HOW TO:存取 WCF 服務使用單向和要求-回覆合約How to: Access WCF Services with One-Way and Request-Reply Contracts

下列程序說明如何存取 Windows Communication Foundation (WCF) 服務,定義單向合約與要求-回覆合約,並不使用雙工通訊模式。The following procedures describe how to access a Windows Communication Foundation (WCF) service that defines a one-way contract and a request-reply contract and that does not use the duplex communication pattern.

若要定義服務To define the service

  1. 宣告服務合約。Declare the service contract. 對於單向作業,您必須在 IsOneWay 中將 true 設定為 OperationContractAttributeThe operations that are to be one-way must have IsOneWay set to true within the OperationContractAttribute. 下列程式碼會宣告具有 IOneWayCalculatorAddSubtractMultiply 單向作業的 Divide 合約。The following code declares the IOneWayCalculator contract that has one-way operations for Add, Subtract, Multiply, and Divide. 它也會定義名為 SayHello 的要求-回應作業。It also defines a request response operation called SayHello.

    [ServiceContract(Namespace = "http://Microsoft.ServiceModel.Samples")]  
    public interface IOneWayCalculator  
    {  
        [OperationContract(IsOneWay = true)]  
        void Add(double n1, double n2);  
        [OperationContract(IsOneWay = true)]  
        void Subtract(double n1, double n2);  
        [OperationContract(IsOneWay = true)]  
        void Multiply(double n1, double n2);  
        [OperationContract(IsOneWay = true)]  
        void Divide(double n1, double n2);  
        [OperationContract]  
        string SayHello(string name);  
    }  
    
  2. 實作服務合約。Implement the service contract. 下例程式碼會實作 IOnewayCalculator 介面。The following code implements the IOnewayCalculator interface.

    [ServiceBehavior(ConcurrencyMode = ConcurrencyMode.Multiple, InstanceContextMode = InstanceContextMode.PerCall)]  
    public class CalculatorService : IOneWayCalculator  
    {  
        public void Add(double n1, double n2)  
        {  
           double result = n1 + n2;  
           Console.WriteLine("Add({0},{1}) = {2} ", n1, n2, result);  
        }  
    
        public void Subtract(double n1, double n2)  
        {  
           double result = n1 - n2;  
           Console.WriteLine("Subtract({0},{1}) = {2}", n1, n2, result);  
        }  
    
        public void Multiply(double n1, double n2)  
        {  
            double result = n1 * n2;  
            Console.WriteLine("Multiply({0},{1}) = {2}", n1, n2, result);  
        }  
    
        public void Divide(double n1, double n2)  
        {  
            double result = n1 / n2;  
            Console.WriteLine("Divide({0},{1}) = {2}", n1, n2, result);  
        }  
    
        public string SayHello(string name)  
        {  
            Console.WriteLine("SayHello({0})", name);  
            return "Hello " + name;  
        }  
    }  
    
  3. 在主控台應用程式中裝載服務。Host the service in a console application. 下列程式碼會示範如何裝載服務。The following code shows how to host the service.

    // Host the service within this EXE console application.  
    public static void Main()  
    {  
       // Define the base address for the service.  
       Uri baseAddress = new Uri("http://localhost:8000/servicemodelsamples/service");  
    
       // Create a ServiceHost for the CalculatorService type and provide the base address.  
       using (ServiceHost serviceHost = new ServiceHost(typeof(CalculatorService), baseAddress))  
       {  
            // Add an endpoint using the IOneWayCalculator contract and the WSHttpBinding  
            serviceHost.AddServiceEndpoint(typeof(IOneWayCalculator), new WSHttpBinding(), "");  
    
          // Turn on the metadata behavior, this allows svcutil to get metadata for the service.  
          ServiceMetadataBehavior smb = (ServiceMetadataBehavior) serviceHost.Description.Behaviors.Find<ServiceMetadataBehavior>();  
          if (smb == null)  
          {  
                smb = new ServiceMetadataBehavior();  
                smb.HttpGetEnabled = true;  
                serviceHost.Description.Behaviors.Add(smb);  
          }  
    
