在 EOP 中建立封鎖的寄件者清單Create blocked sender lists in EOP

重要

改良的 Microsoft 365 安全性中心現在可用。The improved Microsoft 365 security center is now available. 這個新的體驗會將適用於端點的 Defender、適用於 Office 365 的 Defender、Microsoft 365 Defender 和更多功能帶到 Microsoft 365 安全性中心。This new experience brings Defender for Endpoint, Defender for Office 365, Microsoft 365 Defender, and more into the Microsoft 365 security center. 了解新功能Learn what's new.

適用於Applies to

在有信箱在 Exchange Online 或獨立 Exchange Online Protection 中的 Microsoft 365 組織中 (EOP) 不含 Exchange Online 信箱的組織,EOP 提供多種方式,封鎖來自不想要的寄件者的電子郵件。In Microsoft 365 organizations with mailboxes in Exchange Online or standalone Exchange Online Protection (EOP) organizations without Exchange Online mailboxes, EOP offers multiple ways of blocking email from unwanted senders. 這些選項包括 Outlook 封鎖的寄件者、封鎖的寄件者清單或反垃圾郵件原則中封鎖的網域清單、Exchange 郵件流程規則 (也稱為傳輸規則) ,以及 IP 封鎖清單 (連線篩選) 。These options include Outlook Blocked Senders, blocked sender lists or blocked domain lists in anti-spam policies, Exchange mail flow rules (also known as transport rules), and the IP Block List (connection filtering). 綜合,您可以將這些選項視為 封鎖的寄件者清單Collectively, you can think of these options as blocked sender lists.

封鎖寄件者的最佳方法會因影響範圍而異。The best method to block senders varies on the scope of impact. 針對單一使用者,正確的解決方案可能是 Outlook 封鎖的寄件者。For a single user, the right solution could be Outlook Blocked Senders. 對於許多使用者而言,其中一個其他選項更適合。For many users, one of the other options would be more appropriate. 下列選項依影響範圍及廣度排名。The following options are ranked by both impact scope and breadth. 清單從窄到寬,但閱讀完整建議的 詳細 資料。The list goes from narrow to broad, but read the specifics for full recommendations.

  1. Outlook 封鎖的寄件者 (儲存于每個信箱中的封鎖寄件者清單) Outlook Blocked Senders (the Blocked Senders list that's stored in each mailbox)

  2. (反垃圾郵件原則所封鎖的寄件者清單或封鎖的網域清單) Blocked sender lists or blocked domain lists (anti-spam policies)

  3. 郵件流程規則Mail flow rules

  4. IP 封鎖清單 (連線篩選) The IP Block List (connection filtering)

注意

雖然您可以使用全組織的封鎖設定來處理誤報 (未接的垃圾郵件) ,您也應該將這些郵件提交給 Microsoft 進行分析。While you can use organization-wide block settings to address false negatives (missed spam), you should also submit those messages to Microsoft for analysis. 使用封鎖清單來管理 false 負片會大幅增加您的管理額外負荷。Managing false negatives by using block lists significantly increases your administrative overhead. 如果您使用封鎖清單來轉移未接的垃圾郵件,您必須在準備時讓主題向 Microsoft 報告訊息和 檔案。If you use block lists to deflect missed spam, you need to keep the topic Report messages and files to Microsoft at the ready.

相比之下,您也可以使用 安全寄件者清單,讓您有數個選項永遠允許來自特定來源的電子郵件。In contrast, you also have several options to always allow email from specific sources using safe sender lists. 如需詳細資訊,請參閱建立安全寄件者清單For more information, see Create safe sender lists.

電子郵件訊息基礎Email message basics

標準 SMTP 電子郵件由「郵件信封」(Message Envelope) 和郵件內容組成。A standard SMTP email message consists of a message envelope and message content. 郵件信封包含在 SMTP 伺服器之間傳輸及傳遞郵件所需的資訊。The message envelope contains information that's required for transmitting and delivering the message between SMTP servers. 郵件內容包含統稱為 (「郵件標頭」) 的郵件標頭欄位和郵件內容。The message content contains message header fields (collectively called the message header) and the message body. RFC 5321 會說明郵件信封,而 RFC 5322 中說明郵件頭。The message envelope is described in RFC 5321, and the message header is described in RFC 5322. 收件者永遠不會看到實際的郵件信封,因為它是由郵件傳輸程式所產生,而且實際上不是郵件的一部分。Recipients never see the actual message envelope because it's generated by the message transmission process, and it isn't actually part of the message.

  • 5321.MailFrom 位址 (也稱為「 郵件來自 位址」、「P1 寄件者」或「信封寄件者」) 是在郵件的 SMTP 傳輸中使用的電子郵件地址。The 5321.MailFrom address (also known as the MAIL FROM address, P1 sender, or envelope sender) is the email address that's used in the SMTP transmission of the message. 這個電子郵件地址通常會記錄在郵件頭的 [傳回 路徑 標頭] 欄位中 (不過,寄件者可能會指定不同的傳回 路徑 電子郵件地址) 。This email address is typically recorded in the Return-Path header field in the message header (although it's possible for the sender to designate a different Return-Path email address). 如果無法傳遞郵件,表示未傳遞回報的收件者 (也稱為 NDR 或退回郵件) 。If the message can't be delivered, it's the recipient for the non-delivery report (also known as an NDR or bounce message).

