UM IP 閘道UM IP gateways

整合通訊 (UM) IP 閘道可代替 VoIP (Voice over IP) 閘道、IP 專用交換機 (PBX) 或工作階段邊界控制器 (SBC) 硬體裝置。在 VoIP 閘道、IP PBX 或 SBC 可以用來接聽來電並為語音信箱使用者傳送撥出號碼前,必須在目錄服務中建立 UM IP。A Unified Messaging (UM) IP gateway represents a physical Voice over IP (VoIP) gateway, IP Private Branch eXchange (PBX), or session border controller (SBC) hardware device. Before a VoIP gateway, IP PBX, or SBC can be used to answer incoming calls and send outgoing calls for voice mail users, a UM IP gateway must be created in the directory service.

UM IP 閘道概觀Overview of UM IP gateways

一般而言,「閘道」是描述連線兩個不相容網路之實體裝置的術語。使用 Exchange 整合通訊及其他整合通訊解決方案時,會使用 VoIP 閘道轉譯公用交換電話網路 (PSTN)/分時多工 (TDM),或電路切換型電話語音網路及 IP 或封包切換型資料網路。IP PBX 也會在 PSTN 網路和封包切換型網路之間進行轉譯,所以使用 IP PBX 時,就需要 VoIP 閘道。VoIP 閘道只有在連接傳統 PBX 硬體裝置與 UM 部署時需要使用。Traditionally, gateway is a term that describes a physical device that connects two incompatible networks. With Exchange Unified Messaging and other unified messaging solutions, the VoIP gateway is used to translate between the Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN)/Time Division Multiplex (TDM) or circuit-switched based telephony network and an IP or packet-switched data network. An IP PBX also translates between the PSTN network and a packet-switched network, so when an IP PBX is used, a VoIP gateway isn't required. A VoIP gateway is only required if you are connecting a legacy PBX hardware device to your UM deployment.

注意

封包切換型網路是指封包 (郵件或郵件片段) 在 VoIP 閘道、IP PBX 和 SBC 等裝置之間個別路由的網路。這與電路切換網路相反,此網路會設定兩個節點間的專用連線,以在通訊期間獨佔使用。A packet-switched network is a network in which packets (messages or fragments of messages) are individually routed between devices such as routers, switches, VoIP gateway, IP PBXs and SBCs. This contrasts with a circuit-switched network that sets up a dedicated connection between the two nodes for their exclusive use for the duration of the communication.

Exchange 整合通訊依賴 VoIP 閘道的功能,將 TDM 或電話語音電路切換型的通訊協定 (例如整合服務數位網路 (ISDN) 或 QSIG) 從 PBX 轉譯成以 VoIP 或 IP 為基礎的通訊協定 (例如工作階段初始通訊協定 (SIP)、即時傳輸通訊協定 (RTP) 或進行即時傳真傳輸的 T.38)。Exchange Unified Messaging relies on the ability of the VoIP gateway to translate TDM or telephony circuit-switched based protocols, such as Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) or QSIG, from a PBX to protocols based on VoIP or IP, such as Session Initiation Protocol (SIP), Realtime Transport Protocol (RTP), or T.38 for real-time facsimile transport.

IP PBX 也會在連接電路切換型電話網路與資料或封包切換型網路時使用。它們也常用來轉譯電路切換型通訊協定與以 VoIP 或 IP (如 SIP、RTP 和 Secure RTPC (SRTP)) 為基礎的通訊協定。IP PBXs are also used when connecting a circuit-switched telephony network to a data or packet-switched network. They are also used to translate circuit-switched protocols to protocols based on VoIP or IP, such as SIP, RTP, and Secure RTPC (SRTP).

工作階段邊界控制器 (SBC) 與 VoIP 閘道和 IP PBX 稍有不同。它們正好與連接電路切換型網路與封包切換型網路相反,是使用公用網路 (如網際網路) 或透過私人 WAN 連線來連接兩個資料網路。在整合通訊中,SBC 是在 UM 混合式部署中使用,而其中 UM 會使用位在內部部署或其他位置 (如雲端中的信箱) 的元件。Session Border Controllers (SBCs) are somewhat different than VoIP gateways and IP PBXs. Instead of connecting a circuit-switched network to a packet-switched network, they're used to connect two data networks over a public network like the Internet or over a private WAN connection. In Unified Messaging, SBCs are used in a hybrid deployment of UM in which UM uses some components that are located on-premises and others, such as mailboxes, that are located in the cloud.