          // Open the ServiceHostBase to create listeners and start listening for messages.  
          serviceHost.Open();  
    
          // The service can now be accessed.  
          Console.WriteLine("The service is ready.");  
          Console.WriteLine("Press <ENTER> to terminate service.");  
          Console.WriteLine();  
          Console.ReadLine();  
        }  
    }  
    

若要存取服務To access the service

  1. 執行ServiceModel Metadata Utility Tool (Svcutil.exe)使用中繼資料交換端點位址來建立使用下列命令列的服務的用戶端類別:Svcutil http://localhost:8000/Service ServiceModel Metadata Utility Tool (Svcutil.exe)產生一組介面和類別,如下列範例程式碼所示。Run the ServiceModel Metadata Utility Tool (Svcutil.exe) using the metadata exchange endpoint address to create the client class for the service using the following command line: Svcutil http://localhost:8000/Service The ServiceModel Metadata Utility Tool (Svcutil.exe) generates a set of interfaces and classes, as shown in the following sample code.

    [System.CodeDom.Compiler.GeneratedCodeAttribute("System.ServiceModel", "3.0.0.0")]  
    [System.ServiceModel.ServiceContractAttribute(Namespace="http://Microsoft.ServiceModel.Samples", ConfigurationName="IOneWayCalculator")]  
    public interface IOneWayCalculator  
    {  
    
        [System.ServiceModel.OperationContractAttribute(IsOneWay=true, Action="http://Microsoft.ServiceModel.Samples/IOneWayCalculator/Add")]  
        void Add(double n1, double n2);  
    
        [System.ServiceModel.OperationContractAttribute(IsOneWay=true, Action="http://Microsoft.ServiceModel.Samples/IOneWayCalculator/Subtract")]  
        void Subtract(double n1, double n2);  
    
        [System.ServiceModel.OperationContractAttribute(IsOneWay=true, Action="http://Microsoft.ServiceModel.Samples/IOneWayCalculator/Multiply")]  
        void Multiply(double n1, double n2);  
    
        [System.ServiceModel.OperationContractAttribute(IsOneWay=true, Action="http://Microsoft.ServiceModel.Samples/IOneWayCalculator/Divide")]  
        void Divide(double n1, double n2);  
    
        [System.ServiceModel.OperationContractAttribute(Action="http://Microsoft.ServiceModel.Samples/IOneWayCalculator/SayHello", ReplyAction="http://Microsoft.ServiceModel.Samples/IOneWayCalculator/SayHelloResponse")]  
        string SayHello(string name);  
    }  
    
    [System.CodeDom.Compiler.GeneratedCodeAttribute("System.ServiceModel", "3.0.0.0")]  
    public interface IOneWayCalculatorChannel : IOneWayCalculator, System.ServiceModel.IClientChannel  
    {  
    }  
    
    [System.Diagnostics.DebuggerStepThroughAttribute()]  
    [System.CodeDom.Compiler.GeneratedCodeAttribute("System.ServiceModel", "3.0.0.0")]  
    public partial class OneWayCalculatorClient : System.ServiceModel.ClientBase<IOneWayCalculator>, IOneWayCalculator  
    {  
    
        public OneWayCalculatorClient()  
        {  
        }  
    
        public OneWayCalculatorClient(string endpointConfigurationName) :   
                base(endpointConfigurationName)  
        {  
        }  
    
        public OneWayCalculatorClient(string endpointConfigurationName, string remoteAddress) :   
                base(endpointConfigurationName, remoteAddress)  
        {  
        }  
    
        public OneWayCalculatorClient(string endpointConfigurationName, System.ServiceModel.EndpointAddress remoteAddress) :   
                base(endpointConfigurationName, remoteAddress)  
        {  
        }  
    
        public OneWayCalculatorClient(System.ServiceModel.Channels.Binding binding, System.ServiceModel.EndpointAddress remoteAddress) :   
                base(binding, remoteAddress)  
        {  
        }  
    
        public void Add(double n1, double n2)  
        {  
            base.Channel.Add(n1, n2);  
        }  
    
        public void Subtract(double n1, double n2)  
        {  
            base.Channel.Subtract(n1, n2);  
        }  
    
        public void Multiply(double n1, double n2)  
        {  
            base.Channel.Multiply(n1, n2);  
        }  
    
        public void Divide(double n1, double n2)  
        {  
            base.Channel.Divide(n1, n2);  
        }  
    
        public string SayHello(string name)  
        {  
            return base.Channel.SayHello(name);  
        }  
    }  
    

