GetMethods(BindingFlags::Instance | BindingFlags::NonPublic
            | BindingFlags::Public);
        Console::WriteLine("// Instance Methods");
        PrintMembers(mi);

        Console::WriteLine("\r\nPress ENTER to exit.");
        Console::Read();
    }

    static void PrintMembers(array<MemberInfo^>^ ms)
    {
        for each (MemberInfo^ m in ms)
        {
            Console::WriteLine ("{0}{1}", "     ", m);
        }
        Console::WriteLine();
    }
};

int main()
{
    ListMembers::Main();
}
// This program lists all the members of the
// System.IO.BufferedStream class.
using System;
using System.IO;
using System.Reflection;

class ListMembers
{
    public static void Main()
    {
        // Specifies the class.
        Type t = typeof(System.IO.BufferedStream);
        Console.WriteLine("Listing all the members (public and non public) of the {0} type", t);

        // Lists static fields first.
        FieldInfo[] fi = t.GetFields(BindingFlags.Static |
            BindingFlags.NonPublic | BindingFlags.Public);
        Console.WriteLine("// Static Fields");
        PrintMembers(fi);

        // Static properties.
        PropertyInfo[] pi = t.GetProperties(BindingFlags.Static |
            BindingFlags.NonPublic | BindingFlags.Public);
        Console.WriteLine("// Static Properties");
        PrintMembers(pi);

        // Static events.
        EventInfo[] ei = t.GetEvents(BindingFlags.Static |
            BindingFlags.NonPublic | BindingFlags.Public);
        Console.WriteLine("// Static Events");
        PrintMembers(ei);

        // Static methods.
        MethodInfo[] mi = t.GetMethods (BindingFlags.Static |
            BindingFlags.NonPublic | BindingFlags.Public);
        Console.WriteLine("// Static Methods");
        PrintMembers(mi);

        // Constructors.
        ConstructorInfo[] ci = t.GetConstructors(BindingFlags.Instance |
            BindingFlags.NonPublic | BindingFlags.Public);
        Console.WriteLine("// Constructors");
        PrintMembers(ci);

        // Instance fields.
        fi = t.GetFields(BindingFlags.Instance | BindingFlags.NonPublic |
            BindingFlags.Public);
        Console.WriteLine("// Instance Fields");
        PrintMembers(fi);

        // Instance properites.
        pi = t.GetProperties(BindingFlags.Instance | BindingFlags.NonPublic |
            BindingFlags.Public);
        Console.WriteLine ("// Instance Properties");
        PrintMembers(pi);

        // Instance events.
        ei = t.GetEvents(BindingFlags.Instance | BindingFlags.NonPublic |
            BindingFlags.Public);
        Console.WriteLine("// Instance Events");
        PrintMembers(ei);

        // Instance methods.
        mi = t.GetMethods(BindingFlags.Instance | BindingFlags.NonPublic
            | BindingFlags.Public);
        Console.WriteLine("// Instance Methods");
        PrintMembers(mi);

        Console.WriteLine("\r\nPress ENTER to exit.");
        Console.Read();
    }

    public static void PrintMembers (MemberInfo [] ms)
    {
        foreach (MemberInfo m in ms)
        {
            Console.WriteLine ("{0}{1}", "     ", m);
        }
        Console.WriteLine();
    }
}
' This program lists all the members of the
' System.IO.BufferedStream class.
Imports System.IO
Imports System.Reflection

Class ListMembers
    Public Shared Sub Main()
        ' Specifies the class.
        Dim t As Type = GetType(System.IO.BufferedStream)
        Console.WriteLine("Listing all the members (public and non public) of the {0} type", t)
        ' Lists static fields first.
        Dim fi As FieldInfo() = t.GetFields((BindingFlags.Static Or BindingFlags.NonPublic Or BindingFlags.Public))
        Console.WriteLine("// Static Fields")
        PrintMembers(fi)
        ' Static properties.
        Dim pi As PropertyInfo() = t.GetProperties((BindingFlags.Static Or BindingFlags.NonPublic Or BindingFlags.Public))
        Console.WriteLine("// Static Properties")
        PrintMembers(pi)
        ' Static events.
        Dim ei As EventInfo() = t.GetEvents((BindingFlags.Static Or BindingFlags.NonPublic Or BindingFlags.Public))
        Console.WriteLine("// Static Events")
        PrintMembers(ei)
        ' Static methods.
        Dim mi As MethodInfo() = t.GetMethods((BindingFlags.Static Or BindingFlags.NonPublic Or BindingFlags.Public))
        Console.WriteLine("// Static Methods")
        PrintMembers(mi)
        ' Constructors.
        Dim ci As ConstructorInfo() = t.GetConstructors((BindingFlags.Instance Or BindingFlags.NonPublic Or BindingFlags.Public))
        Console.WriteLine("// Constructors")
        PrintMembers(ci)
        ' Instance fields.
        fi = t.GetFields((BindingFlags.Instance Or BindingFlags.NonPublic Or BindingFlags.Public))
        Console.WriteLine("// Instance Fields")
        PrintMembers(fi)
        ' Instance properites.
        pi = t.GetProperties((BindingFlags.Instance Or BindingFlags.NonPublic Or BindingFlags.Public))
        Console.WriteLine("// Instance Properties")
        PrintMembers(pi)
        ' Instance events.
        ei = t.GetEvents((BindingFlags.Instance Or BindingFlags.NonPublic Or BindingFlags.Public))
        Console.WriteLine("// Instance Events")
        PrintMembers(ei)
        ' Instance methods.
        mi = t.GetMethods((BindingFlags.Instance Or BindingFlags.NonPublic Or BindingFlags.Public))
        Console.WriteLine("// Instance Methods")
        PrintMembers(mi)
        Console.WriteLine(ControlChars.CrLf & "Press ENTER to exit.")
        Console.Read()
    End Sub

    Public Shared Sub PrintMembers(ms() As MemberInfo)
        Dim m As MemberInfo
        For Each m In ms
            Console.WriteLine("{0}{1}", "     ", m)
        Next m
        Console.WriteLine()
    End Sub
End Class

另請參閱