選取用於 Configuration Manager 的探索方法Select discovery methods to use for Configuration Manager

適用於: Configuration Manager (最新分支)Applies to: Configuration Manager (current branch)

若要順利有效地使用 Configuration Manager 探索,您必須考慮要使用的方法以及執行這些方法的站台。To successfully and efficiently use discovery for Configuration Manager, you must consider which methods to use and at which sites to run them.

由於探索作業會產生大量的網路流量,且產生的探索資料記錄 (DDR) 會在處理期間耗用龐大的 CPU 資源,因此請只使用達成目標所需的探索方法。Because discovery can generate a large volume of network traffic, and the resultant discovery data records (DDRs) can use significant CPU resources during processing, use only those discovery methods that you require to meet your goals. 您可以從只使用一或兩個探索方法開始,之後再以節制的方式啟用其他方法來延伸您環境中的探索層級。You might start by using only one or two discovery methods, and then later enable additional methods in a controlled manner to extend the level of discovery in your environment. 本主題中的資訊可以協助您做出明智的決策。The information in this topic can help you make informed decisions.

如需不同探索方法的相關資訊,請參閱關於 Configuration Manager 的探索方法For information about the different discovery methods, see About discovery methods for Configuration Manager.

選取探索不同項目的方法Select methods to discover different things

若要探索潛在的 Configuration Manager 用戶端電腦或使用者資源,您必須啟用適當的探索方法。To discover potential Configuration Manager client computers or user resources, you must enable the appropriate discovery methods. 您可以使用不同的探索方法組合來尋找不同的資源,以及探索與這些資源有關的其他資訊。You can use different combinations of discovery methods to locate different resources, and to discover additional information about those resources. 您使用的探索方法會決定已探索的資源類型,以及在探索程序中使用哪些 Configuration Manager 服務和代理程式。The discovery methods that you use determine the type of resources that are discovered, and which Configuration Manager services and agents are used in the discovery process. 同時會決定與可探索之資源相關的資訊類型。They also determine the type of information about resources that you can discover.

探索電腦Discover computers

當您要探索電腦時,您可以使用「Active Directory 系統探索」 或「網路探索」 。When you want to discover computers, you can use Active Directory System Discovery or Network Discovery.

例如,如果您要在使用用戶端推入安裝之前探索可安裝 Configuration Manager 用戶端的資源,您可執行 Active Directory 系統探索。For example, if you want to discover resources that can install the Configuration Manager client before you use client push installation, you might run Active Directory System Discovery. 使用這種方法,您不只會探索資源,還會探索基本資訊,甚至是來自 Active Directory 網域服務探索的額外資訊。Using this method, you not only discover the resource, but also discover basic information even extended information about it from Active Directory Domain Services. 此資訊將有助於建立複雜的查詢與集合,以用來指派用戶端設定或內容部署。This information might be useful in building complex queries and collections to use for the assignment of client settings or content deployment.

或者,您也可以執行網路探索並使用其選項來探索資源的作業系統 (稍後使用用戶端推入安裝時需要)。Alternatively, you could run Network Discovery, and use its options to discover the operating system of resources (required to later use client push installation). 網路探索可提供您使用其他探索方法無法取得之網路拓撲的相關資訊。Network Discovery provides you with information about your network topology that you are not able to acquire with other discovery methods. 不過,此方法不會提供任何與您的 Active Directory 環境有關的資訊。This method does not, however, provide you any information about your Active Directory environment.

還有一種方法稱為「活動訊號探索」 。There is also a method called Heartbeat Discovery. 您可以只使用活動訊號探索來強制探索使用用戶端推入安裝以外的方法所安裝的用戶端。It is possible to use only Heartbeat Discovery to force the discovery of clients that you installed by methods other than client push installation. 不過,與其他探索方法不同的是,活動訊號探索無法探索沒有作用中 Configuration Manager 用戶端的電腦。However, unlike other discovery methods, Heartbeat Discovery cannot discover computers that do not have an active Configuration Manager client. 它會傳回一組有限的資訊,目的在於維護現有資料庫記錄,而非作為該記錄的基礎。It returns a limited set of information, intended to maintain an existing database record rather than be the basis of that record. 活動訊號探索提交的資訊可能不足以建立複雜的查詢或集合。Information submitted by Heartbeat Discovery might not be sufficient to build complex queries or collections.

如果您使用「Active Directory 群組探索」 來探索指定群組的成員資格,您可以探索有限的系統或電腦資訊。If you use Active Directory Group Discovery to discover the membership of a specified group, you can discover limited system or computer information. 這並不會取代電腦的完整探索,但可提供基本資訊。This does not replace a full discovery of computers, but can provide basic information. 此資訊並不足以執行用戶端推入安裝。This information is insufficient for client push installation.

