OneDrive 同步處理應用程式的網路使用率規劃Network utilization planning for the OneDrive sync app

本文適用於欲規劃部署 OneDrive 同步處理應用程式,以及想要預估使用者同步處理所需之網路頻寬的 IT 系統管理員。This article is for IT admins planning to deploy the OneDrive sync app and wanting to estimate the network bandwidth users will need for syncing. 如果您不是 IT 管理員,請遵循本文中的步驟來限制用來同步處理檔案的網路頻寬: 變更 OneDrive 同步應用程式上傳或下載速度If you're not an IT admin, follow the steps in this article to limit the network bandwidth used for syncing your files: Change the OneDrive sync app upload or download rate.

估計組織所需的網路頻寬Estimate the network bandwidth you need in your organization

請遵循下列步驟,估計當您完全部署 sync 應用程式時所要使用的頻寬。Follow these steps to estimate the bandwidth that will be used when you fully deploy the sync app.

  1. 評估每個使用者要部署同步處理應用程式的使用者和電腦數目。Assess the number of users and computers per user to which you'll deploy the sync app. 每個安裝會將所使用的頻寬相乘,所以具有三個同步處理電腦的使用者,會使用三倍于具備單一同步處理電腦之使用者的頻寬。Each installation multiplies the bandwidth used, so a user who has three syncing computers uses three times the bandwidth as a user who has a single syncing computer.

  2. 評估可用的頻寬和網路狀況Assess the available bandwidth and network conditions.

  3. 測量試驗群組之 sync 應用程式的網路使用方式Measure the network utilization of the sync app for a pilot group.

當您部署時, 控制同步處理輸送量When you deploy, Control sync throughput.

評估可用的頻寬和網路狀況Assess the available bandwidth and network conditions

您可以使用協力廠商的速度測試控管(如 Wireshark 或 Fiddler),以瞭解使用者體驗的實際下載和上傳輸送量。You can use third-party speed test tools, like Wireshark or Fiddler, to understand the actual download and upload throughput that the users experience.

封包遺失、延遲及其他因素也會影響 OneDrive 上傳和下載經驗。Packet loss, latency, and other factors can also impact OneDrive upload and download experience. 例如,如果有大量的網路或網路發生大量遺失,可能會導致 OneDrive 上傳與下載經驗降級,甚至在高頻寬網路 (1000 Mbps,例如) 。For example, a high-latency network or network experiencing a lot of loss could result in a degraded OneDrive upload and download experience even on high-bandwidth networks (1000 Mbps, for example). 遺失和延遲可能會因相同網路上的使用者數量和使用者執行的動作而異, (例如下載或上傳大型檔案) 。The loss and latency will likely vary based on the number of users that are on the same network and what those users are doing (like downloading or uploading large files).

Sync 應用程式所使用的頻寬主要是檔案上傳和下載流量,通常與檔案大小和所同步處理的檔案數目密切相關。The bandwidth used by the sync app is predominantly file upload and download traffic and is usually closely correlated with file size and the number of files being synced. 因此,使用的頻寬取決於使用者 OneDrive 中的檔案數目,以及他們選擇要同步處理的 SharePoint 文件庫中,再乘以檔案大小,然後再根據檔的變更率進行。Therefore, the bandwidth used depends on the number of files in the user's OneDrive and in SharePoint document libraries they choose to sync, multiplied by the size of files, and then by the rate of change of any file. 其他同步處理應用程式流量 (例如,檢查檔變更,以及檢查應用程式更新) 是最低的。Other sync app traffic (such as checking for file changes and checking for app updates) is minimal.

衡量試驗群組之 sync 應用程式的網路使用狀況Measure the network utilization of the sync app for a pilot group

當您建立試驗群組時,請確定使用者代表組織中人員的不同設定檔,以及不同的地理位置。When you create a pilot group, make sure the users are representative of the different profiles of people in your organization as well as the different geographic locations. 若要建立群組:To establish a group:

  • 估計檔案數目、一般檔案大小、檔案類型、每個文件庫的總大小、修改檔案的頻率,以及新增新檔案的頻率。Estimate the number of files, typical file sizes, file types, total size of each library, how frequently files are modified, and how frequently new files are added.

  • 在每個同步處理狀態中評估網路使用量,如下所述。Evaluate network utilization during each sync state as described below.

  • 使用試驗群組中的度量,以推斷整個組織的需求,並重新測試以驗證評估。Use the measurements from the pilot group to extrapolate the entire organization's needs and re-test to validate the estimations. 每個組織都不同。Each organization is different.

