報表和視覺效果的最佳設計做法Best design practices for reports and visuals

我們已經發行了 Power BI 全新、改善的瀏覽方式和內容體驗,而且正在更新所有文件。We’ve released a new and improved navigation and content experience for Power BI, and we’re in the process of updating all of our documentation. 此頁面上的螢幕擷取畫面與資訊可能跟您在螢幕上所看到的不盡相同。The information and screenshots on this page may not match what you see on your screen. 如需詳細資訊,請參閱瀏覽 Power BI 服務For more information see Navigating Power BI service.

簡介Introduction

本白皮書提供在 Power BI 中設計報表的最佳作法。This paper provides best practices for designing reports in Power BI. 從規劃開始,它將討論您可以套用至報表和構成該報表之頁面與個別視覺效果的設計原則。Starting with planning, it discusses principles of design that you can apply to your reports and to the pages and individual visuals that make up that report. 這些最佳作法有許多也適用於儀表板設計。Many of these best practices apply to dashboard design as well.

我們希望這份白皮書將是您的起點、您可將學習到的資訊套用至自己的報表和視覺效果,而且您將繼續在 community.powerbi.com 上進行對話。BI 報表設計和視覺效果的使用現在是熱門話題,而且有許多思想領袖、部落客和網站可廣泛且深入地查看本主題 (我們在結尾列出一些)。We hope this paper will be a jumping-off point for you and that you’ll apply what you learn to your own reports and visualizations and that you’ll continue the conversation on community.powerbi.com. BI report design and visualization usage is a hot topic right now and there are many thought leaders, bloggers, and websites that look at this topic in breadth and depth (we’ve listed a few at the end).

注意

本白皮書中所提供的建議是您要在適用時機和地點時套用的指導方針。The recommendations made in this white paper are guidelines for you to apply when and where it makes sense. 針對我們在下方描述的每個原則,通常都會有正當的理由可「打破規則」。For every principle we describe below, there are usually valid reasons to “break the rule.”

我們被資訊淹沒的原因不是資訊太多,而是不知道如何有效駕馭它。We are overwhelmed by information, not because there is too much, but because we don't know how to tame it. -- Stephen Few-- Stephen Few

看看地標和術語A look at the landscape and terminology

在 Power BI 中,報表可以有一個或多個報表頁面,而且所有頁面統稱為報表。In Power BI, a report can have one or more report pages and all the pages together are collectively referred to as the report. 報表的基本元素是視覺效果、獨立影像和文字方塊。The basic elements of the report are visuals (aka visualizations), standalone images, and text boxes. 從個別資料點,到報表元素,再到報表頁面本身,有數不清的格式化選項。From the individual data points, to the report elements, to the report page itself, there are innumerable formatting options.

我們將開始報表規劃階段,並繼續執行基本報表設計原則,然後討論視覺效果設計原則,並完成個別視覺效果類型最佳作法的討論。We’ll start at the report planning stage, continue on to basic report design principles, then discuss visual design principles, and finish with a discussion of best practices for individual visual types.

建立和使用 Power BI 報表的深入指引和指示位於 [powerbi.com] > [了解]。In-depth guidance and instructions for creating and using Power BI reports is available at powerbi.com > Learn.

在您建置第一個視覺效果之前,請專注於需求Before you build your first visualization…focus on requirements

因為良好的報表需要進行規劃,所以請在建置第一個視覺效果之前開始建立報表。Creating a report starts before you build your first visual because a good report needs planning. 了解您必須使用的資料,並寫下報表需求。Know what data you have to work with and write down the requirements for the report. 請問您自己:「商務需求為何、如何使用這項資料,以及由誰使用?」Ask yourself “What is the business need, how is this data going to be used, and by whom?” 關鍵問題是「讀者想要根據這份報表進行的決策為何?」A key question is “what decisions does the reader want to be able to make based on this report?”

這些問題的答案將驅動您的設計。The answer to those questions will drive your design. 每份報表都是一個故事。Every report tells a story. 請確定該故事符合商務需求。Make sure that story matches the business need. 您可能迫不及待想要新增可顯示大量深入資訊的視覺效果,但是,如果這些深入資訊不符合商務需求,則報表不實用,而且這些視覺效果事實上可能會讓您的使用者分心。It may be tempting to add visuals that show dramatic insights, but if those insights don’t match the business need, then the report won’t be useful – and in fact your users might be distracted by those visuals. 您也可能會發現無法從這項資料收集決策所需的資訊。Also, you may find that the information needed to make that decision cannot be gleaned from this data. 這份報表是否可以用來測量所需項目?Can this report be used to measure what is needed?

報表可以用來進行監視、發掘、追蹤、預測、測量、管理、測試和其他作業。Reports can be used to monitor, uncover, track, predict, measure, manage, test, and more. 例如,如果商務需求是測量效能的銷售報表,則您可以設計報表來查看目前銷售、與先前的銷售進行比較、與競爭對手進行比較,以及包含一些可觸發警示的 KPI。If, for example, the business need is a sales report that measures performance, then you might design a report that looks at current sales, compares it to previous sales, compares to competitors, and includes some KPIs that trigger alerts. 讀者可能會向下鑽研至銷售數據,以查看可能影響銷售的商店關閉或供應鏈問題。Perhaps readers can drill down into the sales numbers to see store closures or supply chain issues that may be impacting sales. 另一個向下鑽研可能是可查看依商店、地區、產品、季節等的銷售量。Another drilldown might be the ability to look at sales by store, region, product, season, and more.

了解報表的客戶,並設計報表,這份報表使用熟悉的詞彙,並提供資料,而其詳細層級和複雜度等同於客戶知識層級。Know the customers for the report and design a report that uses familiar terminology and provides data at a level of detail and complexity on par with the customers’ level of knowledge. 是否有多種類型的客戶?Have more than one type of customer? 單一大小不一定適合所有情況;請根據專業知識來設計不同的報表頁面,並且一定要清楚標示,讓客戶可以自行識別。One size doesn’t always fit all; design separate report pages based on expertise and be sure to label each page clearly so customers can self-identify. 另一個選項是使用交叉分析篩選器,讓客戶可以調整頁面以放入它們。Another option is to use slicers so customers can tailor the page to fit them. 讓客戶參與規劃階段,並避免錯誤地建置您認為他們需要的項目。Involve the customer in the planning stage and avoid the mistake of building what you think they need. 請準備好從頭開始,並逐一查看。Be prepared to start over and to iterate.

找到您想要包含的商務需求、客戶和度量之後,下一步就是挑選正確的視覺效果適當地呈現,並以最有效的方式呈現這些視覺效果。Once you’ve identified the business need, the customers, and the metrics you’d like to include, the next step is to pick the right visuals to tell the story and present those visuals in the most-effective way possible. 這涵蓋的主題甚廣,我們將從報表設計的一些基本原則開始。That covers a lot of ground, and we’ll start with some basic principles of report design.

報表設計原則Principles of report design

報表頁面的空間有限,最困難的事情之一是將所有您想要的元素放入該空間,並且仍然可以輕鬆地該資訊。A report page has limited space and one of the hardest things is to fit all the elements you want into that space – and still have that information be easily understood. 而且不要淡化「美觀」值的重要性。And don’t underplay the value of “pretty.” 關鍵在於找出美觀與實用的平衡。The key is to find the balance between pretty and useful.

讓我們看看配置、清晰度和美學。Let’s take a look at layout, clarity, and aesthetics.

配置 - 報表畫布Layout - the report canvas

報表畫布的空間量有限。The report canvas has a finite amount of space. 如果您無法將所有元素放入單一報表頁面,則請將報表分成頁面。If you can’t fit all the elements on a single report page, break the report up into pages. 報表頁面可以針對特定對象 (例如 HR、IT、銷售、SLT) 或特定商務問題 (例如,缺失對停機的影響為何?我們的行銷活動對情感的影響為何?) 調整,或調整為漸進式故事 (例如,第一頁當成概觀和引起注意的「勾點」、第 2 頁繼續說明資料故事、第 3 頁更深入探討故事等)。A report page can be tailored to a specific audience (e.g., HR, IT, Sales, SLT), or to a specific business question (e.g., How are defects impacting our downtime?, What is our Marketing campaign’s impact on Sentiment?) or as a progressive story (e.g. first page as overview or attention-grabbing “hook”, 2nd page continues the data story, 3rd page dives deeper into the story, etc.). 如果整個報表可以放入單一頁面,那不錯。If your entire report fits on a single page, great. 否則,請建立將內容邏輯分段的不同報表頁面。If it doesn’t, create separate report pages that logically chunk the content. 而且別忘了提供頁面的有意義且實用的名稱。And don’t forget to give the pages meaningful and helpful names.

請考慮填入藝術師圖庫。Think about filling an art gallery. 您不會將 50 項藝術品放入小房間、放入椅子,並用不同的色彩繪製每面牆。You wouldn’t put 50 pieces of artwork into a small room, fill it with chairs and paint each wall a different color. 身為館長,您只會選擇具有一般主題的物件、將它們部置在房間周圍以讓訪客有足夠的空間進行移動和思考,並放入描述他們所查看之項目的資訊卡。As the curator, you’d choose just pieces that have a common theme, lay them out around the room with plenty of space for visitors to move and think, and place informational cards that describes what they’re looking at. 這是現今大部分藝廊都有素牆的原因!And there’s a reason most modern galleries have plain walls! 在本文中,我們將從需要進行很多工作的報告範例開始。For this article, we’ll start with a report example that needs a lot of work. 我們會套用我們的設計最佳作法和原則,因而改善報表。As we apply our best practices and principles of design, our report will improve.

圖 1︰這個不美觀的報表頁面需要一番心力Figure 1: This ugly report page needs a lot of work

上述範例有許多我們將在下面討論的空間相關 (配置) 設計問題︰The example above has many space-related (layout) design issues that we’ll discuss below:

  • 對齊、順序和鄰近性使用alignment, order, and use of proximity
  • 不恰當地使用空間和排序poor use of space and sorting
  • 雜亂clutter

對齊、順序和鄰近性Alignment, order, and proximity

報表元素的配置會影響理解力,並引導讀者瀏覽報表頁面。The layout of your report elements impacts comprehension and guides the reader through the report page. 放置和置放元素的方式可表達其意涵。How you place and position elements tells a story. 表達的意涵可能是「從這裡開始,然後查看這裡」或「這 3 個元素彼此相關」。The story might be “start here and then look here” or “these 3 elements are related to each other.”

  • 在大部分文化中,人會從左到右並從上到下進行掃描。In most cultures, people scan from left to right and top to bottom. 請將最重要的元素放在報表左上角。Position the most important element in the top left corner of your report. 並組織其餘視覺效果,以邏輯巡覽和理解資訊。And organize the rest of the visuals in a way that leads to logical navigation and comprehension of the information.
  • 將需要讀者選擇的元素放到所選擇元素將影響之視覺效果的左邊︰例如交叉分析篩選器。Position elements that require the reader to make a choice to the left of the visualizations the choice will impact: slicers, for example.
  • 放入彼此接近的相關元素;鄰近性表示元素相關。Position related elements close to each other; proximity implies the elements are related.
  • 另一種傳達關聯性的方式是在相關元素周圍新增框線或色彩背景。Another way to convey relationships is to add a border or color background around related elements. 相反地,新增分割線,以區分報表的不同區段。Conversely, add a divider to distinguish between different sections of a report.
  • 您可以使用白色空間,以視覺化方式將報表頁面的區段進行分段。Use white space to visually chunk sections of the report page.
  • 填寫報表頁面。Fill the report page. 如果您發現您有大量額外白色空間,請放大視覺效果,或縮小畫布。If you find that you have a lot of extra white space, make your visualizations larger or make the canvas smaller.
  • 請刻意調整您的報表元素。Be intentional with sizing your report elements. 請不要讓空間可用性描述視覺效果大小。Don’t let space availability dictate the size of a visualization.
  • 讓重要元素大於其他元素,或新增吸引注意的箭頭這類的視覺效果元素。Make important elements larger than the others or add a visual element like an arrow to draw attention.
  • 請對稱或蓄意非對稱地對齊報表頁面上的元素。Align the elements on the report page, either symmetrically or intentionally asymmetrically.