VoIP 裝置組態VoIP device configurations

雖然 PBX、VoIP 閘道、IP PBX 和 SBC 的類型及製造商很多,但是基本上有三種類型的 VoIP 裝置組態:Although there are many types and manufacturers of PBXs, VoIP gateways, IP PBXs, and SBCs, there are basically three types of VoIP device configurations:

  • IP PBX 在 PSTN/TDM 或以電話網路為基礎的電路切換型網路和 IP 或封包切換型資料網路之間進行轉譯的單一裝置。IP PBX A single device that translates between the PSTN/TDM or circuit-switched based telephony network and an IP or packet-switched data network

  • PBX (傳統) 和 VoIP 閘道 兩個一起在 PSTN/TDM 或電路切換型電話網路和 IP 或封包切換型資料網路之間進行轉譯的不同元件。PBX (legacy) and a VoIP gateway Two separate components that together translate between the PSTN/TDM or circuit-switched telephony network and an IP or packet-switched data network

  • SBC 連接兩種 IP 型網路 (如 LAN 和資料中心) 的一台或多台裝置。SBC Single or multiple devices that connect two types of IP-based networks such as a LAN and a datacenter.

為了支援整合通訊,連接電話網路基礎結構與資料網路基礎結構,或連接內部部署與雲端中的 UM 部署時,會使用一或兩種類型的 IP/VoIP 裝置組態。To support Unified Messaging, one or both types of IP/VoIP device configurations are used when connecting a telephony network infrastructure to a data network infrastructure or connecting an on-premises deployment with a UM deployment in the cloud.

UM IP 閘道UM IP gateways

UM IP 閘道含有一或多個 UM 群組搜尋和組態設定。UM 群組搜尋是用來連結 UM IP 閘道與 UM 撥號對應表。結合 UM IP 閘道與 UM 群組搜尋,可在 VoIP 閘道、IP PBX 或 SBC 與 UM 撥號對應表之間建立連結。透過建立多個 UM 群組搜尋,您可以將單一 UM IP 閘道與多個 UM 撥號對應表產生關聯。The UM IP gateway contains one or more UM hunt groups and configuration settings. UM hunt groups are used to link a UM IP gateway to a UM dial plan. The combination of the UM IP gateway and a UM hunt group establishes a link between a VoIP gateway, IP PBX, or SBC and a UM dial plan. By creating multiple UM hunt groups, you can associate a single UM IP gateway with multiple UM dial plans.

當您建立 UM IP 閘道後,連結 UM IP 閘道的 Exchange 伺服器將傳送 SIP OPTIONS 要求給 VoIP 閘道、IP PBX 或 SBC,以確保裝置可以回應。如果 VoIP 閘道、IP PBX 或 SBC 未回應要求,Exchange 伺服器將會記錄識別碼 1400 的事件,說明要求失敗。發生此問題時,請確定 VoIP 閘道、IP PBX 或 SBC 可供使用且為連線狀態,而且整合通訊組態正確無誤。After you create a UM IP gateway, the Exchange servers linked to the UM IP gateway will send a SIP OPTIONS request to the VoIP gateway, IP PBX, or SBC to ensure that the device is responsive. If the VoIP gateway, IP PBX, or SBC doesn't respond to the request, an Exchange server will log an event with ID 1400 stating that the request failed. If this happens, make sure that the VoIP gateway, IP PBX, or SBC is available and online and that the Unified Messaging configuration is correct.

信箱伺服器只會與列入信任 SIP 對等的 VoIP 閘道、IP PBX 或 SBC 通訊。在某些情況下,如果有兩個 VoIP 閘道、IP PBX 或 SBC 設定為使用相同的 IP 位址,將會記錄識別碼 1175 的事件。整合通訊會擷取整合通訊 Web 服務虛擬目錄的內部 URL,然後使用 URL 建立受信任 SIP 對等的 FQDN 清單,以避免未經授權的要求。當兩個 FQDN 都解析成相同 IP 位址時,將會記錄此事件。A Mailbox server communicates only with VoIP gateways, IP PBXs, or SBCs listed as trusted SIP peers. In some cases, if two VoIP gateways, IP PBXs, or SBCs are configured to use the same IP address, an event with ID 1175 will be logged. Unified Messaging protects against unauthorized requests by retrieving the internal URL of the Unified Messaging Web services virtual directory and then uses the URL to build the list of FQDNs for the trusted SIP peers. When two FQDNs are resolved to the same IP address, this event is logged.