探索使用者Discover users

當您要探索與使用者有關的資訊時,請使用「Active Directory 使用者探索」 。When you want to discover information about users, use Active Directory User Discovery. 與 Active Directory 系統探索類似,此方法會探索 Active Directory 的使用者。Similar to Active Directory System Discovery, this method discovers users from Active Directory. 它包含除了延伸 Active Directory 資訊以外的基本資訊。It includes basic information, in addition to extended Active Directory information. 您可以使用此資訊來建立與電腦應用類似的複雜查詢和集合。You can use this information to build complex queries and collections similar to those for computers.

探索群組資訊Discover group information

當您要探索與群組和群組成員資格有關的資訊時,請使用「Active Directory 群組探索」 。When you want to discover information about groups and group memberships, use Active Directory Group Discovery. 此探索方法會建立安全性群組的資源記錄。This discovery method creates resource records for security groups.

您可以使用此方法來搜尋特定的 Active Directory 群組,以便在該群組內的任何巢狀群組外還能識別該群組的成員。You can use this method to search a specific Active Directory group to identify the members of that group, in addition to any nested groups within that group. 您也可以使用此方法來搜尋群組的 Active Directory 位置,並以遞迴方式在 Active Directory 網域服務中搜尋該位置的每個子容器。You can also use this method to search an Active Directory location for groups, and recursively search each child container of that location in Active Directory Domain Services.

此探索方法也可搜尋發佈群組的成員資格。This discovery method can also search the membership of distribution groups. 並可識別使用者及電腦的群組關係。This can identify the group relationships of both users and computers.

當您探索群組時,您也可以探索與其成員相關的有限資訊。When you discover a group, you can also discover limited information about its members. 不過,這不會取代 Active Directory 系統或使用者探索方法。This does not replace the Active Directory system or user discovery methods, though. 通常不足以建置複雜查詢和集合,也無法作為用戶端推入安裝的基礎。It is usually insufficient to build complex queries and collections, or serve as the basis of a client push installation.

探索基礎結構Discover infrastructure

您可以使用兩種方法來探索網路基礎結構,分別是「Active Directory 樹系探索」 和「網路探索」 。There are two methods you can use to discover network infrastructure, Active Directory Forest Discovery and Network Discovery.

使用 Active Directory 樹系探索來搜尋 Active Directory 樹系,以尋找與子網路和 Active Directory 站台設定有關的資訊。Use Active Directory Forest Discovery to search an Active Directory forest for information about subnets and Active Directory site configurations. 然後這些設定會自動輸入至 Configuration Manager 作為界限位置。These configurations can then be automatically entered into Configuration Manager as boundary locations.

當您想要探索網路拓撲時,可使用網路探索。When you want to discover your network topology, use Network Discovery. 雖然其他探索方法會傳回與 Active Directory 網域服務相關的資訊並可識別用戶端的目前網路位置,但不提供以子網路和網路路由器拓撲為基礎的基礎結構資訊。While other discovery methods return information related to Active Directory Domain Services, and can identify the current network location of a client, they do not provide infrastructure information based on the subnets and router topology of your network.

站台間可共用探索資料Discovery data is shared among sites

在 Configuration Manager 將探索資料新增至資料庫時,會在階層內的所有站台間快速共用這些資料。After Configuration Manager adds discovery data to a database, it is quickly shared among all sites in the hierarchy. 由於在階層的多個站台中探索相同的資訊通常沒有好處,因此請考慮為您用於在單一站台上執行的各個探索方法設定單一執行個體。Because there is typically no benefit to discovering the same information at multiple sites in your hierarchy, consider setting up a single instance of each discovery method that you use to run at a single site. 最好是這麼做,而不是在不同站台上執行單一方法的多個執行個體。It's a good idea to do this instead of running multiple instances of a single method at different sites.

不過,多個站台指派相同的探索方法,但每個方法皆使用不同的設定和排程,對有些環境可能很有用。However, for some environments it might be useful to assign the same discovery method to run at multiple sites, each with a separate configuration and schedule. 例如,使用網路探索時,您可能會想要引導每個站台探索其本機網路,而不是嘗試透過 WAN 探索所有網路位置。For example, when using Network Discovery, you might want to direct each site to discover its local network, instead of attempting to discover all network locations across a WAN.