讓我們深入探討對齊。Let’s take a closer look at alignment.

對齊Alignment

對齊不表示不同元件的大小必須相同,或您在報表的每個資料列上都必須有相同數目的元件。Alignment doesn’t mean that that the different components need to be the same size or that you must have the same number of components on each row of the report. 這只是表示頁面有一種結構可協助進行瀏覽和可讀性。It just means that there is a structure to the page that aids in navigation and readability.

我們可以在下面的已更新報表中看到報表元件現在對齊左邊和右邊,而且每個報表資料列也會水平和垂直對齊。We can see in our updated report below that the report components are now aligned on the left and right edges and each report row is aligned horizontally and vertically as well. 我們的交叉分析篩選器是在它們所影響之視覺效果的左邊。Our slicers are to the left of the visuals they impact.

圖 2︰使版面配置編輯改善的不美觀報表範例Figure 2: Our ugly report example improved with layout edits

Power BI 包含可協助您對齊視覺效果的工具。Power BI includes tools to help you align your visuals. 在 Power BI Desktop 中,選取多個視覺效果之後,您可以使用 [視覺效果] 功能區索引標籤上的 [對齊或等距分佈]\ (Align and Distribute) 選項,以放入視覺效果的位置。In Power BI Desktop, with multiple visuals selected, you can use the Align and Distribute options on the Visuals ribbon tab to match up the position of visuals.

圖 3:在 Power BI Desktop 中對齊視覺效果Figure 3: Align visuals in Power BI Desktop

在 Power BI 線上和 Power BI Desktop 中,您也可以透過所有視覺效果之 [格式化] 窗格上的 [一般] 索引標籤,精確地控制視覺效果的大小和位置︰In Power BI online and Power BI Desktop, you also have precise control over the size and position of visuals through the General tab on the formatting pane for all visuals:

圖 4︰設定視覺效果的確切位置Figure 4: Set exact position for your visual

在我們的範例報表頁面 (圖 2) 中,2 張卡片和大型框線會對齊 X 位置:200。In our example report page (Figure 2), the 2 cards and large border are aligned on the X Position at 200.

放入空間Fit to the space

請善用您擁有的空間。Make the best use of the space you have. 如果您知道報表的檢視/顯示方式,設計時請記得該方式。If you know how the report will be viewed/displayed, design with that in mind. 請減少空白空間,以填滿畫布。Reduce empty space to fill the canvas. 請盡一切可能讓個別視覺效果上不要出現捲軸。Do all you can to eliminate the need for scrollbars on individual visuals. 填寫空間,而不讓視覺效果看起來擁擠。Fill the space without making the visuals seem cramped.

調整頁面大小Adjust the page size

透過減少頁面大小,相對於整體頁面,個別元素會變得更大。By reducing the page size, individual elements become larger relative to the overall page. 作法是取消選取頁面上的任何視覺效果,並使用 [格式化] 窗格中的 [頁面大小] 索引標籤。Do this by deselecting any visuals on the page and using the Page Size tab in the formatting pane.

以下是先使用頁面大小 4:3 然後使用 16:9 的報表頁面。Here is a report page using page size 4:3 and then using 16:9. 請注意,配置如何放入 16:9,以變得更好。Notice how the layout suits 16:9 so much better. 實際上有足夠的空間可移除第二個視覺效果中的捲軸。There is even enough room to remove the scrollbar from the second visual.

圖 5a:4:3 頁面大小的報表Figure 5a: The report at 4:3 page size

圖 5b︰16:9 頁面大小比率的報表Figure 5b: The report at 16:9 page size ratio

您的報表將以 4:3、16:9 還是另一個比率進行檢視?Will your report be viewed 4:3, 16:9 or another ratio? 在小螢幕還是大螢幕上?On small screens or huge screens? 或者根據所有可能的螢幕外觀比例和大小?Or on all possible screen ratios and sizes? 設計時請記得這些。Design with this in mind.

我們的範例報表頁面似乎有些擁擠。Our example report page seems a bit cramped. 未選取任何視覺效果之後,請選取油漆滾筒圖示,開啟 [格式化] 窗格。With no visual selected, open the formatting pane by selecting the paintroller icon. 展開 [頁面大小],並將 [高度] 變更為 900。Expand Page Size and change Height to 900.

圖 6:增加頁面高度Figure 6: Increase page height

降低雜亂Reduce clutter

雜亂的報表頁面很難一眼了解,甚至讓讀者不想嘗試。A cluttered report page will be hard to understand at-a-glance and may be so overwhelming that readers won’t even try. 請去除所有不必要的報表元素。Get rid of all report elements that aren’t necessary. 請不要新增對理解或瀏覽沒有幫助的裝飾用配件。Don’t add bells-and-whistles that don’t help comprehension or navigation. 您的報表頁面必須盡可能清楚、快速且團結地傳達資訊。Your report page needs to convey the information as clearly and quickly and cohesively as it can.

Edward Tufte 在他的《The Visual Display of Quantitative Information》這本書中,將它稱為 "data to ink ratio" (資料/墨水比)。Edward Tufte calls it “data to ink ratio” in his book The Visual Display of Quantitative Information. 基本上,請移除任何不必要的元素。Basically, remove anything that isn’t essential.

您移除的雜亂將增加報表頁面上的白色空間,並讓您有更多的不動產可套用我們在<對齊、順序和鄰近性>一節中所學習到有關上述項目的最佳作法。The clutter you remove will increase the whitespace on your report page and give you more real estate for applying the best practices we learned about above in the “Alignment, order, and proximity” section.

在這裡,我們的範例看起來已經不錯。Here our example is already looking better. 我們已移除一些雜亂,並新增圖形以將元素群組在一起。We’ve removed lots of clutter and added shapes to group elements together. 背景影像會消失、不必要的箭號圖形和文字方塊會消失、已將一個視覺效果移至報表的另一個頁面等。我們也已經加長頁面大小,以增加白色 (黃色?) 空間。The background image is gone, the unnecessary arrow shape and text box are gone, one visual has been moved to another page in the report, etc. We’ve also lengthened the page size to increase white (yellow?) space.

圖 7︰去除不美觀報表範例的雜亂部份Figure 7: Our ugly report example de-cluttered

概略表達意涵Tell a story at a glance

整體測試應該是沒有先前知識的某個人可以在沒有人進行說明的情況下快速了解報表。The overall test should be that somebody without any prior knowledge can quickly understand the report without any explanation from anybody. 運用快速概覽,讀者應該能夠快速查看頁面的用途以及每個圖表/資料表的用途。With a quick glance, readers should be able to quickly see what the page is about and what each chart/table is about.

讀者在查看您的報表時,應該先看到您要讓他們看到的元素,然後繼續進行從左到右、從上到下地查看。When readers look at your report, their eyes should be drawn to the element you want them to look at first and their eyes will then continue left-right-top-down. 變更這項行為的方式是新增視覺效果提示 (例如文字方塊標籤、圖形、框線、大小和色彩)。Change this behavior by adding visual cues like text box labels, shapes, borders, size, and color.

文字方塊Text boxes

有時,視覺效果上的標題不足以表達其意涵。Sometimes the titles on visualizations aren’t enough to tell the story. 新增文字方塊,以與檢視您報表的人員進行通訊。Add text boxes to communicate with the people viewing your reports. 文字方塊可以描述報表頁面、一組視覺效果,或描述個別視覺效果。Text boxes can describe the report page, a grouping of visuals, or describe an individual visual. 它們可以解釋結果,或更適當地定義視覺效果、視覺效果中的元件,或視覺物件之間的關聯性。They can explain results or better-define a visual, components in the visual, or relationships between visuals. 文字方塊可以用來根據文字方塊中所呼叫的不同準則來進行強調。Text boxes can be used to draw attention based on different criteria called out in the text box.

在 Power BI 服務中,從頂端功能表列中選取 [文字方塊]\In Power BI service, from the top menubar, select Text Box. (在 Power BI Desktop 中,從功能區的 [插入] 區域中選取 [文字方塊])。(In Power BI Desktop, select Text Box from the Insert area of the ribbon.)

圖 8:新增文字方塊Figure 8: Add a text box

輸入空白方塊,然後使用底端的控制項來設定字體、大小、對齊和其他項目。Type in the empty box and then use the controls at the bottom to set font face, size, alignment, and more. 您可以使用控點來調整方塊大小。Use the handles to resize the box.

圖 9:將文字方塊格式化Figure 9: Format the text box

但請不要濫用!But don’t overdo it! 報表上的文字太多會轉移視覺效果的注意力。Too much text on a report is distracting and detracting from the visuals. 如果發現您的報表頁面需要大量文字才更容易了解,則請重新開始。If you find that your report page requires a ton of text to make it understandable, then start over. 您是否可以選擇不同的視覺效果更適當地自行說明?Can you pick a different visual that tells a better story on its own? 您是否可以調整視覺效果的原生標題,使其更容易理解?Can you tweak the visual’s native titles to make it more intelligible?

文字Text

建立文字樣式指南,並將它套用至報表的所有頁面。Create a text style guide and apply it to all pages of your report. 請只挑選幾個字體、文字大小和色彩。Pick just a few font faces, text sizes, and colors. 此樣式指南不只套用至文字元素,也套用至您在視覺效果內進行的字型選項 (請參閱下面的<屬於視覺效果一部分的標題和標籤>)。Apply this style guide to not only textual elements but to the font choices you make within your visualizations (see Titles and labels that are part of the visualizations, below). 設定將使用粗體、斜體、增加的字型大小、特定色彩和其他項目的規則。Set rules for when you’ll use bold, italics, increased font size, certain colors, and more. 請嘗試避免使用所有大寫或加上底線。Try to avoid using all capitalization or underlining.

圖形Shapes

圖形對瀏覽和理解也有幫助。Shapes too can aid navigation and comprehension. 使用圖形將相關資訊群組在一起、反白顯示重要資料,以及使用箭號來指示目光所及位置。Use shapes to group related information together, highlight important data, and use arrows to direct the eye. 圖形可協助讀者了解要從何處開始以及如何解譯您的報表。Shapes help readers understand where to start and how to interpret your report. 在設計術語中,這通常稱為「對比」。In design terms, this is often referred to as contrast.

圖 10a:Power BI 服務中的圖形Figure 10a: Shapes in Power BI service

圖 10b:Power BI Desktop 中的圖形Figure 10b: Shapes in Power BI Desktop

我們範例頁面的外觀目前為何?What does our example page look like now? 圖 11 顯示更乾淨但不雜亂的頁面,而且這個頁面使用一致的字體、字型和色彩。Figure 11 shows a cleaner, less cluttered page with a consistent use of text faces, fonts, and colors. 我們在左上角的頁面標題會告訴我們頁面的用途。Our page title in the top-left corner tells us what the page is all about.