小組網站的初始部署和初始同步處理Initial deployment and initial sync of team sites

當使用者第一次下載位置時,頻寬使用量會峰值。When users download locations for the first time, bandwidth usage will spike. 若要避免這種峰值,請啟用 OneDrive 檔案的點播To avoid this spike, enable Learn about OneDrive Files On-Demand. 這可讓使用者在檔案資源管理器中流覽他們的檔案,但不加以下載。This allows users to browse their files in File Explorer without downloading them.

下圖說明一段時間的網路使用量(啟用已啟用檔且未啟用)。The following image illustrates the network utilization over time with Files On-Demand enabled and not enabled.

OneDrive 同步處理應用程式網路負載模式

操作同步處理Operational sync

完成初始同步處理之後,網路使用量將會降低,然後再進行調配。After the initial sync is complete, the network usage will decrease and then level out.

OneDrive 同步處理應用程式會為儲存在 OneDrive 和 SharePoint 中的所有檔案類型提供差異同步處理。The OneDrive sync app provides differential sync for all file types stored in OneDrive and SharePoint. 「差異同步處理」可讓同步處理應用程式只同步處理已變更之大型檔案的部分,而不是整個檔案。Differential sync enables the sync app to sync only the parts of large files that have changed, instead of the entire file. 在日常使用中,當使用者變更檔案時,只會上載或下載變更,而不會上載或下載整個檔案。During everyday usage, when users change files, only the changes are uploaded or downloaded and not the whole file. 這會使這些檔案的檔案同步處理速度更快。This makes the file synchronization process faster for these files. 它可減少上傳和下載檔案的時間,以及頻寬同步處理的使用時間。It reduces the time it takes to upload and download the file as well as the bandwidth sync consumes.

注意

Windows Notification Service 或 WNS 在有效的網路利用率中扮演著重要的角色。Windows Notification Service or WNS plays an important role in efficient network utilization. 但不是經常嘗試檢查遠端變更的 sync 應用程式,WNS 可確保雲端所做的任何變更都會盡可能快地推入裝置。Instead of the sync app constantly pulling to check for remote changes, WNS ensures that any changes from the cloud get pushed down to the device as fast as possible. 它會節約網路頻寬和裝置電池壽命。It saves both network bandwidth and device battery life. 這會對 Windows 和 macOS 帶來好處。This benefits both Windows and macOS. 請確定已啟用與服務的連線。Make sure the connection to the service is enabled. 請與您的網路小組合作,確定 proxy 允許網路流量可略過 * 。 wns.windows.com 並避免 wns.windows.com 的 HTTPS 解密。 *Work with your network team to make sure proxies allow network traffic to bypass *.wns.windows.com and avoid HTTPS decryption for *.wns.windows.com.

如果您在組織中部署已知的資料夾移動設定,就會出現上傳流量中的波峰。A spike in upload traffic is expected if you deploy the Known Folder Move setting in your organization. 如果您的組織很大,而且您的使用者在其已知的資料夾中有許多檔案,請確定您將原則部署緩慢,以降低上載檔案的網路影響。If your organization is large and your users have a lot of files in their known folders, make sure you roll out the policies slowly to minimize the network impact of uploading files. 如需已知資料夾移動的詳細部署指導,請參閱重新 導向並將 Windows 已知資料夾移至 OneDriveFor detailed deployment guidance on Known Folder Move, see Redirect and move Windows known folders to OneDrive.

控制同步處理輸送量Control sync throughput

如果您需要控制同步處理應用程式流量,建議使用 OneDrive sync 應用程式提供的網路輸送量原則。If you need to control sync app traffic, we recommend using network throughput policies provided by the OneDrive sync app. 您也可以使用網路服務品質 (QoS) 原則或 Windows QoS 原則,或讓使用者選擇其輸送量設定。You can also use your network quality of service (QoS) policies or Windows QoS policies, or let users choose their throughput settings. 如需您可供使用者使用的網路設定資訊,請參閱 變更 OneDrive 同步應用程式上傳或下載率For info about the network settings you can make available to your users, see Change the OneDrive sync app upload or download rate.

使用 OneDrive 原則Use OneDrive policies

您可以使用 OneDrive 同步處理應用程式隨附的原則來控制網路輸送量。You can use policies included with the OneDrive sync app to control network throughput. 在 [關於] 索引標籤的 %localappdata%\Microsoft\OneDrive\BuildNumber\adm\ BuildNumber [同步應用程式設定] 中顯示數位的 OneDrive 安裝目錄中提供這些原則。These policies are available in the OneDrive installation directory %localappdata%\Microsoft\OneDrive\BuildNumber\adm\ where BuildNumber is the number displayed in sync app settings on the About tab.