    請注意,在 IOneWayCalculator 介面中單向服務作業的 IsOneWay 屬性設定為 true,而且要求-回覆服務作業的此屬性設定為預設值 falseNotice in the IOneWayCalculator interface that the one-way service operations have the IsOneWay attribute set to true and the request-reply service operation has the attribute set to the default value, false. 同時也請注意 OneWayCalculatorClient 類別。Also notice the OneWayCalculatorClient class. 這就是用來呼叫服務的類別。This is the class that you will use to call the service.

  2. 建立用戶端物件。Create the client object.

    // Create a client  
    WSHttpBinding binding = new WSHttpBinding();  
    EndpointAddress epAddress = new EndpointAddress("http://localhost:8000/servicemodelsamples/service");  
    OneWayCalculatorClient client = new OneWayCalculatorClient(binding, epAddress);  
    
  3. 呼叫服務作業。Call service operations.

    // Call the Add service operation.  
    double value1 = 100.00D;  
    double value2 = 15.99D;  
    client.Add(value1, value2);  
    Console.WriteLine("Add({0},{1})", value1, value2);  
    
    // Call the Subtract service operation.  
    value1 = 145.00D;  
    value2 = 76.54D;  
    client.Subtract(value1, value2);  
    Console.WriteLine("Subtract({0},{1})", value1, value2);  
    
    // Call the Multiply service operation.  
    value1 = 9.00D;  
    value2 = 81.25D;  
    client.Multiply(value1, value2);  
    Console.WriteLine("Multiply({0},{1})", value1, value2);  
    
    // Call the Divide service operation.  
    value1 = 22.00D;  
    value2 = 7.00D;  
    client.Divide(value1, value2);  
    Console.WriteLine("Divide({0},{1})", value1, value2);  
    
    // Call the SayHello service operation  
    string name = "World";  
    string response = client.SayHello(name);  
    Console.WriteLine("SayHello([0])", name);  
    Console.WriteLine("SayHello() returned: " + response);  
    
  4. 關閉用戶端,以關閉連線並清除資源。Close the client to close connections and clean up resources.

    //Closing the client gracefully closes the connection and cleans up resources  
    client.Close();  
    

範例Example

以下是這個主題中使用的完整程式碼清單。The following is a complete listing of the code used in this topic.

// Service.cs  
using System;  
using System.Configuration;  
using System.ServiceModel;  
using System.ServiceModel.Description;  
  
namespace Microsoft.ServiceModel.Samples  
{  
    // Define a service contract.   
    [ServiceContract(Namespace = "http://Microsoft.ServiceModel.Samples")]  
    public interface IOneWayCalculator  
    {  
        [OperationContract(IsOneWay = true)]  
        void Add(double n1, double n2);  
        [OperationContract(IsOneWay = true)]  
        void Subtract(double n1, double n2);  
        [OperationContract(IsOneWay = true)]  
        void Multiply(double n1, double n2);  
        [OperationContract(IsOneWay = true)]  
        void Divide(double n1, double n2);  
        [OperationContract]  
        string SayHello(string name);  
    }  
  