圖 11︰已套用文字指導方針並新增標題的報表範例Figure 11: Our report example with text guidelines applied and title added

在範例中,已在左上角新增報表頁面標題;這是讀者看到的第一個位置。In our example, a report page title was added in the top left corner; the first place readers look. 字型大小是 28 且字型為 Segoe Bold,有助於在頁面的其餘部分讓它更為醒目。Font size is 28 and font is Segoe Bold to help it stand out from the rest of the page. 我們的文字樣式指南需要無背景、黑色標題、圖例和標籤,並盡可能全部套用至頁面上的所有視覺效果 (組合圖軸和標籤不可進行編輯)。Our text style guide calls for no backgrounds, black titles, legends, and labels and that was applied to all visuals on the page, where possible (the Combo chart axes and labels are not editable). 此外︰Additionally:

  • 卡片︰[目錄標籤] 設定為 [關閉]、將 [標題] 設定為 [開啟],並設定為 12 點黑色置中。Cards: Category label set to Off, Title turned On and set to 12pt black centered.
  • 視覺效果標題︰如果已開啟,請設定為 12 點並靠左對齊。Visual titles: if turned On, set to 12pt and left-aligned.
  • 交叉分析篩選器:[標頭] 設定為 [關閉]、[標題] 設定為 [開啟]。Slicers: Header set to Off, Title turned On. 請將 [項目] > [文字] 保持為灰色和 10 點。Leave Items > Text grey and 10pt.
  • 散佈圖和直條圖︰黑色字型用於 X 和 Y 軸以及 X 和 Y 軸標題 (使用時)。Scatter and column charts: black font for X and Y axes and X and Y axes titles, if used.

色彩Color

請基於一致性來使用色彩。Use color for consistency. 我們將在下面的<視覺效果設計原則>中深入討論色彩。We’ll talk more about color in Principles of visual design, below. 但在這裡,指的是謹慎選取色彩,讓讀者可以快速了解您的報表,而不分心。But here we’re referring to being deliberate in your selection of color so that it doesn’t detract from your readers being able to quickly understand your report. 太多明亮的色彩會對感官造成衝擊。Too many bright colors barrage the senses. 本節不只是有關色彩的使用。This section is more what not to do with color.

背景Backgrounds

設定報表頁面的背景時,請選擇不要讓報表失色的色彩、不要與頁面上的其他色彩衝突的色彩,或一般會損害眼睛的色彩。When setting backgrounds for report pages, choose colors that don’t overshadow the report, clash with other colors on the page, or generally hurt the eyes. 請注意,有些色彩具有固有意義。Realize that some colors have inherent meaning. 例如,在美國,報表中的紅色通常解譯為「錯誤」。For example, in the US, red in a report is typically interpreted as “bad”.

圖 12︰設定報表背景Figure 12: Set report background

您不是建立藝術品,而是實用報表。You’re not creating a work of art, but a functional report. 請選擇色彩,以提升報表元素的可讀性和重要性。Choose a color that improves the readability and prominence of the report elements.

一項對於網頁內色彩和視覺效果運用的研究,發現色彩之間對比度較高者會增加理解速度 (「文字和背景色彩對網頁之視覺效果搜尋的影響」 和 「判斷使用者對網頁視覺效果複雜性和美學特性的認知」)。A study on the use of color and visualizations within Web pages found that higher contrast between colors increases the speed of comprehension (The effect of text and background colour on visual search of Web pages* and *Determining Users’ Perception of Web Page Visual Complexity and Aesthetic Characteristics.)

我們已經將一些色彩最佳作法套用至下面的範例報表 (圖 20 和 21)。We’ve applied some color best practices to our example report (Figure 20 and 21) below. 最值得注意的是我們已將背景色彩變更為黑色。The most-notable was that we changed the background color to black. 黃色太亮,會傷害我們的眼睛。The yellow was too bright and strained our eyes. 此外,在「依年份和類別的運動員名稱計數」圖表上,橫條的黃色部分會在黃色背景中消失。Also, on the “Count of athlete name by year and class” chart, the yellow portion of the bars disappeared into the yellow background. 使用黑色 (或白色) 背景時,可提供最大對比,並讓視覺效果成為焦點。Using a black (or white) background gives us maximum contrast and makes the visuals the focus of attention.

以下是我們改善範例報表所採取的額外步驟︰Here are the additional steps we took to improve the example report:

頁面標題Page title

將背景變更為黑色時,標題就會消失,原因是文字方塊欄位只允許黑色字型。When we changed the background to black, our title disappeared because the text box field only allows black font. 若要修正此問題,請改為新增文字標題。To fix this, add a text box title instead. 選取文字方塊之後,請清除文字,並選取 [視覺效果] 索引標籤中的 [標題],將它開啟。With the text box selected, erase the text and in the Visualizations tab, select Title and turn it On. 選取箭頭以展開 [標題] 選項,並在 [標題文字] 欄位中輸入 Summer Olympic Games,然後將 [字型色彩] 選取為白色。Select the arrow to expand the Title options, type Summer Olympic Games into the Title Text field and select white Font color.

圖 13:新增頁面標題Figure 13: Add a page title

卡片Cards

針對卡片視覺效果,開啟 [格式化] 窗格 (油漆滾筒圖示),並開啟 [背景]。For the card visuals, open the formatting pane (paint roller icon) and turn Background On. 選取透明度為 0% 的白色。Select white with a transparency of 0%. 接著開啟 [標題],並將 [字型色彩] 選取為白色,然後將 [背景色彩] 選取為黑色。Then turn Title On, select Font color white and Background color black.

交叉分析篩選器Slicers

到目前為止,這兩個交叉分析篩選器有不同的格式,但這沒有任何設計意義。Up to this point the two slicers had different formatting, which doesn't make design sense. 針對兩個交叉分析篩選器,將背景色彩變更為青色。For both slicers, change the background color to aqua. 青色是不錯的選擇,因為它是頁面調色盤的一部分;您可以在區域分布圖、樹狀圖和直條圖中看到它。Aqua is a good choice because it is part of the page’s color palette – you can see it in the filled map, tree map, and column chart.

圖 14:變更交叉分析篩選器背景色彩Figure 14: Change slicer background color

新增細白色框線。Add a thin white border.

圖 15:將框線新增至交叉分析篩選器Figure 15: Add a border to the slicer

在青色中,很難看出灰色字型,因此請將 [項目] 色彩變更為白色。The grey font is hard to see against the aqua, so change the Items color to white.

圖 16:變更交叉分析篩選器字型色彩Figure 16: Change slicer font color

最後,在 [標題] 下,將 [字型色彩] 變更為白色,並新增黑色 [背景色彩]。And, finally, under Title, change Font color to white and add a black Background color.

圖 17:格式化交叉分析篩選器標題Figure 17: Format slicer title

矩形圖形Rectangle shape

矩形也會在黑色背景中消失。The rectangle too has disappeared into the black background. 若要修正此問題,請選取圖形,並在 [格式化圖案] 窗格中開啟 [背景]。To fix this, select the shape and in the Format shape pane, turn Background On.

圖 18:格式化圖形Figure 18: Format the shape

直條圖、泡泡圖、區域分布圖和樹狀圖Column charts, bubble chart, filled map, and tree map

將白色背景新增至報表頁面上的其餘視覺效果。Add a white background to the remaining visuals on the report page. 從 [格式化] 窗格中,展開 [線條] 選項,然後將 [線條色彩] 設定為白色並將 [粗細] 設定為 3。From the formatting pane, expand the Line option and set the Line Color to white and Weight to 3.

圖 19:將白色背景新增至其餘視覺效果Figure 19: Add a white background to remaining visualizations

圖 20︰套用色彩最佳作法 (黑色背景) 的報表範例Figure 20: Report example with color best practices applied (black background)

圖 21︰套用色彩最佳作法 (白色背景) 的報表範例Figure 21: Report example with color best practices applied (white background)

美學Aesthetics

上面已討論大部分我們視為美學的項目:對齊、色彩、字型選項、雜亂這類項目。Much of what we would consider aesthetics has already been discussed above: things like alignment, color, font choices, clutter. 但是,有一些值得討論之報表設計的最佳作法,而且它們會處理報表的整體外觀。But there are a few more best practices for report design worth discussing and these deal with the overall appearance of the report.

請記住您報表的功能是符合商務需求,而不是漂亮。Remember that the function of your report is to meet a business need; not to be pretty. 但需要某些程度的美觀,尤其是第一印象。But some level of beauty is required, especially when it comes to first impressions. Nashville 顧問 Tony Bodoh 說明「情感是在半秒內引發,然後才開始邏輯思考」。Nashville consultant Tony Bodoh explains "Emotion fires a half-second before logic can kick in." 讀者要先喜歡您的報表頁面,才會花更多的時間深入了解。Readers will first react at an emotional level to your report page, before they take more time to dig deeper. 如果您的頁面看起來是雜亂無章、令人混淆、不專業等,則讀者絕不會察覺到它想要表達的意涵。If your page looks disorganized, confusing, unprofessional…your reader may never discover the powerful story it tells.

TDI 部落客和 TechTarget 產業分析師 Wayne Eckerson 的見解也極為類似。TDI blogger and TechTarget industry analyst Wayne Eckerson has a great analogy. 設計報表就像裝飾房間。Designing a report is like decorating a room. 過了一段時間後,您購買花瓶、沙發、茶几和油畫。Over time you purchase a vase, a sofa, end table, a painting. 另外,您喜歡所有這些元素。Separately you like all of these elements. 但是,雖然每個個別選項都合理,但是物件會衝突或搶走注意力。But although each individual selection makes sense, collectively the objects clash or compete for attention.

請專注於︰Concentrate on:

  • 建立一般主題或尋找您的報表,並將它套用至報表的所有頁面Creating a common theme or look for your report, and apply it to all pages of the report
  • 使用獨立影像和其他圖形來支援實際意涵,而不要轉移對實際意涵的注意力Using standalone images and other graphics to support and not detract from the real story
  • 並套用本文到目前為止討論過的所有最佳作法。And applying all the best practices we discussed up to this point in the article.

視覺效果設計原則Principles of visual design

我們已經查看過報表設計原則,以及如何組織報表元素,輕鬆地快速掌握報表。We’ve looked at the principles of report design; how to organize the report elements in a way that makes the report easy to quickly grasp. 我們現在將查看視覺效果本身的設計原則。Now we’ll look at design principles for visuals themselves. 而在下一節中,我們將深入討論個別視覺效果,並討論一些更常用類型的最佳作法。And, in the next section, we’ll dig down into individual visuals and discuss best practices for some of the more commonly-used types.

在本節中,我們將離開範例報表頁面一段時間,並查看其他範例。In this section, we’re going to leave our example report page alone for a while and look at other examples. 我們在完成視覺效果設計原則之後,將回到我們的範例報表頁面,並套用我們所學習的內容 (含逐步指示)。After we’ve gone through the principles of visual design, we’ll return to our example report page and apply what we’ve learned (with step-by-step instructions).

規劃 – 選擇正確的視覺效果Planning – choose the right visual

就像開始建置之前一定要先規劃報表一樣,您也需要規劃每個視覺效果。Just as it’s important to plan out your report before you start building, each visual also requires planning. 請問您自己:「嘗試使用此視覺效果所呈現的內容為何?」Ask yourself “what story am I trying to tell with this visual?” 然後找出最適合的視覺效果類型。And then figure out which visual type will tell the story best. 您可以使用橫條圖顯示整個銷售循環的進度,但瀑布圖或漏斗圖是否比較適合?You could show progress through a sales cycle as a bar chart but wouldn’t a waterfall or funnel chart tell it better? 如需此作業的說明,請閱讀本白皮書的最後一節:<視覺效果類型和最佳作法>,以描述一些更常見類型的最佳作法。For help with this, read the last section of this paper “Visual types and best practices” which describes best practices for some of the more-common types. 如果您選擇的第一個視覺效果類型最後不是最佳選項,也請不要太過驚訝。Don’t be surprised if the first visual type you pick doesn’t end up being your best option. 請嘗試數種視覺效果類型,確認哪一種視覺效果類型對該點是最佳選擇。Try more than one visual type to see which one makes the point best.