如果您設定相同探索方法的多個執行個體在不同站台上執行,請仔細規劃每個站台的設定。If you do configure multiple instances of the same discovery methods to run at different sites, plan the configuration of each site carefully. 您想要避免有兩個或多個站台探索您網路或 Active Directory 的相同資源。You want to avoid having two or more sites discover the same resources from your network or Active Directory. 這樣可能會耗用額外的網路頻寬並建立重複 DDR。This can consume additional network bandwidth and create duplicate DDRs.

下表說明您可以在哪些站台設定不同的探索方法。The following table identifies at which sites you can set up the different discovery methods.

探索方法Discovery method 支援的位置Supported locations
Active Directory 樹系探索Active Directory Forest Discovery 管理中心網站Central administration site

主要網站Primary site
Active Directory 群組探索Active Directory Group Discovery 主要網站Primary site
Active Directory 系統探索Active Directory System Discovery 主要網站Primary site
Active Directory 使用者探索Active Directory User Discovery 主要網站Primary site
活動訊號探索1Heartbeat Discovery1 主要網站Primary site
網路探索Network Discovery 主要網站Primary site

次要網站Secondary site

1 次要站台無法設定活動訊號探索,但可以從用戶端接收活動訊號 DDR。1 Secondary sites cannot configure Heartbeat Discovery, but can receive the Heartbeat DDR from a client.

當次要站台執行網路探索,或接收活動訊號探索 DDR 時,會經由檔案複寫將 DDR 傳送到其父主要站台。When secondary sites run Network Discovery, or receive Heartbeat Discovery DDRs, they transfer the DDR by file-based replication to their parent primary site. 這是因為只有主要站台和管理中心網站可以處理 DDR。This is because only primary sites and central administration sites can process DDRs. 如需如何處理 DDR 的詳細資訊,請參閱關於探索資料記錄For more information about how DDRs are processed, see About discovery data records.

考量不同的探索方法Considerations for different discovery methods

因為每個站台伺服器和網路環境都不同,所以最好限制探索的初始設定。Because each site server and network environment is different, it's a good idea to limit your initial configurations for discovery. 接著仔細監視各站台伺服器處理所產生之探索資料的能力。Then closely monitor each site server for its ability to process the discovery data that is generated.

當您要針對系統、使用者或群組使用 Active Directory 探索方法時:When you use an Active Directory discovery method for systems, users, or groups:

  • 在採用快速網路與您的網域控制站連線的站台上執行探索。Run discovery at a site that has a fast network connection to your domain controllers.

  • 考慮使用 Active Directory 複寫拓撲以確定探索可存取最新資訊。Consider the Active Directory replication topology to ensure discovery can access the latest information.

  • 考慮探索設定的範圍,並將探索限制在這些 Active Directory 位置,以及您必須探索的群組。Consider the scope of the discovery configuration, and limit discovery to only those Active Directory locations and groups that you have to discover.

如果您使用「網路探索」 :If you use Network Discovery:

  • 使用有限的初始設定來識別您的網路拓撲。Use a limited initial configuration to identify your network topography.

  • 在識別網路拓撲後,請將網路探索設定在您想要進行完全探索之網路區域中央的特定站台上執行。After you identify your network topography, set up Network Discovery to run at specific sites that are central to the network areas that you want to more fully discover.

由於「活動訊號探索」 不會在特定站台執行,因此您不需要在規劃執行探索位置時考慮到它。Because Heartbeat Discovery does not run at a specific site, you do not have to consider it in general planning for where to run discovery.

探索的最佳作法Best practices for discovery

若要獲得探索的最佳結果,建議執行下列動作︰For best results with discovery, we recommend the following:

  • 先執行 Active Directory 系統探索和 Active Directory 使用者探索,再執行 Active Directory 群組探索。Run Active Directory System Discovery and Active Directory User Discovery before you run Active Directory Group Discovery.

    當 Active Directory 群組探索識別出先前未探索到的使用者或電腦為群組的成員時,會嘗試探索使用者或電腦的基本詳細資料。When Active Directory Group Discovery identifies a previously undiscovered user or computer as a member of a group, it attempts to discover basic details for the user or computer. 由於 Active Directory 群組探索並未針對這種探索類型進行最佳化,因此此程序可能會造成它的執行速度過慢。Because Active Directory Group Discovery is not optimized for this type of discovery, this process can cause it to run slowly. 此外,Active Directory 群組探索只會識別所探索之使用者和電腦的相關基本詳細資料,並不會建立完整的使用者或電腦探索記錄。Additionally, Active Directory Group Discovery identifies only the basic details about the users and computers it discovers, and does not create a complete user or computer discovery record. 當您執行 Active Directory 系統探索和 Active Directory 使用者探索時,可使用各物件類型的其他 Active Directory 屬性。When you run Active Directory System Discovery and Active Directory User Discovery, the additional Active Directory attributes for each object type are available. 因此,Active Directory 群組探索可以更有效地執行。As a result, Active Directory Group Discovery runs more efficiently.

