Power BI 中的瀑布圖 (教學課程)Waterfall charts in Power BI (Tutorial)

瀑布圖會顯示總額的增減變動。A waterfall chart shows a running total as values are added or subtracted. 它適用於了解起始值 (例如淨收益) 如何受到一系列正面和負面變更的影響。It's useful for understanding how an initial value (for example, net income) is affected by a series of positive and negative changes.

資料行會標示色彩,讓您快速地分辨增加和減少。The columns are color coded so you can quickly tell increases and decreases. 起始值和最終值資料行通常在水平軸上開始,而中間值則是浮動的資料行。The initial and the final value columns often start on the horizontal axis, while the intermediate values are floating columns. 由於其「外觀」,瀑布圖也稱為橋樑圖 (bridge chart)。Because of this "look", waterfall charts are also called bridge charts.

使用瀑布圖的時機When to use a waterfall chart

瀑布圖極適合:Waterfall charts are a great choice:

  • 您擁有跨越時間序列或不同類別目錄的量值變更時when you have changes for the measure across time series or different categories
  • 稽核對總值造成的重大變更to audit the major changes contributing to the total value
  • 藉由顯示營收的各種來源來標示貴公司的年度收益,並達到總收益 (或虧損)to plot your company's annual profit by showing various sources of revenue and arrive at the total profit (or loss).
  • 呈現貴公司一年的開始和結束人數to illustrate the beginning and the ending headcount for your company in a year
  • 以視覺化方式顯示您的每月收入與支出,以及帳戶的日常餘額to visualize how much money you make and spend each month, and the running balance for your account.

建立瀑布圖Create a waterfall chart

我們將會建立一個顯示了每月銷售額差異 (估計銷售額與實際銷售額) 的瀑布圖。We'll create a waterfall chart that displays sales variance (estimated sales versus actual sales) by month. 如果要跟著做,請登入 Power BI 並選取 [取得資料] > [範例] > [零售分析範例]。To follow along, sign in to Power BI and select Get Data > Samples > Retail Analysis Sample.

  1. 選取 [資料集] 索引標籤,並捲動至新的 [零售分析範例] 資料集。Select the Datasets tab and scroll to the new "Retail Analysis Sample" dataset. 選取建立報表圖示,在報表編輯檢視中開啟資料集。Select the Create report icon to open the dataset in report editing view.

  2. 從 [欄位] 窗格中,選取 [銷售額] > [總銷售額差異]。From the Fields pane, select Sales > Total Sales Variance. 如果 [總銷售額差異] 並非位於 [Y 軸] 區域,請將它拖曳到該處。If Total Sales Variance isn't in the Y Axis area, drag it there.
  3. 將圖表轉換成 [瀑布圖] 。Convert the chart to a Waterfall.

  4. 選取 [時間] > [會計月份] 將其加入 [類別] 部分。Select Time > FiscalMonth to add it to the Category well.

  5. 依時間先後順序來排序瀑布圖。Sort the waterfall chart chronologically. 在圖表右上角選取省略符號 (...),然後選擇 [會計月份]。From the top-right corner of the chart, select the ellipses (...) and choose FiscalMonth.

  6. 深入了解造成每個月變化的最大因素為何。Dig in a little more to see what's contributing most to the changes month to month. 將 [存放區] > [地區] 拖曳至 [分解] 貯體。Drag Store > Territory to the Breakdown bucket.

  7. 根據預設,Power BI 會新增造成每個月增加或減少的前 5 個因素。By default, Power BI adds the top 5 contributors to increases or decreases by month. 但是,我們只想了解前 2 個因素。But we're only interested in the top 2 contributors. 在 [格式化] 窗格中,選取 [分解],然後將 [最大值] 設定為 2。In the Formatting pane, select Breakdown and set Maximum to 2.

    快速檢閱會顯示俄亥俄州和賓夕法尼亞州地區是造成我們瀑布圖負向及正向移動的最大因素。A quick review reveals that the territories of Ohio and Pennsylvania are the biggest contributors to movement, negative and positive, in our waterfall chart.

  8. 這是一個相當有趣的發現。This is an interesting finding. 是因為俄亥俄州和賓夕法尼亞州這 2 個地區的銷售額遠高於其他地區的銷售額,才使得他們造成如此顯著的影響嗎?Do Ohio and Pennsylvania have such a significant impact because sales in these 2 territories are much higher than the other territories? 我們可以確認這一點。We can check that. 建立一個以地區查看銷售額的地圖。Create a map that looks at sales by territory.

    我們的地圖證實了我們的理論。Our map supports our theory. 它顯示了這 2 個地區在去年 (泡泡大小) 和今年 (泡泡陰影) 都擁有最高的銷售額。It shows that these 2 territories had the highest value of sales last year (bubble size) and this year (bubble shading).

反白顯示和交叉篩選Highlighting and cross-filtering

如需使用 [篩選] 窗格的資訊,請參閱將篩選加入報表For information about using the Filters pane, see Add a filter to a report.

在瀑布圖中反白顯示資料行會交叉篩選報表頁面上的其他視覺效果,反之亦然。Highlighting a column in a waterfall chart cross-filters the other visualizations on the report page... and vice versa. 不過,[總計] 資料行不會觸發反白顯示或回應交叉篩選。However, the Total column does not trigger highlighting or respond to cross-filtering.

後續步驟Next steps

Power BI 中的報表Reports in Power BI

Power BI 中的視覺效果類型Visualization types in Power BI

Power BI 報表的視覺效果Visualizations in Power BI reports

Power BI - 基本概念Power BI - Basic Concepts

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