了解類別與數量資料之間的差異,並知道哪些視覺效果類型最適合與哪些資料類型搭配運作。Understand the difference between categorical and quantitative data and know which visual types work best with what type of data. 量化資料通常稱為量值,而且一般是數字。Quantitative data is often referred to as measures and it’s typically numeric. 類別資料通常稱為維度,而且可以進行分類。Categorical data is often referred to as dimensions and can be classified. 這會在下面的<選擇正確的量值>中深入討論。This is discussed in more depth in “Choose the right measure”, below.

若只是為了讓您的報表看起來令人印象深刻,則請避免使用花俏或更複雜的視覺效果類型。Avoid the temptation to use fancy or more-complex visual types just to make your report look more impressive. 您只需要用來傳達意涵的最簡單選項。What you want is the most-simple option for conveying your story. 水平橫條圖和簡單折線圖可以快速傳達資訊。Horizontal bar charts and simple line charts can convey information quickly. 它們是熟悉且合用的圖表,而且大部分讀者可以輕鬆地解釋。They are familiar and comfortable and most readers can interpret them easily. 新增的優點是大部分的人都是從左到右、從上到下閱讀,因此,可以快速掃描和瞭解這兩種圖表類型。An added advantage is that most people read left-to-right and top-to-bottom and these two chart types can therefore be scanned and comprehended quickly.

您的視覺效果是否需要捲動才能表達它的意涵?Does your visual require scrolling to tell the story? 如果可以的話,請避免捲動。Avoid scrolling if you can. 請嘗試套用篩選並利用階層/向下鑽研,而且,如果這些未排除捲軸,請考慮選擇不同的視覺效果類型。Try applying filters and making use of hierarchies/drilldown, and if those don’t eliminate the scrollbar, consider choosing a different visual type. 如果您還是需要捲動,則水平捲動的容忍度高於垂直捲動。If you can’t escape scrolling, horizontal scrolling is tolerated better than vertical scrolling.

即使您為所要表達的意涵選擇絕對最佳視覺效果,還是可能需要表達其意涵的協助。Even when you choose the absolutely-best visual for the story, you might still need help telling the story. 這是放置標籤、標題、功能表、色彩和大小的位置。That’s where labels, titles, menus, color, and size come in. 我們稍後將在<設計元素>一節討論這些設計元素。We’ll discuss these design elements later in the section titled “Design elements”.

選擇正確量值Choose the right measure

視覺效果所表達的意涵是否具吸引力?Is the story your visual telling compelling? 是否有關係嗎?Does it matter? 請不要因建置視覺效果而建置視覺效果。Don’t build visuals for the sake of building visuals. 您可能認為資料將表達有趣的意涵,但並沒有。Maybe you thought the data would tell an interesting story, but it doesn’t. 請不要害怕從頭開始,並尋找更多有趣的意涵。Don’t be afraid to start over and look for a more-interesting story. 或者,意涵可能就在那裏,但需要以不同的方式進行測量。Or, maybe the story is there but it needs to be measured in a different way.

例如,假設您想要測量銷售經理是否成功。For example, say you want to measure the success of your sales managers. 用來執行這項作業的測量為何?What measure would you use to do this? 是否可以透過查看總銷售量或總收益、前一年的成長或目標之目標的效能來進行最佳測量?Would you measure that best by looking at total sales or total profit, growth over previous year or performance against a target goal? 銷售人員 Sally 的收益可能最大,而且,如果您使用橫條圖顯示銷售人員的總收益,則她與其他業務人員相較之下就像搖滾之星。Salesperson Sally might have the largest profit, and if you showed total profit by salesperson in a bar chart, she would look like a rockstar compared to the other salespeople. 但是,如果 Sally 的銷售成本很高 (出差費用、運費成本、製造成本等),則只是查看銷售量並無法表達其最佳意涵。But if Sally has a high cost of sales (travel expenses, shipping costs, manufacturing costs, etc.), simply looking at sales doesn’t tell the best story.

反映事實/不扭曲事實Reflect reality/don’t distort reality

建置的視覺效果可能會扭曲事實。It’s possible to build a visual that distorts the truth. 提供資料愛好者可分享「錯誤」視覺效果的網站。There’s a website where data enthusiasts share “bad” visuals. 而且,註解中的一般佈景主題會讓建立和發佈該視覺效果的公司失望。And the common theme in the comments is disappointment in the company that created and distributed that visual. 將會傳送無法信任它們的訊息。It sends the message that they can’t be trusted.

因此,請建立視覺效果,這些視覺效果不會刻意扭曲事實,以及不會操作來表達您要它們表達的意涵。So create visuals that don’t intentionally distort reality and that aren’t manipulated to tell the story you want them to tell. 範例如下︰Here is an example:

圖 22:失真圖Figure 22: Distorted reality chart

在此範例中,4 家公司似乎沒有很大的差異,而且 CorpB 比其他 3 家更為成功。In this example, it appears as if there is a big difference between the 4 companies, and that CorpB is way more successful than the other 3. 但請注意,X 軸不是從零開始,而且公司之間的差異可能落在錯誤範圍內。But notice that the X axis doesn’t start at zero and that the differences between the companies is likely within the margin of error. 以下是具有從零開始之 X 軸的相同資料。Here’s the same data with an X axis that does start at zero.

圖 23:實際圖Figure 23: Realistic chart

讀者預期且通常假設 X 軸是從零開始。Readers expect and often assume the X axis is starting at zero. 如果您決定不從零開始,則作法最好不要扭曲結果,並考慮新增視覺效果提示或文字方塊來指出與基準的偏差。If you decide to not start at zero, do so in a way that doesn’t distort the results and consider adding a visual cue or text box to point out the deviation from the norm.

設計元素Design elements

選取類型和量值並建立視覺效果之後,就適合微調顯示,以達到最大效率。Once you’ve selected a type and measure and created the visual, it’s time to fine-tune the display for maximum effectiveness. 本節涵蓋︰This section covers:

  • 配置、空間和大小Layout, space, and size
  • 文字元素︰標籤、註解、功能表、標題Text elements: labels, annotations, menus, titles
  • 排序Sorting
  • 視覺效果互動Visual interaction
  • 色彩Color

調整視覺效果來最佳使用空間Tweaking visuals for best use of space

如果您嘗試將多個圖表放入報表,則將 data-ink (資料/墨水比) 最大化有助於突出您資料中的故事。如上所述,Edward Tufte 創造 'data-ink' (資料/墨水比) 這個新詞︰目標是盡可能移除圖表中任意數目的標記,而不損害讀者解譯資料的能力。If you’re trying to fit multiple charts into a report, maximizing your data-ink ratio will help make the story in your data stand out. As mentioned above, Edward Tufte coined ‘data-ink’ ratio: the goal is remove as many marks from a chart as possible without impairing a reader’s ability to interpret the data.

在下面的第一組圖表中,有多餘的軸標籤 (2014 年 1 月、2014 年 4 月等) 和標題 (「依日期」)。In the first set of charts below, there are redundant axis labels (Jan 2014, Apr 2014 etc.) and titles (“by Date”). 每個圖表的標題也需要每個圖表有專用水平空間。The titles for each chart also require dedicated horizontal space across each chart. 我們移除圖表標題並開啟個別軸標籤,來移除一些墨水,以及更有效地運用整體空間。By removing the chart titles and turning on individual axis labels we remove some ink and have better use of the overall space. 我們可以移除前兩個圖表的軸標籤,進一步減少墨水並使用更多資料空間。We can remove the axis labels for the top two charts to further reduce ink and use more of the space for data.

如果您想要呼叫特定時段,則可以在所有圖表後面繪製線條或矩形,協助上下繪製視角來輔助進行比較。If there were particular time periods that you wanted to call out, you could draw lines or rectangles behind all the charts to help draw the eye up and down to aid comparisons.

圖 24:之前Figure 24: Before

圖 25:之後Figure 25: After

開啟和關閉軸標題To turn axis titles on and off

選取要啟用的視覺效果,並開啟 [格式化] 窗格。Select the visual to make it active and open the Formatting pane. 展開 [X 軸] 或 [Y 軸] 的選項,並拖曳滑桿來開啟或關閉 [標題]。Expand the options for the X-axis or Y-axis and drag the slider for Title on or off.

圖 26:開啟和關閉軸標題Figure 26: Turn axis titles on and off

開啟和關閉軸標籤To turn axis labels on and off

選取要啟用的視覺效果,並開啟 [格式化] 窗格。Select the visual to make it active and open the Formatting pane. 在 [X 軸] 和 [Y 軸] 旁邊是滑桿。Next to X-Axis and Y-Axis are sliders. 拖曳滑桿來開啟或關閉軸標籤。Drag the slider to turn axis labels on or off.

圖 27:開啟和關閉軸標籤Figure 27: Turn axis labels on and off

提示

您可能會關閉 Y 軸標籤的一種情況是已開啟 [資料標籤] 時。One scenario where you might turn Y-axis labels off would be if you had Data labels turned on.

移除視覺效果標題To remove visual titles

選取要啟用的視覺效果,並開啟 [格式化] 窗格。Select the visual to make it active and open the Formatting pane. 將 [標題] 的滑桿設定為 [關閉]。Set the slider for Title to Off.

圖 28:移除視覺效果中的標題Figure 28: Remove titles from visuals

請考慮讀者如何檢視報表,並確認您的視覺效果和文字夠大且夠暗到足以讀取。Consider how your readers will be viewing the report and ensure your visuals and text are large enough and dark enough to be read. 如果您的頁面上有比例較大的視覺效果,則讀者可能會假設它最為重要。If you have a proportionally-larger visual on the page, readers may assume it’s the most important. 在不會讓報表看起來雜亂且令人困惑的視覺效果之間放置足夠的空間。Put enough space between the visuals that your report doesn’t look cluttered and confusing. 對齊視覺效果,有助於引導讀者的角度。Align your visuals to help direct the eyes of your readers.

調整視覺效果To resize a visual

選取要啟用的視覺效果。Select the visual to make it active. 抓住並拖曳其中一個控點來調整大小。Grab and drag one of the handles to adjust the size.

圖 29:調整視覺效果Figure 29: Resize visual

移動視覺效果To move a visual

選取要啟用的視覺效果。Select the visual to make it active. 選取並按住視覺效果正中間的移駐夾列,並將視覺效果拖曳至其新位置。Select and hold the gripper bar at the top middle of the visual and drag the visual to its new location.

圖 30:移動視覺效果Figure 30: Move a visual

屬於視覺效果一部分的標題和標籤Titles and labels that are part of the visualizations

請確定標題和標籤都可讀取而且容易理解。Ensure titles and labels are readable and self-explanatory. 標題和標籤中的文字必須是具有醒目色彩的最佳大小 (例如黑色,而非預設的灰色)。Text in titles and labels must be an optimal size with colors that stand out (such as black instead of the default grey). 是否記得我們的樣式指南 (請參閱上面的<文字>)?Remember our style guide (see "Text" above)? 色彩和大小數目限制 -- 不同的字型大小和色彩太多,會讓頁面看起來忙碌且造成混淆。Limit the number of colors and sizes -- too many different font sizes and colors make the page look busy and confusing. 請考慮將相同的字型色彩和大小用於報表頁面上所有視覺效果的標題,並選擇報表頁面上所有標題的相同對齊方式。Consider using the same font color and size for the title of all visuals on a report page and choose the same alignment for all titles on a report page.

格式化窗格The formatting pane

針對下面列出的每個格式化調整,選取油漆滾筒圖示來開啟 [格式化] 窗格。For each of the formatting adjustments listed below, select the paint roller icon to open the Formatting pane.