    // Service class which implements the service contract.  
    // Added code to write output to the console window  
    [ServiceBehavior(ConcurrencyMode = ConcurrencyMode.Multiple, InstanceContextMode = InstanceContextMode.PerCall)]  
    public class CalculatorService : IOneWayCalculator  
    {  
        public void Add(double n1, double n2)  
        {  
            double result = n1 + n2;  
            Console.WriteLine("Add({0},{1}) = {2} ", n1, n2, result);  
        }  
  
        public void Subtract(double n1, double n2)  
        {  
            double result = n1 - n2;  
            Console.WriteLine("Subtract({0},{1}) = {2}", n1, n2, result);  
        }  
  
        public void Multiply(double n1, double n2)  
        {  
            double result = n1 * n2;  
            Console.WriteLine("Multiply({0},{1}) = {2}", n1, n2, result);  
        }  
  
        public void Divide(double n1, double n2)  
        {  
            double result = n1 / n2;  
            Console.WriteLine("Divide({0},{1}) = {2}", n1, n2, result);  
        }  
  
        public string SayHello(string name)  
        {  
            Console.WriteLine("SayHello({0})", name);  
            return "Hello " + name;  
        }  
  
        // Host the service within this EXE console application.  
        public static void Main()  
        {  
            // Define the base address for the service.  
            Uri baseAddress = new Uri("http://localhost:8000/servicemodelsamples/service");  
  
            // Create a ServiceHost for the CalculatorService type and provide the base address.  
            using (ServiceHost serviceHost = new ServiceHost(typeof(CalculatorService), baseAddress))  
            {  
                // Add an endpoint using the IOneWayCalculator contract and the WSHttpBinding  
                serviceHost.AddServiceEndpoint(typeof(IOneWayCalculator), new WSHttpBinding(), "");  
  
                // Turn on the metadata behavior, this allows svcutil to get metadata for the service.  
                ServiceMetadataBehavior smb = (ServiceMetadataBehavior) serviceHost.Description.Behaviors.Find<ServiceMetadataBehavior>();  
                if (smb == null)  
                {  
                    smb = new ServiceMetadataBehavior();  
                    smb.HttpGetEnabled = true;  
                    serviceHost.Description.Behaviors.Add(smb);  
                }  
  
                // Open the ServiceHostBase to create listeners and start listening for messages.  
                serviceHost.Open();  
  
                // The service can now be accessed.  
                Console.WriteLine("The service is ready.");  
                Console.WriteLine("Press <ENTER> to terminate service.");  
                Console.WriteLine();  
                Console.ReadLine();  
            }  
        }  
    }  
} 
// client.cs  
using System;  
using System.ServiceModel;  
  
namespace Microsoft.ServiceModel.Samples  
{  
    //The service contract is defined in generatedClient.cs, generated from the service by the svcutil tool.  
  
    //Client implementation code.  
    class Client  
    {  
        static void Main()  
        {  
            // Create a client  
            WSHttpBinding binding = new WSHttpBinding();  
            EndpointAddress epAddress = new EndpointAddress("http://localhost:8000/servicemodelsamples/service");  
            OneWayCalculatorClient client = new OneWayCalculatorClient(binding, epAddress);  
  
            // Call the Add service operation.  
            double value1 = 100.00D;  
            double value2 = 15.99D;  
            client.Add(value1, value2);  
            Console.WriteLine("Add({0},{1})", value1, value2);  
  
            // Call the Subtract service operation.  
            value1 = 145.00D;  
            value2 = 76.54D;  
            client.Subtract(value1, value2);  
            Console.WriteLine("Subtract({0},{1})", value1, value2);  
  
            // Call the Multiply service operation.  
            value1 = 9.00D;  
            value2 = 81.25D;  
            client.Multiply(value1, value2);  
            Console.WriteLine("Multiply({0},{1})", value1, value2);  
  
            // Call the Divide service operation.  
            value1 = 22.00D;  
            value2 = 7.00D;  
            client.Divide(value1, value2);  
            Console.WriteLine("Divide({0},{1})", value1, value2);  
  
            // Call the SayHello service operation  
            string name = "World";  
            string response = client.SayHello(name);  
            Console.WriteLine("SayHello([0])", name);  
            Console.WriteLine("SayHello() returned: " + response);  
            //Closing the client gracefully closes the connection and cleans up resources  
            client.Close();  
  
        }  
    }  
}  

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