如需這些原則的相關資訊,請參閱:For info about these policies, see:

使用 Windows 服務品質 (QoS) 原則排定流量優先順序Prioritize traffic by using Windows Quality of Service (QoS) policy

若要定義輸出網路流量的優先順序,您可以使用特定的差異服務代碼點 (DSCP) 值,設定 QoS 原則。To define the priority of outbound network traffic, you can configure a QoS policy with a specific differentiated services code point (DSCP) value. 網路路由器使用 DSCP 值來分類網路封包,並決定適當的佇列。Network routers use the DSCP value to classify network packets and determine the appropriate queue. 值越高表示資料包的優先順序越高。A higher value indicates a higher priority for the packet. 佇列的數目和其優先順序行為必須設計為組織的 QoS 策略的一部分。The number of queues and their prioritization behavior needs to be designed as part of your organization's QoS strategy.

若要管理網路頻寬的使用,您可以設定 QoS 原則的輸出流量的特定節流率。To manage the use of network bandwidth, you can configure a QoS policy with a specific throttle rate for outbound traffic. 使用節流時,QoS 原則會限制傳出網路流量為指定的速率。With throttling, a QoS policy will limit the outgoing network traffic to a specified rate.

  1. 開啟 [群組原則管理主控台]。Open the Group Policy Management Console.

  2. 流覽至您要建立新原則的位置。Browse to the location where you want to create the new policy. 例如,如果所有用戶端電腦都位於名為 "client") OU (組織單位中,則應該在 "用戶端" OU 中建立新原則。For example, if all your client computers are located in an OU (Organizational Unit) named "Clients" then the new policy should be created in the "Clients" OU.

  3. 以滑鼠右鍵按一下位置,選取 [ 在這個網域中建立 GPO],然後選取 [在 這裡連結]。Right-click the location, select Create a GPO in this domain, and then select Link it here.

  4. 在 [ 新增 GPO ] 對話方塊的 [ 名稱 ] 方塊中,輸入新群組原則物件的名稱 (例如 "OneDrive sync app" ) 然後選取 [確定]In the New GPO dialog, enter a name for the new Group Policy object in the Name box (for example, "OneDrive sync app") and then select OK.

  5. 以滑鼠右鍵按一下原則,然後選取 [ 編輯]。Right-click the policy, and then select Edit.

  6. 在 [群組原則管理編輯器] 中,依序展開 [ 電腦 設定]、[ 原則]、[ Windows 設定]、[以滑鼠右鍵按一下 原則 QoS],然後選取 [ 建立新原則]。In the Group Policy Management Editor, expand Computer Configuration, expand Policies, expand Windows Settings, right-click Policy-based QoS, and then select Create new policy.

  7. 在 [ 原則型 QoS ] 對話方塊中,于 [ 名稱 ] 方塊中輸入新原則的名稱 (例如「OneDrive 同步應用程式」 ) 。In the Policy-based QoS dialog, enter a name for the new policy in the Name box (for example, "OneDrive sync app").

  8. 選取 [ 指定 DSCP 值 ],並根據組織的 QoS 策略,設定介於0到63的適當數值。Select Specify DSCP Value and set the appropriate value between 0 and 63 based on your organization's QoS strategy.

  9. 在 [ 輸出節流率 ] 方塊中,輸入 KBps 的速率,然後選取 [下一步]In the Outbound Throttle Rate box, enter a rate in KBps, and select Next.

  10. 選取 [ 僅限具有此可執行檔名稱的應用程式 ],並將 QoS 原則套用至只有 OneDrive 同步應用程式,請輸入「onedrive.exe」。Select Only applications with this executable name and to apply the QoS policy to only the OneDrive sync app process, enter "onedrive.exe". 選取 [下一步]。Select Next.

  11. 確定已選取 [ 所有來源 ip 位址 ] 和 [ 任何目的地 ip 位址 ],然後選取 [下一步]Make sure that both Any source IP address and Any destination IP address are selected, and then select Next. 這兩個設定可確保無論是哪部電腦 (IP 位址) 傳送封包,以及哪部電腦 (IP 位址) 接收封包,那些封包都會受到管理。These two settings ensure that packets will be managed regardless of which computer (IP address) sent those packets and which computer (IP address) will receive those packets.

  12. 在 [ 選取此 QoS 原則套用至的通訊協定 ] 清單中,選取 [ TCP]。In the Select the protocol this QoS policy applies to list, select TCP. 從任何來源埠 和任何選取的 目的地 保留。Leave from any source port and to any destination selected.

  13. Select Finish.Select Finish.

請參閱See also

Microsoft 365 的網路規劃和效能調整Network planning and performance tuning for Microsoft 365