圖 31:開啟 [格式化] 窗格Figure 31: Open the Formatting pane

然後選取要調整的視覺效果元素,並確定它設定為 [開啟]。Then select the visual element to adjust and make sure it is set to On. 視覺效果元素範例如下:[X 軸]、[Y 軸]、[標題]、[資料標籤] 和 [圖例]。Examples of visual elements are: X-Axis, Y-Axis, Title, Data labels, and Legend. 下面的範例會顯示 [標題] 元素。The example below shows the Title element.

圖 32:格式化視覺效果標題Figure 32: Format a visual title

設定文字大小Set the text size

您可以調整標題和資料標籤的文字大小,但無法對 X軸、Y 軸或圖例進行調整。Text size can be adjusted for titles and data labels, but not for X or Y axes or legends. 具體來說,針對資料標籤,使用不同的 [顯示單位] 和 [小數位數],直到您找到在報表上顯示的最佳詳細層級為止。For data labels specifically, play with the Display units and number of Decimal Places until you find the optimal level of detail for displaying on your report.

設定文字對齊方式Set the text alignment

標題對齊方式的選項為靠左、靠右和置中。The choices for title alignment are left, right, and center. 請選擇一個,並將該相同的設定套用至頁面上的所有視覺效果。Choose one and apply that same setting to all visuals on the page.

設定文字位置Set the text position

您可以調整某些 Y 軸和圖例的文字位置。Text position can be adjusted for some Y axes and for the legend. 不論您做出哪種選擇,都請對其他 Y 軸以及頁面上的任何其他圖例執行相同的作業。Whichever you choose, do the same for the other Y axes and any other legend on the page.

設定標題和標籤長度Set the title and label length

請調整標題、軸標題、資料標籤和圖例的長度。Adjust the length of titles, axes titles, data labels, and legends. 如果您決定要顯示其中任何元素,則調整長度 (以及文字大小) 可確保不會截斷任何項目。If you decide to display any of these elements, adjusting the length (along with text size) ensures that nothing is truncated. 針對 [標題] 和 [圖例],設定為 [標題文字],而且這是您輸入要出現在視覺效果上之實際標題的位置。For Title and Legend, the setting is Title Text and this is where you type in the actual title that will appear on the visual. 針對 [X 軸] 和 [Y 軸],設定是 [樣式],而且您從下拉式清單中進行選取。For X-Axis and Y-Axis, the setting is Style and you select from a dropdown. 針對 [資料標籤],設定是 [顯示] 和 [小數位數]。For Data labels, the settings are Display and Decimal. 使用 [顯示] 下拉式清單選取測量單位︰百萬、千、無、自動等。使用 [小數位數] 欄位,告訴 Power BI 要顯示多少小數位數。Use the Display dropdown to select the units of measurement: millions, thousands, none, auto, etc. Use the Decimal field to tell Power BI how many decimal places to display.

設定文字色彩Set the text color

您可以調整標題、軸和資料標籤的文字色彩。Text color can be adjusted for titles, axes, and data labels.

不屬於視覺效果一部分的標題和標籤Titles and labels that are not part of the visualizations

在本白皮書稍早,我們已討論如何將文字方塊新增至報表頁面。Earlier in this paper we discussed adding text boxes to report pages. 有時,視覺效果上的標題不足以表達其意涵。Sometimes the titles on visualizations aren’t enough to tell the story. 新增文字方塊,以將其他資訊傳達給報表的讀者。Add text boxes to communicate additional information to the readers of your reports.
為了避免您的報表頁面看起來太過混淆或過於忙碌,請持續使用文字方塊字型、大小、色彩和對齊方式。To keep your report page from looking too confusing or too busy, be consistent in your use of text box fonts, sizes, colors, and alignment. 若要調整文字方塊中的文字,請選取文字方塊,以顯示 [格式化] 功能表。To make an adjustment to the text in a text box, select the text box to reveal the formatting menu.

圖 33:格式化文字方塊中所使用的字型Figure 33: Format the font used in a text box

排序Sorting

提供更快速見解的真正簡單機會是設定視覺效果的排序。A really simple opportunity to provide faster insight is to set the sorting of visuals. 例如,根據橫條中的值依遞減或遞增順序排序橫條圖,可讓您快速顯示大量遞增資訊,而不需要使用更多不動產。For example, sorting bar charts in descending or ascending order based on the value in the bars enables you to quickly show significant incremental information without using more real estate.

若要排序圖表,請選取圖表右上方的省略符號 (...),並選取 [排序],然後選擇您要排序的欄位和方向。To sort a chart, select the ellipses (…) in the top right of the chart, select Sort and choose the field you want to sort by and the direction. 如需詳細資訊,請參閱變更視覺效果的排序方式For more information, see Change how a visual is sorted.

圖表互動和相互作用Chart interaction and interplay

其中一個最吸引人的 Power BI 功能是可以編輯圖表彼此互動的方式。One of the most compelling feature of Power BI is the ability to edit the way charts interact with each other. 根據預設,圖表會交叉反白顯示︰當您選取資料點時,會亮起其他圖表的相關資料,不相關的資料則變暗。By default, charts are cross-highlighted: when you select a data point, the related data of other charts light up and the unrelated data dims. 您可以覆寫此行為以使用任何圖表作為實際篩選,來節省您頁面上的不動產。You can override this behavior to use any chart as a true filter which saves you real estate on your page. 若要這樣做,請選取功能表列中的 [視覺互動]。To do this, select Visual Interactions from the menubar.

圖 34:視覺效果互動Figure 34: Visual interactions

然後,針對頁面上的每個視覺效果,決定是要篩選選取的視覺效果、反白顯示選取的視覺效果,還是不執行任何動作。Then, for each visual on the page, decide whether you want the selected visual to filter, highlight, or do nothing. 並非所有視覺效果都可以反白顯示,而且針對那些視覺效果,將無法使用反白顯示控制。Not all visuals can be highlighted, and for those the highlight control won't be available. 如需詳細資訊,請參閱 Power BI 中的視覺效果互動For more information, see Visual interactions in Power BI.

提示

針對 Power BI 的新讀者,可能無法立即看到這項按一下報表並與之互動的功能。For readers who’re new to Power BI, this ability to click and interact with reports may not be instantly obvious. 新增文字方塊,協助他們了解可按一下以深入了解的項目。Add text boxes to help them understand what they can click on to find more insights.

在視覺效果中使用色彩The use of color in visuals

在本白皮書稍早,我們談到您要如何在報表中使用色彩之計劃的重要性。Earlier in this paper we talked about the importance of having a plan for how you’re going to use color across a report. 本章會有些重疊,但主要適用於如何在個別視覺效果中使用色彩。This section will have some overlap but primarily applies to how you use color in individual visuals. 並套用相同原則︰使用色彩將報表結合在一起、新增重要資料的重點,以及改善讀者對視覺效果的理解。And the same principles apply: use color to tie the report together, add emphasis to important data, and to improve the reader’s comprehension of the visual. 不同的色彩太多會讓人分心,而且讀者很難知道要去哪裡進行尋找。Too many different colors is distracting and makes it difficult for the reader to know where to look. 請不要犧牲對美麗的理解。Don’t sacrifice comprehension for beauty. 色彩只有在可改善理解力時才新增。Only add color if it improves comprehension.

提示

請知道您的對象和任何固有色彩規則。Know your audience and any inherent color rules. 例如,在美國,綠色通常表示「良好」,紅色則通常表示「不好」。For example, in the United States, green typically means “good” and red typically means “not good”.

本主題會細分以涵蓋︰This topic is broken down to cover:

  1. 資料色彩Data color
  2. 資料標籤色彩Data label color
  3. 類別值的色彩Color for categorical values
  4. 數值的色彩Color for numerical values

使用色彩來反白顯示感興趣的資料Use colors to highlight interesting data

使用色彩的最簡單方式是變更一個或多個資料點的色彩來提醒您注意它。The simplest way to use color is by changing one or more data point’s color to call attention to it. 在此範例中,奧運會比賽已從 4 年循環變更為 2 年循環的替代夏季和冬季比賽時,色彩會變更。In this example, the color changes when the Olympic games moved from a 4-year cycle to a 2-year cycle of alternating Summer and Winter games.

圖 35:使用色彩來表達意涵Figure 35: Use color to tell a story

您可以從 [格式化] 窗格中的 [資料色彩] 索引標籤來變更資料點色彩。You can change data point colors from the Data colors tab in the formatting pane. 若要個別自訂每個資料點,請確定 [全部顯示] 設定為 [開啟]。To customize each data point individually, make sure Show all is set to On.

圖 36︰設定資料點色彩Figure 36: Set data point colors

注意

Power BI 會將預設佈景主題套用至您的報表視覺效果。Power BI applies a default theme to your report visuals. 已選擇佈景主題色彩,來提供多樣性和對比。The theme colors have been chosen to provide variety and contrast. 若要轉移對預設佈景主題調色盤的注意力,請選取 [自訂色彩]。To divert from the default theme palette, select Custom color.

圖 37︰選擇自訂色彩Figure 37: Choose a custom color

在 Power BI Desktop 中,您甚至可以使用第二個系列來反白顯示極端值或線條的某一段︰In Power BI Desktop, you can even highlight outliers or a section of a line by using a second series:

圖 38︰ 使用 Desktop 來繪製極端值Figure 38: Using Desktop to plot outliers

在這裡,[極端值] 序列中的值只存在於平均 8 月溫度低於 60 時。Here, values in the ‘Outliers’ series only exist where the average August temperature drops below 60. 作法是使用下列公式來建立 DAX 計算結果欄︰This was done by creating a DAX calculated column using this formula:

極端值 = if(Editions[Temp]<60, Editions[Temp], BLANK())Outliers = if(Editions[Temp]<60, Editions[Temp], BLANK())

在範例中,有 3 個極端值︰1952 年、1956 年和 2000 年。In our example, there were 3 outliers: 1952, 1956, and 2000.

標籤和標題的色彩Colors for labels and titles

在您探索可用的所有格式化選項時,會發現有許多不同的位置可新增標題和圖例的色彩。As you explore all the formatting options available to you, you’ll find many different places to add color to titles and legends. 例如,您可以變更資料標籤和軸標題的色彩。For example, you can change the color of data labels and axes titles. 繼續進行時請小心。Proceed with caution. 您一般會想要將單一色彩用於所有視覺標題。Generally, you want to use a single color for all visual titles. 與本白皮書中的所有指導方針相同,一定會有一些情況和原因需要「打破規則」,但是,如果您決定要打破規則,則最好有充分的理由。As with all the guidelines in this paper, there are always situations and reasons to “break the rules”, but if you do decide to break the rules, do it for a good reason.

類別值的色彩Colors for categorical values

包含一系列的圖表通常有圖例中的類別值。Charts with a series typically have a categorical value in the legend. 例如,下面圖例中的每個色彩都代表不同類別的國家/地區。For example, each color in the legend below represents a different category of Country/Region.

圖 39︰已套用預設色彩Figure 39: Default colors applied

預設會選擇 Power BI 所使用的色彩,以提供類別值的良好分色,以輕鬆進行區分。The colors Power BI uses by default were chosen to provide a good color separation between categorical values so they are easy to distinguish. 人們有時會變更這些色彩以符合其公司配置等,但可能會造成問題。Sometimes people change these colors to match their corporate scheme etc. but it can lead to problems.