  • 5322.From (也稱為 from address 或 P2 sender) 是電子郵件地址 的收 件者標頭欄位,也就是顯示在電子郵件客戶程式中的寄件者電子郵件地址。The 5322.From (also known as the From address or P2 sender) is the email address in the From header field, and is the sender's email address that's displayed in email clients.

通常, 5321.MailFrom5322.From 位址 (人員對人員通訊) 相同。Frequently, the 5321.MailFrom and 5322.From addresses are the same (person-to-person communication). 不過,當您代表其他人傳送電子郵件時,位址可能會不同。However, when email is sent on behalf of someone else, the addresses can be different.

EOP 中,封鎖的寄件者清單和封鎖的網域清單會檢查 5321.MailFrom5322.From 位址。Blocked sender lists and blocked domain lists in anti-spam policies in EOP inspect both the 5321.MailFrom and 5322.From addresses. Outlook 封鎖的寄件者只會使用該 5322.From 位址。Outlook Blocked Senders only uses the 5322.From address.

使用 Outlook 封鎖的寄件者Use Outlook Blocked Senders

當只有少量的使用者收到不想要的電子郵件時,使用者或系統管理員可以將寄件者電子郵件地址新增至信箱中的封鎖寄件者清單。When only a small number of users received unwanted email, users or admins can add the sender email addresses to the Blocked Senders list in the mailbox. 如需相關指示,請參閱 在 Exchange Online 信箱上設定垃圾郵件設定For instructions, see Configure junk email settings on Exchange Online mailboxes.

當郵件因使用者的封鎖寄件者清單而成功封鎖時, X-Forefront-Antispam-Report 標頭欄位將會包含此值 SFV:BLKWhen messages are successfully blocked due to a user's Blocked Senders list, the X-Forefront-Antispam-Report header field will contain the value SFV:BLK.

注意

如果不想要的郵件是來自可信和辨識來源的簡報,請從電子郵件取消訂閱,以停止使用者接收郵件。If the unwanted messages are newsletters from a reputable and recognizable source, unsubscribing from the email is another option to stop the user from receiving the messages.

使用封鎖的寄件者清單或封鎖的網域清單Use blocked sender lists or blocked domain lists

當多個使用者受到影響時,範圍會變寬,所以下一個最佳選項是反垃圾郵件原則中的封鎖寄件者清單或封鎖的網域清單。When multiple users are affected, the scope is wider, so the next best option is blocked sender lists or blocked domain lists in anti-spam policies. 來自清單寄件者的郵件會標示為 垃圾 郵件,而您針對 垃圾郵件 篩選判定所設定的動作會針對郵件採取。Messages from senders on the lists are marked as Spam, and the action that you've configured for the Spam filter verdict is taken on the message. 如需詳細資訊,請參閱設定反垃圾郵件原則For more information, see Configure anti-spam policies.

這兩個清單的上限大約是1000個專案。The maximum limit for these lists is approximately 1000 entries.

使用郵件流程規則Use mail flow rules

如果您需要封鎖傳送給特定使用者或整個組織內的郵件,您可以使用郵件流程規則。If you need to block messages that are sent to specific users or across the entire organization, you can use mail flow rules. 郵件流程規則比封鎖寄件者清單或封鎖的寄件者網域清單更為靈活,因為它們也可以在不想要的郵件中尋找關鍵字或其他屬性。Mail flow rules are more flexible than block sender lists or blocked sender domain lists because they can also look for keywords or other properties in the unwanted messages.

不論您用來識別郵件的條件或例外情況為何,您可以將動作設定為將郵件的垃圾郵件信賴等級 (SCL) 設定為9,這會將郵件標示為 高信賴的垃圾 郵件。Regardless of the conditions or exceptions that you use to identify the messages, you configure the action to set the spam confidence level (SCL) of the message to 9, which marks the message a High confidence spam. 如需詳細資訊,請參閱 使用郵件流程規則設定郵件中的 SCLFor more information, see Use mail flow rules to set the SCL in messages.

重要

您可以輕鬆地建立 過於 嚴格的規則,所以請務必只使用特別的準則來識別您想要封鎖的郵件。It's easy to create rules that are overly aggressive, so it's important that you identify only the messages you want to block using using very specific criteria. 此外,請務必啟用規則的審計,並測試規則的結果,以確保所有內容如預期般運作。Also, be sure to enable auditing on the rule and test the results of the rule to ensure everything works as expected.

使用 IP 封鎖清單Use the IP Block List

當您無法使用其他其中一個選項來封鎖寄件者時, 應該使用連線篩選原則中的 IP 封鎖清單。When it's not possible to use one of the other options to block a sender, only then should you use the IP Block List in the connection filter policy. 如需詳細資訊,請參閱設定連線篩選原則For more information, see Configure the connection filter policy. 務必將封鎖的 Ip 數目維持在最小值,因此 建議封鎖整個 IP 位址範圍。It's important to keep the number of blocked IPs to a minimum, so blocking entire IP address ranges is not recommended.

您應該 特別 避免新增屬於消費者服務 (的 IP 位址範圍,例如 outlook.com) 或共用基礎結構,也可以確保您檢查封鎖的 IP 位址清單以作為定期維護的一部分。You should especially avoid adding IP address ranges that belong to consumer services (for example, outlook.com) or shared infrastructures, and also ensure that you review the list of blocked IP addresses as part of regular maintenance.