為 UM IP 閘道提供 IPv6 支援IPv6 support for UM IP gateways

網際網路通訊協定第 6 版 (IPv6) 是最新版的網際網路通訊協定 (IP)。IPv6 旨在修正舊版 IP 的 IPv4 本身許多缺點。在 Microsoft Exchange Server 2010 內部部署和混合部署中,只有在同時使用 IPv4 時才支援 IPv6。Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) is the most recent version of the Internet Protocol (IP). IPv6 is intended to correct many of the shortcomings of IPv4, which was the previous version of the IP. In Microsoft Exchange Server 2010 on-premises and hybrid deployments, IPv6 was supported only when IPv4 was also used.

在 Exchange Server 的內部和混合部署、 UM 相關元件和語音服務只能在用戶端存取和信箱伺服器上執行。因為 UM 架構已變更且現在需要 Unified Communications Managed API 」 (UCMA) v4.0 支援 IPv4 和 IPv6 以及用戶端存取和完整已整合通訊元件和服務的 Mailbox server 其他 Exchange 功能支援 IPv6 網路並不需要 IPv4。In Exchange Server on-premises and hybrid deployments, UM-related components and speech services run only on Client Access and Mailbox servers. Because the UM architecture has changed and now requires Unified Communications Managed API (UCMA) v4.0 to support both IPv4 and IPv6 as well as other Exchange features, the Client Access and Mailbox servers that have Unified Messaging components and services fully support IPv6 networks and doesn't require IPv4.

在內部部署、混合和 Exchange Online 部署中,當企業和 Exchange Online UM 系統管理員連線 UM 與具 IPv6 功能的裝置 (包括路由器、IP 閘道、IP PBX 和 Microsoft Office Communications Server 2007 R2 與 Microsoft Lync Server) 時,都可以使用 IPv6。不過,對於交互操作性和回溯相容性,如果 UM IP 閘道上的 IPAddressFamily 參數設定為 Any,就可以在不需要變更其他組態的情況下,使用 IPv4。In on-premises, hybrid, and Exchange Online deployments, both enterprise and Exchange Online UM administrators can use IPv6 when they connect UM to IPv6-capable devices, including devices such as routers, IP gateways, IP PBXs, and Microsoft Office Communications Server 2007 R2 and Microsoft Lync servers. However, for interoperability and backward compatibility, IPv4 can be used instead without additional configuration changes if the IPAddressFamily parameter is set to Any on UM IP gateways.

Exchange UM 仍必須直接與可能在其軟體或韌體支援 IPv6 的 SIP 對等 (VoIP 閘道、IP PBX 和 SBC) 通訊。如果它們不支援 IPv6,UM 必須可以直接與使用 IPv4 的 SIP 對等通訊。對於託管的語音信箱,UM 會透過 SBC 或 Lync Server 2010 或 Lync Server 2013 與客戶設備通訊,在託管的環境中,可以部署諸如 SBC 和 Lync 伺服器等 IPv6 SIP 感知用戶端來處理 IPv6-to-IPv4 轉換程序。Exchange UM must still communicate directly with SIP peers (VoIP gateways, IP PBXs, and SBCs) that may not support IPv6 in their software or firmware. If they don't support IPv6, UM must be able to communicate directly with SIP peers that use IPv4. For hosted voice mail, UM communicates with customer equipment through SBCs, Lync Server 2010, or Lync Server 2013. In hosted environments, IPv6 SIP-aware clients such as SBCs and Lync servers can be deployed to handle the IPv6-to-IPv4 conversion process.

針對您安裝 Client Access Server 和 Mailbox Server 後的內部部署和混合部署,以及 Exchange Online UM 部署,您需要建立 UM IP 閘道。如果您需要 UM IP 閘道支援 IPv6,您還必須︰For on-premises and hybrid deployments after you install your Client Access and Mailbox servers, and for Exchange Online UM deployments, you need to create UM IP gateways. If you need your UM IP gateways to support IPv6, you must also:

  1. 建立一個新 UM IP 閘道或以 IPv6 位址為網路上每個 IP 閘道、IP PBX 或 SBC 設定 UM IP 閘道。建立並設定要求的 UM IP 閘道時,必須新增 IPv6 位址或 UM IP 閘道的完整網域名稱 (FQDN)。若您將 FQDN 新增至 UM IP 閘道中,必須建立正確的 DNS 記錄以將 UM IP 閘道解析至 IPv6 位址。若您已有 UM IP 閘道,可使用 Set-UMIPgateway 指令程式來設定 IPv6 位址或 FQDN。Create a new UM IP gateway or configure an existing UM IP gateway with an IPv6 address for each of the IP gateways, IP PBXs, or SBCs on your network. When you're creating and configuring the required UM IP gateways, you must add the IPv6 address or the Fully Qualified Domain Name (FQDN) for the UM IP gateway. If you're adding the FQDN to the UM IP gateway, you must have created the correct DNS records to resolve the UM IP gateway FQDN to the IPv6 address. If you have an existing UM IP gateway, you can use the Set-UMIPgateway cmdlet to configure the IPv6 address or FQDN.

  2. 在每個 UM IP 閘道上設定 IPAddressFamily_參數。若要啟用 VoIP 閘道接受 IPv6 封包,您必須將 UM IP 閘道設定為接受 IPv4 和 IPv6 兩種連線,或僅接受 IPv6 的連線,方法是透過使用 Set-UMIPgateway 指令程式設定。Configure the _IPAddressFamily parameter on each UM IP gateway. To enable the VoIP gateway to accept IPv6 packets, you must set the UM IP gateway to either accept both IPv4 and IPv6 connections, or accept only IPv6 connections, by using the Set-UMIPgateway cmdlet.

  3. 當您設定 UM IP 閘道後,您也必須在網路上設定 VoIP 閘道、IP PBX 和 SBC 以支援 IPv6。詳細資料可參閱您硬體廠商所提供支援 IPv6 的裝置清單以及如何正確設定的方式。After you've configured your UM IP gateways, you must also configure the VoIP gateways, IP PBXs, and SBCs on your network to support IPv6. For details, see your hardware vendor for a list of devices that support IPv6 and how to correctly configure them.

注意

每個撥號對應表最多有 200 個 UM IP 閘道。如果建立超過 200 個,則 UM 服務不會啟動。The maximum number of UM IP gateways per dial plan is 200. If you create more than 200 the UM service won't start.

啟用及停用 UM IP 閘道Enabling and disabling a UM IP gateway

根據預設,UM IP 閘道建立之後會保持啟用狀態。然而,您仍然可以啟用或停用 UM IP 閘道。如果您停用了某個 UM IP 閘道,您可以設定它強制所有 Exchange 伺服器中斷現有的呼叫。另外,您可將它設定為強制所有與 UM IP 閘道相關聯的 Exchange 伺服器停止處理任何 VoIP 閘道、IP PBX 或 SBC 提出的新呼叫。By default, a UM IP gateway is left in an enabled state after it's created. However, the UM IP gateway can be enabled or disabled. If you disable a UM IP gateway, you can set it to force all Exchange servers to drop existing calls. Alternatively, you can set it to force the Exchange servers associated with the UM IP gateway to stop handling any new calls presented by the VoIP gateway, IP PBX, or SBC.

如果您將整合通訊與 Office Communications Server R2 或 Microsoft Lync Server 整合,您必須允許只有一個 UM IP 閘道可以為使用者撥出呼叫,並停用與 SIP URI 撥號對應表相關聯之其他所有 UM IP 閘道的輸出呼叫。使用命令介面或 EAC 停用輸出呼叫。If you're integrating Unified Messaging with Office Communications Server R2 or Microsoft Lync Server, you must allow only one UM IP gateway to make outgoing calls for users, and disable outbound calling on all other UM IP gateways associated with your SIP URI dial plans. Use either the Shell or the EAC to disable outbound calling.

當您選擇透過 UM IP 閘道允許內部部署和混合部署的撥出呼叫時,請選擇一個可能用來處理大部分流量的 UM IP。不可允許透過連接 Lync Server Director 集區的 UM IP 閘道撥出流量。這是為了確保由執行 Microsoft Exchange 整合通訊服務 (例如,「在電話上播放」的情況) 的信箱伺服器所放置的外部使用者輸出呼叫可確實周遊到公司的防火牆。When selecting the UM IP gateway through which to allow outgoing calls for on-premises and hybrid deployments, choose the one that's likely to handle the most traffic. Don't allow outgoing traffic through a UM IP gateway that connects to a pool of Lync Server Directors. This is necessary to ensure that outbound calls to external users placed by a Mailbox server running the Microsoft Exchange Unified Messaging service (for example, in Play-on-Phone scenarios) reliably traverse the corporate firewall.