圖 40:套用為單一色彩之色調的色彩Figure 40: Color applied as hues of a single color

此視覺效果已透過著重於單一色調並改變色彩濃度,導入類別間之排序的錯覺。By sticking to a single hue and varying the intensity of the color, this visual has introduced a false sense of ordering between the categories. 這表示較暗的泡泡高於或低於較淡色調的一些刻度。It implies the darker bubbles are higher or lower on some scale than the lighter hues. 在這類類別值中通常沒有固有順序,但依字母順序除外。Other than alphabetical, there’s normally no inherent order in this sort of categorical value. 若要變更預設色彩,請開啟 [格式化] 窗格,並選取 [資料色彩]。To change the default colors, open the Formatting pane, and select Data colors.

數值的色彩Colors for numerical values

對於沒有某個固有順序和數值的欄位,您也可以依值將資料點上色。For fields that do have some inherent order and numerical value, you can also color data points by the value. 這可能有助於顯示整個資料的值分配,同時允許在單一圖表上顯示兩個變數。This can be helpful to show the spread of values across the data, and also allow for two variables to be shown on a single chart. 例如,這個圖表清楚指出,雖然中國的獎牌數最多,但是日本和泰國參與更多的奧運會比賽。For example this chart makes it clear that although China has the highest medal count, Japan and Thailand have participated in more Olympic games.

圖 41:依值將資料點上色Figure 41: Color data points by the value

若要建立這張圖表,請將值新增至 [色彩飽和度] 欄位,然後在 [格式化] 窗格中調整這些色彩。To create this chart, add a value to the Color saturation field and then adjust those colors in the Formatting pane.

圖 42:新增色彩飽和度欄位Figure 42: Add a color saturation field

圖 43:調整用於飽和度的色彩Figure 43: Adjust the colors used for saturation

色彩也可以用來強調中央值的變異。Color can also be used to emphasize variance around a central value. 例如,將正值加上綠色,並將負值加上紅色。For example, coloring positive values green and negative values red. 指派正值或負值的色彩時,請注意文化差異;並非所有文化都使用紅色表示錯誤並使用綠色表示良好!Be aware of cultural differences when assigning colors to positive or negative values; not all cultures use red for bad and green for good!

圖 44:強調中央值變異的色彩Figure 44: Color to emphasize variance around central value

視覺效果設計原則 – 已套用至範例報表頁面Principles of visual design – applied to example report page

現在讓我們採用上面所討論的視覺效果原則,並將它們套用至我們的範例報表。Now let’s take the visual principles discussed above and apply them to our sample report.

之前Before

圖 45︰我們範例報表 (之前)Figure 45: Our example report (before)

之後After

圖 46︰我們範例報表 (之後)Figure 46: Our example report (after)

我們做了什麼?What did we do?

  1. 交叉分析篩選器︰已新增頁面層級篩選,然後只選取金、銀、銅,來移除交叉分析篩選器中的空格。Slicer: removed blanks from the slicers by adding a page level filter and selecting only gold, silver, bronze. 針對 [單一選取] 和 [全選],已將 [選取控制項] 變更為 [關閉]。Changed Selection Controls to Off for Single Select and Select All.
  2. 泡泡︰圖例中的項目太多,因此會捲動到螢幕外部。Bubble: there are so many items in the legend that they scroll off the screen. 已移除圖例,並改為開啟 [類別標籤]。Removed the legend and turned on Category labels instead. 客戶可以停留在泡泡上方,以查看詳細資料。Customers can hover over the bubbles to see the details. 已縮短標題,並移除「依 countryregion」,因為這不喻自明。Shortened the title and removed “by countryregion” since that seems self-evident. 開啟兩者的軸標籤,讓圖表更容易了解。Turned axes labels On for both to make the chart easier to understand.
  3. 區域分布圖:已變更 [資料色彩],讓它更為醒目。Filled map: changed the Data colors to make it stand out more. 開啟 [發散]、將 [最小值] 設為粉紅色,並將 [最大值] 設為紅色。Turned Diverging on and set the Minimum to pink and the Maximum to red.
  4. 樹狀圖︰已移除僅針對 USA 所設定的篩選。Tree map: removed filter which was set for only USA. 將 [資料標籤] 設定為 1 位小數位數。Set the Data labels to 1 decimal place. 視覺效果之前使用根本不實用的 [類別] 欄位,因為它幾乎一律是 33% (金/銀/銅)。The visual was using the Class field which isn’t very useful since it will almost always be 33% (Gold/Silver/Bronze). 已選取不同的更有趣欄位 (性別)。Selected a different more-interesting field, gender. 依據設計,已將 [水上運動] 變更為藍色,並將 [體育運動] 設為灰色。Changed Aquatics to blue and Athletics to grey for design.
  5. 頂端橫條圖︰已縮短標題、已移除資料標籤、已關閉圖例標題。Top bar chart: shortened the title, removed data labels, turned legend title off. 已變更標題的文字順序,使其符合下面的圖表。Changed word order of title to match the chart below.
  6. 底端橫條圖︰依年份遞增排序,以符合上述圖表。Bottom bar chart: sorted by year ascending to match chart above. 已變更色彩來符合類別。Changed colors to match class. 已變更標題。Changed title. 已關閉圖例,來清出更多空間供資料使用。Turned off legend for more space for data. 已開啟不會顯示在報表中的資料標籤 (因為視覺效果太小,無法讀取標籤),但會在以焦點模式開啟視覺效果時顯示。Turned on data labels which won't show up in the report (because the visual is too small for the labels to be readable) but will show when the visual is opened in Focus mode. 了解焦點模式Learn about Focus mode. 已將[事件計數 (相異)] 新增至 [工具提示],因此,現在,當您停留在堆疊直條圖上方時,工具提示也會告訴您該年競爭多少事件。Added Count of Event (Distinct) to Tooltips so now when you hover over a stacked column, the tooltips also tell you how many events were contested that year.
  7. 視覺效果互動:因為一律要讓兩張卡片顯示遊戲和運動總計,所以已關閉其互動。Visual Interactions: turned off interactions for both cards since I always want them to show total games and sports.

視覺效果類型和最佳作法Visual types and best practices

Power BI 一開始提供許多視覺效果類型。Power BI provides many visual types natively. 對這些項目,新增來自 Microsoft 和 Power BI 社群的自訂視覺效果,而且總視覺效果選項數目會變成太多,而無法記錄在這裡。To these, add the custom visuals available from Microsoft and from the Power BI community and total visual options become too numerous to document here. 但是,讓我們看看一些最常用的原生視覺效果類型。But let’s look at some of the most-used native visual types.

折線圖Line charts

折線圖是查看一段時間之資料的強大方式。Line charts are a powerful way to look at data over time. 查看資料表中的資料,並不會真正利用我們的眼睛找出尖峰、低谷、循環和模式的速度。Looking at data in tables doesn’t really take advantage of the speed in which our eyes spot peaks, valleys, cycles, and patterns.
下面的範例顯示獲頒獎牌數目以及贏得這些獎牌之運動員數目的趨勢。The example below shows the trends in the number of medals awarded and the number of athletes winning those medals.

圖 47:折線圖Figure 47: Line charts

最佳作法Best practices

  • 使用者查看折線圖時,看到的第一個事項是曲線的形狀。When people look at line charts, the first thing they see is the shape of the curve. 這表示您必須有 X 軸,才能讓曲線對這類時間或分佈類別有意義。This means that you need to have an x-axis that makes the curve meaningful such a time or distribution categories. 如果您將產品或地理位置這類類別欄位放在 X 軸上,則因為曲線的形狀未提供有意義的資訊,所以折線圖不怎麼有趣。If you put categorical fields like product or geography on the x-axis, the line chart will not be interesting as the shape of the curve would provide no meaningful information.
  • 如果您選擇像這樣在彼此上下方放置多個圖表,以更輕鬆地跨序列進行比較,則請對齊 X 軸。If you choose to place multiple charts above and below each other like this, to make it easier to compare across series, line up the X-axis. 您可以使用篩選,確保顯示相同的值範圍。Use filters to make sure that the same range of values is shown. 例如,如果您查看日期範圍,請確定它們是相同的日期範圍。For example, if you’re looking at date ranges, ensure they are the same date ranges. 例如,兩個圖表上的 1896 年到 2012 年。For example, 1896 to 2012 on both charts.
  • 請充分利用空間。Make full use of the space. 如果它適合您的資料,請設定 Y 軸的開始和結束點,以消除圖表上下方的空白空間,並專注於實際資料點。If it makes sense for your data, set the start and end points for the Y-axis to eliminate empty space at the top and bottom of your chart and to focus in on the actual data points. 若要這樣做,請選取油漆滾筒圖示來開啟 [格式化] 窗格。To do this, select the paint roller icon to open the Formatting pane. 展開 [Y 軸] 區域,並設定 [開始] 和 [結束] 點。Expand the Y-Axis area and set the Start and End points.

    圖 48︰設定開始和結束點Figure 48: Set the start and end points

  • 明確設定開始和結束點的另一個原因是您要比較使用相同 Y 軸欄位之相同頁面上的兩張以上圖表。Another reason to explicitly set the Start and End points is if you’re comparing two or more charts on the same page using the same Y-axis field. 例如,如果您正在查看累計事件計數、英國的計數範圍從 1 到 70,而且澳洲的計數範圍從 1 到 12,則 2 個折線圖將顯示極不同的 Y 軸 (圖 X)。For example, if you’re looking at cumulative event counts, and the United Kingdom has counts that range from 1 to 70 and Australia has counts that range from 1 to 12, the 2 line charts will display very different Y-axes (Figure x). 這很難快速進行比較。This makes it difficult to compare at a glance. 而是設定圖表以使用相同的 Y 軸範圍 (圖 X)。Instead, set the charts to use the same Y-axis range (Figure x).

    圖 49:Y 軸不同的折線圖Figure 49:Line charts with different y-axes

    圖 50:Y 軸相符的折線圖Figure 50:Line charts with matching y-axes

如需詳細資訊,請參閱:For more information, see:

橫條圖/直條圖Bar/Column Charts

如果折線圖是查看一段時間之資料的標準作法,橫條圖就是查看不同類別間特定值的標準作法。If line charts are the standard for looking at data over time, bar charts are the standard for looking at a specific value across different categories. 如果您根據數字來排序橫條,則會立即看到前幾個值和分佈。If you sort the bars based on the number, you will instantly see the top values and distribution. 水平橫條圖最適合與稍長的標籤搭配運作。Horizontal bar charts work well with long-ish labels.

圖 51:水平橫條圖Figure 51: Horizontal bar chart

最佳作法Best practices

  • 顯示值的資料標籤。Display data labels for values. 這可讓您更輕鬆地識別特定值。This makes it easier to identify specific values. 若要這樣做,請開啟 [格式化] 窗格,並將 [資料標籤] 設定為 [開啟]。To do this, open the Formatting pane, and set Data labels to On.

    圖 52:開啟資料標籤Figure 52: Turn on data labels

  • 上述的橫條圖實際用於比較一個量值與單一時間點的多個量值。The bar chart above is really useful to compare one measure against many at a single point in time. 雖然上述折線圖顯示一段時間的趨勢,但是橫條圖則顯示單一類別在特定時間點的趨勢。While the line chart above showed us the trend over time, the bar chart shows us the trend for a single category at a specific point in time. 橫條圖顯示西班牙是全世界失業率最差的其中一個國家,失業率為 25%。At a glance, our bar chart shows us Spain has one of the worst unemployment rates in the world, at 25%.
  • 整個橫條圖/長條圖無法放入配置的空間時,Power BI 會新增捲軸。When an entire Bar/Column chart doesn’t fit into the allotted space, Power BI adds scrollbars. 可能也可以的話,請建構視覺效果和報表來顯示整個圖表,讓讀者了解整個分佈的概觀。When possible, and if it makes sense, structure the visual and report to show the entire chart so the reader gets an overview of the entire distribution. 不幸的是,在我們的範例中,這不可能提供全球各地大量數目的國家/地區。Unfortunately this is not possible in our example given the significant number of countries around the world.

