設計絕佳 Power BI 儀表板的秘訣Tips for designing a great Power BI dashboard

現在您已經建立儀表板,及新增了某些圖格,請思考如何讓您的儀表板不只是好看,同時功能也更強。Now that you've created a dashboard and added some tiles, think about how to make your dashboard not just pretty, but also functional. 一般而言,這代表將最重要的資訊設定為待命,讓它簡潔且整齊。In general, that means making the most important information stand out, and making it clean and uncluttered.

以下是一些秘訣。Here are a few tips.

提示

報表的許多設計準則也適用於儀表板。Many of the design principles for reports apply to dashboards as well. 閱讀我們的技術白皮書︰報表和視覺效果的最佳設計準則Read our whitepaper Best design principles for reports and visualizations.

請考慮您的對象Consider your audience

什麼關鍵度量能幫助他們做出決策?What are the key metrics that will help them make decisions? 他們將如何使用儀表板?How will the dashboard be used? 哪些已了解的或文化特性的假設可能會影響設計選擇?What learned or cultural assumptions may affect design choices? 哪些資訊是您的對象邁向成功所需?What information does your audience need to be successful?

請記得,儀表板是概觀,是用來監控資料目前狀態的單一位置。Keep in mind that the dashboard is an overview, a single place to monitor the current state of the data. 儀表板以基礎報表和資料集為基礎,其中可包含大量詳細資料。The dashboard is based on underlying reports and datasets, and those can contain loads of details. 讀者可以從您的儀表板鑽研報表。Your readers can drill into the reports from your dashboard. 因此除非讀者需要監視詳細資料,否則不要將詳細資料放在儀表板上。So don't put the detail on the dashboard unless that's what your readers need to monitor.

儀表板會在哪裡顯示?Where is the dashboard going to be displayed? 如果儀表板位於大型監視器上,您可以在上面放置更多的內容。If it will be on a large monitor, you can put more content on it. 如果讀者將在平板電腦上檢視,則較少的圖格會更容易閱讀。If readers will view it on their tablets, then fewer tiles will be more readable.

說個故事並保存到一個畫面Tell a story and keep it to one screen

因為儀表板的用意是要一目瞭然地顯示重要資訊,所以在一個畫面上有全部的圖格最為理想。Because dashboards are meant to show important information at a glance, having all the tiles on one screen is best. 可以避免在儀表板上使用捲軸嗎?Can you avoid scroll bars on your dashboard?

儀表板過於雜亂嗎?Is the dashboard too cluttered? 移除必要資訊以外的所有內容,可以更加輕鬆地讀取和解譯。Remove all but essential information that can be easily read and interpreted.

使用全螢幕模式Make use of full screen mode

全螢幕顯示儀表板,不會分散注意力。Display your dashboard in full screen without distractions.

將最重要的資訊大小調整為最大Make the most important information biggest

如果儀表板上的文字和視覺效果大小都一樣,您的讀者會很難專注於最重要的內容。If the text and visualizations on your dashboard are all the same size, your readers will have a hard time focusing on what's most important. 例如,卡片視覺效果是凸顯重要數字的好方法:For example, card visualizations are a good way to display an important number prominently:

但請務必提供內容。But be sure to provide context.

了解只用一個數字來建立磚.Read about creating a tile with just a number.

將最重要的資訊放在左上角Put the most important information in the upper corner

大部分的人從上往下讀取,所以將最高層級的詳細資料放置在頂端,並且當您順著對象閱讀的方向移動時,會顯示更多的詳細資料 (由左到右、由右到左)。Most people read from top to bottom, so put the highest level of detail at the top and show more detail as you move in the direction the audience uses for reading (left-to-right, right-to-left).

為資料使用正確的視覺效果,並將其格式化以方便閱讀Use the right visualization for the data and format it for easy reading

請不要只是為了不同而讓視覺效果不同。Avoid visualization variety for the sake of variety. 視覺效果應該要能繪製圖片,且應該要很容易「閱讀」及解譯。Visualizations should paint a picture and be easy to "read" and interpret. 對某些資料和視覺效果而言,簡單的圖形視覺效果已經綽綽有餘。For some data and visualizations, a simple graphic visualization is enough. 但是其他資料可能需要更複雜的視覺效果 - 請務必使用標題和標籤,以及使用其他自訂項目,以協助讀者。But other data may call for a more-complex visualization - be sure to make use of titles and labels and other customization to help the reader.

