下列文章說明在 .NET 中執行「原生互通性」的各種方式。The following articles show the various ways of doing "native interoperability" in .NET.
以下為您應呼叫機器碼的幾個原因︰There are a few reasons why you'd want to call into native code:
- 作業系統隨附大量受控類別庫中所沒有的 API。Operating systems come with a large volume of APIs that aren't present in the managed class libraries. 此情節的基本範例將會說明存取硬體或作業系統管理功能。A prime example for this scenario would be access to hardware or operating system management functions.
- 與其他擁有或可產生 C 樣式 ABI (原生 ABI) 的元件通訊，像是透過 Java Native Interface (JNI) 公開的 Java 程式碼，或是任何可產生原生元件的受控語言。Communicating with other components that have or can produce C-style ABIs (native ABIs), such as Java code that is exposed via Java Native Interface (JNI) or any other managed language that could produce a native component.
- 在 Windows 上，大部分的已安裝軟體 (例如 Microsoft Office 套件) 會註冊 COM 元件，這些元件代表其程式，且可讓開發人員予以自動化或使用。On Windows, most of the software that gets installed, such as the Microsoft Office suite, registers COM components that represent their programs and allow developers to automate them or use them. 而這也需要原生互通性。This also requires native interoperability.
上述清單並未涵蓋所有開發人員會想要，或必須與原生元件互動的可能情況和情節。The previous list doesn't cover all of the potential situations and scenarios in which the developer would want/like/need to interface with native components. 舉例來說，.NET 類別庫會使用原生互通性支援來實作其一部分的 API，例如主控台支援和操作、檔案系統存取權及其他項目。.NET class library, for instance, uses the native interoperability support to implement a fair number of its APIs, like console support and manipulation, file system access and others. 不過請務必注意，您可視需要選擇使用。However, it's important to note that there's an option if needed.
本節中大部分範例會針對 .NET Core 的所有三種支援平台 (Windows、Linux 和 macOS) 來呈現。Most of the examples in this section will be presented for all three supported platforms for .NET Core (Windows, Linux and macOS). 不過，對於一些簡短和說明性的範例，只會顯示一個使用 Windows 檔名和副檔名 (也就是代表程式庫的 "dll") 的範例。However, for some short and illustrative examples, just one sample is shown that uses Windows filenames and extensions (that is, "dll" for libraries). 這不表示您無法在 Linux 或 macOS 上使用這些功能，如此呈現只是為了方便起見。This doesn't mean that those features aren't available on Linux or macOS, it was done merely for convenience sake.