    使用篩選是一種限制所包含值的方法。One way to limit the values included is to use a filter. 例如,新增視覺效果層級篩選,只在失業率高於 20% 時才顯示國家/地區。For example, add a Visual level filter that shows the country only if unemployment rate is above 20%.

  • 您可以向下鑽研整個橫條圖/長條圖,並重新備份。Bar/Column charts can be drilled down (and back up again). 這是將更多資訊封裝至視覺效果而不需使用更多不動產的不錯方法。This is a great way to pack more information into a visual without taking up more real estate. 下面的範例具有 [地區] > [國家/地區] 的階層。The example below has a hierarchy for Regions > Countries. 按兩下構成該地區之國家/地區的地區列向下鑽研。Double-clicking a region bar drills down to the countries that make up that region. 如需鑽研的詳細資訊,請參閱視覺效果的向下鑽研For more information on drill, see Drill down in a visualization.

    圖 53:向下鑽研Figure 53: Drill down

如需橫條圖和直條圖的詳細資訊︰For more details on Bar and Column charts:

堆疊橫條圖/直條圖Stacked Bar/Column Charts

在橫條或直條內堆疊不同的類別,以將另一個維度新增至橫條圖/直條圖。Add another dimension to your bar/column charts by stacking different categories within the bar or column. 現在,圖表會傳達一個整體趨勢的相關資訊 (根據高度/長度),也會顯示該趨勢上類別的影響。Now the chart conveys information about one overall trend (based on height/length) but also shows the influence of the categories on that trend. 下圖顯示 2014 年營收超過 60 億以上之頂尖美式足球團隊的整體成長。The chart below shows the overall growth of Top soccer team revenue above 6 billion in 2014.

圖 54:堆疊直條圖Figure 54: Stacked column chart

此堆疊直條圖顯示總營收將成長一段時間,而且「商業」和「廣播」類別會持續增加一段時間,而這會導致整體營收增加。This stacked column chart shows us that total revenue is growing over time and that the Commercial and the Broadcasting categories are increasing steadily over time – contributing to overall revenue increase. 但是,此圖表無法讓您輕鬆比較這 3 個類別對彼此的影響。But this chart doesn’t make it easy to compare the impact each of the 3 categories has on each other. 例如,如何比較「商業」的成長與「廣播」和「比賽日」的成長?For example, how does the growth of Commercial compare to the growth of Broadcasting or Match Day? 這項資料的較佳選項或這項資料的隨附視覺效果將會是折線圖。A better choice for this data, or a companion visual for this data, would be a line chart.

圖 55:轉換成折線圖Figure 55: Convert to a line chart

在此折線圖中,很容易就可以看到商業營收在廣播和比賽日之後如何成長地最多。In this line chart it is easier to see how commercial revenue has grown the most followed by broadcast and match day.

最佳作法Best practices

  • 與直條圖/橫條圖相同,您可以選擇使用水平或垂直顯示。As with columns/bars, you have the option of horizontal or vertical display. 如果您有很長的標籤,則水平是較好的選擇,如果您有時間序列資料,則垂直是較好的選擇。Horizontal is a better choice if you have long labels and vertical if you have time series data.
  • 如果您想要顯示一段時間的趨勢和其他變更模式,則請避免堆疊橫條圖/直條圖。Avoid stacked Bar/Column charts if you want to show trends and other patterns of change over time. 其他圖表 (例如折線圖) 可執行較佳的工作。Other charts, like Line charts, do a much better job.
  • 您也可以有根據總量或總計百分比的分佈。You can also have the distribution based on total volume or as a % of total.
  • 較少提及的是,「很難比較堆疊橫條圖的區段。如果並排排列區段,而且所有成長都是從相同的基準線往上,則可以輕鬆地比較其高度,但是,互相堆疊時,工作會變得困難。此外,雖然很容易就可以看到 (營收) 的月變更,但是很難看到其他 (類別) 中的 (營收) 變更」。As Few noted *it is difficult to compare the segments of a stacked bar. If the segments were arranged side-by-side and all grew upwards from the same baseline, it would be easy to compare their heights, but when stacked upon one another, the task becomes hard. Plus, although it’s fairly easy to see how (revenue) changed from month to month it is quite difficult to see how (revenue) in the other (categories) changed.
  • 使用最多 100 的百分比時,100% 堆疊圖表是不錯的選擇。100% Stacked charts are a good choice when using percentages that add up to 100. 在下面的範例中,我們會看到團隊的類別分佈。In the example below, we see the category distribution by team. 百分比是相對的,並可讓我們一眼看到模式。The percentages are relative and allows us to, at a glance, see patterns. 例如,Everton 的營收主要來自廣播 (超過 70%),而 PSG 只會從廣播衍生其營收的 20%。For example, Everton’s revenue comes primarily from Broadcasting (over 70%) while PSG only derives 20% of its revenue from Broadcasting. 水平顯示的選項可讓您輕鬆地放入團隊標籤,以及查看營收類型的影響。The choice of a horizontal display makes it easier to fit the team labels and to see the impact of revenue type.

    圖 56:水平堆疊圖表Figure 56: Horizontal stacked chart

如需堆疊圖表的詳細資訊:For more information on stacked charts:

組合橫條圖/直條圖Combo Bar/Column Charts

在 Power BI 中,您可以將直條圖和折線圖合併成一個組合圖。In Power BI, you can combine column and line charts into a combo chart. 選項為:[折線與堆疊直條圖] 和 [折線與群組直條圖]。The choices are: Line and Stacked Column chart and Line and Clustered Column chart. 將兩個不同的視覺效果合併成一個視覺效果,以節省寶貴的畫布空間。Save valuable canvas space by combining two separate visuals into one.

下面的兩個螢幕擷取畫面會顯示之前和之後的樣子。The two screenshots below show a before and after. 第一頁有兩個不同的視覺效果︰[直條圖] 顯示一段時間的擴展,[折線圖] 則顯示一段時間的 GDP。The first page has two separate visuals: a Column chart showing population over time and a Line chart showing GDP over time. 這些圖表適合作為組合圖,原因是它們具有相同的 X 軸 (年) 和值 (2002 年到 2012 年)。These charts are a good candidate for a Combo chart because they have the same X-Axis (year) and values (2002 through 2012). 為什麼不合併它們,以在單一視覺效果上比較這 2 個趨勢?Why not combine them to compare these 2 trends on a single visual? 合併這 2 種圖表可讓您更快速地比較資料。Combining these 2 charts lets you make a quicker comparison of the data.

新的報表頁面具有單一視覺效果︰折線與堆疊直條圖。The new report page has a single visual: a line and stacked column chart. 我們可以輕鬆地建立折線與群組直條圖。We could’ve just as easily created a line and clustered column chart. 您現在可以輕鬆地找到兩個趨勢之間的關聯性。It’s now easier to look for a relationship between the two trends. 我們可以看到,到 2008 年之前,人口和 GDP 的趨勢類似。We can see that up until 2008, population and GDP followed a similar trend. 但從 2009 年開始,人口成長扁平化時,GDP 變動會較大。But starting in 2009, as population growth flattened, GDP was more volatile.

圖 57:作為兩個不同的圖表Figure 57: As two separate charts

圖 58:作為單一組合圖Figure 58: As a single combo chart

最佳作法Best practices

兩個視覺效果至少共用一個軸時,最適合使用組合圖。Combo charts work best when both visuals have at least one axis in common.

請查看您的軸!Watch your axes! 是否可以輕鬆地閱讀和解譯組合圖?Is your Combo chart easy to read and interpret? 或者,是否使用不同的範圍和值?Or does it use dissimilar ranges and values? 例如,如果直條圖 Y 軸的刻度遠小於折線圖 Y 軸的刻度,則組合圖沒有任何意義。For example, if the scale of the column chart’s Y-Axis is much smaller than the scale of the line chart’s Y-Axis, your combo chart won’t be meaningful. 例如,請注意一直到底端的第三條線 (青色)。For example, notice the third line (aqua color) way down at the bottom.

圖 59:失敗折線圖Figure 59: An unsuccessful line chart

因此,如果您的直條圖和折線圖使用 2 個不同的量值,而且您不需要建立雙軸,則組合圖沒有任何意義。So too, your combo chart won’t be meaningful if your column chart and line chart use 2 different measures and you don’t create dual axes. 例如,美元與百分比。For example, dollars versus percent. 請務必包含兩個軸,以協助讀者了解圖表,也請考慮新增軸標籤。Be sure to include both axes to help the reader understand the chart and consider adding axes labels as well.

若要這樣做,請開啟 [格式化] 窗格,並展開 [Y 軸],然後將 [顯示次要] 設定為 [開啟](如果尚未開啟)。To do this, open the Formatting pane, expand Y-Axis and set Show Secondary to On (if it isn’t already on). 這項設定有時很難發現;展開 [Y 軸 (直條圖)],並向下捲動,直到您看到 [顯示次要]。This setting is sometimes difficult to find; expand Y-Axis (Column) and scroll down until you see Show secondary. 也請將 [Y 軸 (直條圖)] [標題] 設定為 [開啟],並將 [Y 軸 (折線圖)] [標題] 設定為 [開啟]。Also, set the Y-Axis (Column) Title to On and set the Y-Axis (Line) Title to On.

圖 60:顯示次要軸Figure 60: Show secondary axis

圖 61:改成建立組合圖Figure 61: Create a combo chart instead

  • 請利用雙軸。Take advantage of dual axes. 比較多個具有不同值範圍的量值是不錯的方式。It’s a great way to compare multiple measures with different value ranges. 當您要在一個視覺效果中說明兩個量值間的相互關聯時,這是不錯的方式。And it’s a great way to illustrate the correlation between two measures in one visual.

如需詳細資訊:For more information:

散佈圖Scatter Chart

有時,我們會有許多想要一起看到的變數,而散佈圖是取得完整說明的極有用方式。Sometimes we have many variables that we want to see together, and a scatter chart can be a very useful way to get an overall picture. 散佈圖會顯示 2 (散佈圖) 或 3 (泡泡圖) 量值之間是否有關聯性。Scatter charts display relationships between 2 (Scatter) or 3 (Bubble) quantitative measures. 散佈圖一律會有兩個值座標軸,沿著水平軸顯示一組數字資料,沿著垂直軸顯示另一組數值。A scatter chart always has two value axes to show one set of numerical data along a horizontal axis and another set of numerical values along a vertical axis. 此圖表顯示 x 與 y 數交集處的點,結合這些值可形成單一的資料點。The chart displays points at the intersection of an x and y numerical value, combining these values into single data points. 視資料之不同,這些資料點可能平均散布或不平均地散佈在水平軸。These data points may be distributed evenly or unevenly across the horizontal axis, depending on the data.

泡泡圖會將資料點以泡泡取代,而泡泡的大小代表其他維度的資料。A bubble chart replaces the data points with bubbles, with the bubble size representing an additional dimension of the data.

下面的泡泡圖查看南美洲,並比較南美洲國家/地區的平均每人 GDP (Y 軸) GDP 總和 (X 軸) 和人口。The bubble chart below looks at South America and compares GDP per capita (Y-Axis) sum of GDP (X-Axis) and population by South American country. 泡泡的大小代表該國家/地區的總人口。The size of the bubbles represents total population for that country. 巴西的人口最多 (泡泡大小) 並且分攤最大的南美洲 GDP (它是在 X 軸最遠的位置)。Brazil has the largest population (bubble size) and the largest share of South America’s GDP (it is farthest along on the X-Axis). 但請注意,烏拉圭、智利和阿根廷的平均每人 GDP 高於巴西 (Y 軸上更高的位置)。But notice that GDP per capita for Uruguay, Chile, and Argentina is higher than Brazil (farther up on the Y-Axis).