  • 當您設定 Active Directory 群組探索時,只能指定您搭配 Configuration Manager 使用的群組。When you set up Active Directory Group Discovery, only specify groups that you use with Configuration Manager.

    若要有效控制 Active Directory 群組探索使用的資源,請在搭配 Configuration Manager 使用時僅指定這些群組。To help control the use of resources by Active Directory Group Discovery, specify only those groups that you use with Configuration Manager. 這是因為 Active Directory 群組探索會以遞迴方式搜尋各個群組,以探索使用者、電腦及巢狀群組。This is because Active Directory Group Discovery recursively searches each group it discovers for users, computers, and nested groups. 搜尋各個巢狀群組可能會延伸 Active Directory 群組探索的範圍,並降低效能。The search of each nested group can expand the scope of Active Directory Group Discovery, and reduce performance. 此外,當您設定 Active Directory 群組探索的差異探索時,探索方法會監視各個群組的變更。Additionally, when you set up delta discovery for Active Directory Group Discovery, the discovery method monitors each group for changes. 這麼做可能會在該方法必須搜尋不必要的群組時,使效能更為降低。This further reduces performance when the method must search unnecessary groups.

  • 使用完整探索之間較長的間隔時間,以及較頻繁差異探索時間,設定探索方法。Set up discovery methods with a longer interval between full discovery, and a more frequent period of delta discovery.

    由於差異探索會使用比完整探索週期更少的資源,而且可以識別 Active Directory 中新增或修改的資源,因此您可以將完整探索週期頻率降低為每週執行一次或不到一週執行一次。Because delta discovery uses fewer resources than a full discovery cycle, and can identify new or modified resources in Active Directory, you can reduce the frequency of full discovery cycles to run weekly (or less). Active Directory 系統探索、Active Directory 使用者探索和 Active Directory 群組探索的差異探索,會識別幾乎所有 Active Directory 物件的變更,進而能維持準確的資源探索資料。Delta discovery for Active Directory System Discovery, Active Directory User Discovery and Active Directory Group Discovery identifies almost all the changes of Active Directory objects, and can maintain accurate discovery data for resources.

  • 在具有最接近 Active Directory 網域控制站之網路位置的主要站台上,執行 Active Directory 探索方法。Run Active Directory discovery methods at a primary site that has a network location that is closest to your Active Directory domain controller.

    若要改善 Active Directory 探索的效能,最好是在採用快速網路與網域控制站連線的主要站台上執行探索。To improve the performance of Active Directory discovery, it's a good idea to run discover at a primary site that has a fast network connection to your domain controllers. 如果要在多個站台上執行相同的 Active Directory 探索方法,請設定各種探索方法以避免重疊。If you run the same Active Directory discovery method at multiple sites, set up each discovery method to avoid overlap. 和舊版 Configuration Manager 不同的是,站台之間可共用探索資料。Unlike past versions of Configuration Manager, discovery data is shared among sites. 因此,並不需要在多個站台探索相同的資訊。Therefore, it is not necessary to discover the same information at multiple sites. 如需詳細資訊,請參閱站台之間可共用探索資料For more information, see Discovery data is shared between sites.

  • 當您想要從探索資料自動建立界限時,只能在一個站台上執行 Active Directory 樹系探索。Run Active Directory Forest Discovery at only one site when you plan to automatically create boundaries from the discovery data.

    如果您要在階層的一個以上的站台上執行 Active Directory 樹系探索,則最好只在單一站台啟用自動建立界限的選項。If you run Active Directory Forest Discovery at more than one site in a hierarchy, it's a good idea to only enable options to automatically create boundaries at a single site. 這是因為當 Active Directory 樹系探索在各個站台執行並建立界限時,Configuration Manager 無法將這些界限合併為單一界限物件。This is because when Active Directory Forest Discovery runs at each site and creates boundaries, Configuration Manager cannot merge those boundaries into a single boundary object. 當您將 Active Directory 樹系探索設定為在多個站台自動建立界限時,可能會在 Configuration Manager 主控台產生重複的界限物件。When you configure Active Directory Forest Discovery to automatically create boundaries at multiple sites, the result can be duplicated boundary objects in the Configuration Manager console.