  • 選擇適當的資料視覺效果Choose appropriate data visualizations. 請小心使用會扭曲實際情況的圖表,也就是立體圖表。Be careful using charts that distort reality i.e. 3-D charts. 請記住,人腦很難解譯有圓弧的圖形。Keep in mind that it is difficult for the human brain to interpret circular shapes. 圓形圖、環圈圖、量表圖和其他有圓弧的圖表類型可能很好看,但它們不是資料視覺效果的最佳做法。Pie charts, donut charts, gauges and other circular chart types may look pretty but they are not a data visualization best practice.
  • 軸的圖表刻度、圖表維度次序,以及在圖表內維度值所用的色彩務必保持一致。Be consistent with chart scales on axes, chart dimension ordering and also the colors used for dimension values within charts.
  • 請務必小心地編碼量化資料。Be sure to encode quantitative data nicely. 顯示數字時,不要超過三或四個數字。Don’t exceed three or four numerals when displaying numbers. 量值應在小數點、千位數、百萬等左邊顯示為一或兩個數字,亦即可以將量值顯示為 3.4 百萬,而不要顯示為 3,400,000。Display measures to one or two numerals left of the decimal point and scale for thousands or millions i.e. 3.4 million not 3,400,000.
  • 請勿混合精確度和時間的等級。Don’t mix levels of precision and time. 請確定時間框架可讓人充分了解。Make sure that time frames are well understood. 不要讓上個月的圖表緊鄰從該年度指定月份篩選出的圖表。Don’t have one chart that has last month next to filtered charts from a specific month of the year.
  • 在折線圖或橫條圖之類的圖表上,請勿在相同刻度混合大的和小的量值。Don’t mix big and small measures on the same scale, such as on a line or bar chart. 例如,一個量值可能數以百萬計,而其他量值以千為單位。For example one measure can be in the millions and the other measure in the thousands. 如果刻度太大,會很難看到以千為單位之量值的差異。With such a large scale, it would be difficult to see the differences of the measure that is in the thousands. 如果您需要混合,請選擇允許使用第二個軸的視覺效果。If you need to mix, choose a visualization that allows the use of a second axis.
  • 不要擾亂包含不必要資料標籤的圖表。Don’t clutter your charts with data labels that are not needed. 橫條圖中的值通常易於了解,而不需顯示實際數目。The values in bar charts are usually well understood without displaying the actual number.
  • 請注意圖表如何排序Pay attention to how charts are sorted. 如果您想要強調最高或最低數字,請依量值排序。If you want to draw attention to the highest or lowest number, sort by the measure. 如果您想要在許多其他類別目錄內,能夠快速尋找特定分類,請依軸排序。If you want people to be able to quickly find a particular category within many other categories, sort by the axis.
  • 圓形圖最適合具有少於八個類別目錄的量值。Pie charts are best if they have fewer than eight categories. 因為您無法以並排方式比較值,所以在圓形圖中比較值,會比在橫條圖和直條圖中比較值更困難。Because you can't compare values side by side, it’s harder to compare values in a pie chart than in bar and column charts. 圓形圖適於檢視部分與整體的關聯性,而不是用於部分比較。Pie charts can be good for viewing part-to-whole relationships rather than for comparing the parts. 量表圖非常適合用來在目標內容中顯示目前狀態。And Gauge charts are great for displaying the current status in the context of a goal.

如需更多特定視覺效果的指引,請參閱 Power BI 中的視覺效果類型.For more visualization-specific guidance, see Visualization types in Power BI.

深入了解儀表板設計最佳做法Learning More about Best Practice Dashboard Design

若要精通絕佳儀表板設計的藝術,請考量了解視覺認知的基本格式塔原則 (Gestalt Principle),以及了解如何清楚說明內容中可付諸行動的資訊。To master the art of excellent dashboard design, consider learning basic Gestalt Principles of visual perception and how to clearly communicate actionable information in context. 幸好到處有大量的資源可供使用,且在我們的部落格內俯拾皆是。Luckily, there is a plethora of resources already widely available and sprinkled within our blogs. 幾本我們最喜愛的書籍包括:A few of our favorite books include:

  • Information Dashboard Design ,作者:Stephen FewInformation Dashboard Design by Stephen Few
  • Show Me the Numbers ,作者:Stephen FewShow Me the Numbers by Stephen Few
  • Now You See It ,作者:Stephen FewNow You See It by Stephen Few
  • Envisioning Information ,作者:Edward TufteEnvisioning Information by Edward Tufte
  • Advanced Presentations by Design ,作者:Andrew AbelaAdvanced Presentations by Design by Andrew Abela

後續步驟Next steps

Power BI 中的儀表板Dashboards in Power BI
Power BI - 基本概念Power BI - Basic Concepts
有其他問題嗎?More questions? 試試 Power BI 社群Try the Power BI Community