圖 62:以泡泡圖表示的南美洲 GDP 和人口Figure 62: South America GDP and population as a bubble chart

如果您新增播放軸,則可以假裝是 Hans Rosling 並表達意涵一段時間 (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PbaDBJWCeD4)。If you add a play axis, you can pretend you are Hans Rosling and tell the story over time (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PbaDBJWCeD4). 若要新增播放軸,請一併將日期時間欄位拖曳至 [播放軸]。To add a play axis, drag a datetime field into the Play Axis well.

最佳作法Best practices

  • 散佈圖和泡泡圖是不錯的表達意涵方式。Scatter and Bubble charts are great storytellers. 但它們在嘗試瀏覽資料時並不實用。But they are not as useful when trying to explore data. 這是 Stephen Few 在下一段中指出的內容:「這種方式的強度在於用來表達意涵時。如果 Rosling 講述泡泡四處移動而且值變更 (指出他想要讓我們看到的項目) 時圖表中所發生的情況,就會出現資訊。不過,動畫的泡泡圖對於自行瀏覽和識別資料較不具效率。我懷疑 Rosling 使用這個方法來探索意涵,但僅限於在識別到意涵之後才會予以表達。我們一次只能參加一個泡泡,原因是這些泡泡將會移動,因此強制我們反覆執行動畫來了解如何運作。我們可以將軌跡新增至選取的泡泡,以檢閱這些泡泡所用的完整路徑,但是,如果軌跡用於多個泡泡,則圖表會快速變成過於雜亂。基本上,我只是指出這不是顯示這項資訊來進行瀏覽和分析的最佳方式」。This is what Stephen Few points out in the paragraph below *The strength of this approach is when it’s used to tell a story. When Rosling narrates what’s happening in the chart as the bubbles move around and change in value, pointing to what he wants us to see, the information comes alive. Animated bubble charts, however, are much less effective for exploring and making sense of data on our own. I doubt that Rosling uses this method to discover the stories, but only to tell them once they’re known. We can’t attend more than one bubble at once as they’re moving around, so we’re forced to run the animation over and over to try to get a sense of what’s going on. We can add trails to selected bubbles, which make it possible to review the full path these bubble have taken, but if trails are used for more than a few bubbles the chart will quickly become too cluttered. Essentially, what I’m pointing out is that this is not the best way to display this information for exploration and analysis.
  • 請新增 X 和 Y 軸標籤來協助表達意涵。Add X and Y axes labels to help tell the story. 尤其是在使用泡泡圖時,會使用許多元件,而且標籤可協助讀者了解視覺效果。Especially with bubble charts, there are many components at play and labels help readers understand the visual.
  • 新增資料標籤,更輕鬆地解譯視覺效果。Add data labels to make the visual easier to interpret. 尤其是在使用泡泡圖時,如果您在 [圖例] 中有許多項目,則可能很難區分類似的色彩。Especially with bubble charts, when you have many items in the Legend, it may be difficult to distinguish between similar colors. 在上述的視覺效果中,蘇利南、哥倫比亞和厄瓜多的圖例色彩極為相似。In the visual above, the legend colors for Suriname, Columbia, and Ecuador are very similar.
  • 您是否要建立散佈圖,並且只看到一個彙總 X 軸與 Y 軸上所有值的資料點?Did you create a scatter chart and see only one data point that aggregates all the values on the X and Y axes? 或者,您的圖表是否彙總單一水平或垂直線的所有值?Or, your chart aggregates all the values along a single horizontal or vertical line? 若要修正此問題,請將欄位新增至 [詳細資料] 區域,以告知 Power BI 如何將值分組。To fix this, add a field to the Details area to tell Power BI how to group the values. 此欄位對於您想要繪製的每個點都不得重複。The field must be unique for each point you want to plot. 如需協助,請參閱 Power BI 散佈圖和泡泡圖教學課程For help, refer to the Power BI scatter and bubble chart tutorial.

樹狀圖Tree Map Charts

樹狀圖十分適合用來概述構成整體之不同元件的相對大小,尤其是您可以依類別將它們分組。Tree maps can be very useful for giving a good overview of the relative size of different components that make up a whole -- especially when you can group them by categories. 不論在任何時候嘗試了解新的業務,主要元件的樹狀圖都十分適合用來得知整體分佈。Any time I try to understand a new business, having a tree map of the main components can be very useful in knowing the overall distribution.

在下面的第一張圖表中,您可以立即看到巴西大約佔南美洲的一半 GDP,而委內瑞拉和阿根廷的大小大約相同。In the first chart below, you can see right away that Brazil makes up approximately half of South America’s GDP and that Venezuela and Argentina are roughly the same size.

如果您想要有更廣泛的內容,但仍然可以了解對前幾個參與國家/地區的影響,則可以建立在地區內巢狀處理類別成員 (國家/地區) 的視覺效果階層。If you want to have broader context and still have an idea of the impact of the top contributing countries, you can create visual hierarchies with category members (countries) nested inside regions. 第二個樹狀圖讓我們了解地區的第一個和最前面的相對大小,然後我們可以在每個地區內看到哪些個別國家/地區貢獻最多。The second tree map gives us an idea, first and foremost, of the relative size of the regions and then, within each region, we can see which individual countries contribute the most. 我們看到有三個大型地區 (歐洲、亞洲和北美洲),而且我們可以在其內輕鬆地查看前幾個國家/地區。We see that there are three massive regions (Europe, Asia & North America) and within those we can easily see the top countries/regions.

樹狀圖的主要限制在於比較前幾名以外之不同矩形的能力有限。The main limitation of a tree map is the limited ability to compare the different rectangles beyond the top ones. 它是概觀的不錯圖表,但是直條圖和橫條圖可能是更精確了解不同元件之相對大小的較好選擇。It is a good chart for an overview but column and bar chart are probably a better choice to have more precise idea of the relative size of different components.   例如,第一個樹狀圖廣泛指出 GDP 大小的順序,但很難識別出國家/地區之間的特定差異,特別是較小的無標籤方間。  For example, the first tree map gives a broad indication of the order of the GDP size, but it’s hard to identify specific differences between countries, particularly the smaller unlabeled boxes. 針對比較單一群組的這項資料,橫條圖或直條圖可能是較好的選擇。For this data, where a single grouping is compared, a bar or column chart might be a better choice.

圖 63︰以樹狀圖表示的南美洲 GDP 比較Figure 63: South America GDP comparison as a tree map

在這裡,我們已新增另一個層級的資料 (地區),而且我們可以看到地區的 GDP 整體貢獻,以及地區內的相對影響。Here we’ve added another level of data, region, and we can see the overall contribution to GDP by regions, as well as the relative impact within the regions. 請注意,請使用非總和量值 (例如平均值) 來執行這項動作,而在非總和量值中,詳細資料的總和可能不代表彙總層級的實際值。Beware that doing this with non-summative measure (such as averages) that the sum of the details might not represent the actual value at the aggregate level.

圖 64:以樹狀圖顯示的地區和國家的 GDPFigure 64: GDP by region and country as a tree map

如需樹狀圖的詳細資訊,請放心地按一下下面的連結。For more information on tree maps, feel free to click on links below.

其他圖表Other charts

圓形圖或環圈圖Pie or Donut Charts

一般而言,橫條圖/直條圖/折線圖可提供大部分用途。In general, bar/column/line charts will serve most purposes. 極容易了解圓形圖和環圈圖很難讓人正確地解譯,而且事實上經常會扭曲資料。It’s well understood that pie and donut charts are difficult for humans to interpret correctly, and in fact can often distort data. 請盡量避免使用它們。Avoid them where possible. Stephen Few 在 [Save the Pies for Dessert](www.percetualedge.com/articles/08-21-07.pdf 中詳細描寫其歷史和危險Stephen Few has an excellent write up on the history and dangers in [Save the Pies for Dessert](www.percetualedge.com/articles/08-21-07.pdf

他在比較「部分與整體之間」的關聯性時,確實解釋過一次圓形圖適用的位置。He does explain the one time where pie charts can be useful, when comparing part-to-whole relationships. 但這是極少優於 100% 堆疊橫條圖的圖表。But even this is rarely significantly-better than, say, a 100% stacked bar chart.

您可以在 Darkhorse Analytics 網站上找到有關圓形圖的另一個有趣文章 (和動畫)。Another fun article (and animation) about pie charts can be found on the Darkhorse Analytics site.

或閱讀相反的觀點:Why Tufte is flat-out wrong about pie chartsOr read an opposing point of view, Why Tufte is flat-out wrong about pie charts

星形量測計和 KPIRadial Gauges & KPIs

星形量測計似乎就是指出目標之效能的不錯視覺效果,而且極適用於執行儀表板中。Radial gauges seem like a good visual for indicating performance against a target, and they are very popular in executive dashboards. 不過,它們在兩個主要部分會發生問題。However, they suffer in two main ways. 與圓形圖相同,相較於完整 180 度弧線或目標線,很難解譯陰影區域的角度。As with pie charts, it’s difficult to interpret the angle of the shaded area compared to the full 180 degree arc or target line. 它也會使用大量空間來顯示單一度量。It also uses a lot of space to show a single metric.

不錯的替代方法是簡單 KPI 視覺效果A good alternative is a simple KPI visual

KPI 會顯示相同空間量中的值、狀態、目標、與目標的變異以及趨勢。KPIs show the value, status, goal, variance from the goal and trend in the same amount of space. 如果目標不符合,則綠色會變成紅色,如果選中某個中繼目標,則會變成黃色。The green coloring turns red if the target isn’t being met and can be yellow if some intermediate target is hit. 讀取和解譯比量測計更為簡單。It’s much simpler to read and interpret than the gauge.

如需詳細資訊,請參閱:For more information, see:

結論Conclusion

現在,您可以測試這些最佳作法。Now it’s time for you to put these best practices to the test. 請保持聯絡,並分享您自己的最佳作法。Keep in touch and share your own best practices. 不同意我們的建議,或發現充分的理由可「打破規則」嗎?Don’t agree with our recommendations or found a great reason to “break the rules?” 我們也十分希望聽到這類回應。We’d love to hear about those as well.

書籍建議Book recommendations

現在有許多好書,可協助團隊溫習視覺效果設計技術。There are many good books available today to help teams bone up on visual design techniques. Stephen Few 的《Information Dashboard Design》是必讀書籍。Stephen Few’s Information Dashboard Design book is a must-read. 他在另兩本書中進行更深入地探討:《Show Me the Numbers》和《Now You See It》。He delves into greater detail in two other books, Show Me the Numbers and Now You See It. 極少人收到 Edward R. Tufte 的鼓舞 (他的《The Visual Display of Quantitative Information》這本書視為該領域的經典)。Few and others have drawn inspiration from Edward R. Tufte, whose book The Visual Display of Quantitative Information is considered a classic in the field. Tufte 也寫過<Visual Explanations>、<Envisioning Information>和<Beautiful Evidence>。Tufte has also written Visual Explanations, Envisioning Information, and Beautiful Evidence. Andy Kirk 的新書《Data Visualization: A Handbook for Data Driven Design》是另一個不錯的選項。Andy Kirk’s new book Data Visualization: A Handbook for Data Driven Design is another great option. 建議的一些其他作者是︰Lachlan James、William McKnight 和 Boris Evelson (Forrester)、Darkhorse Analytics。Some other authors who have been recommended are: Lachlan James, William McKnight, and Boris Evelson (Forrester), Darkhorse Analytics.

有其他問題嗎?More questions? 試試 Power BI 社群Try the Power BI Community