適用於模組管理的 PowerShellGet CmdletPowerShellGet Cmdlets for Module Management

模組相依性安裝支援,Get-InstalledModule 和 Uninstall-Module CmdletModule dependency installation support, Get-InstalledModule and Uninstall-Module cmdlets

  • Publish-Module Cmdlet 中已加入模組相依性母體擴展。Added module dependencies population in the Publish-Module cmdlet. PSModuleInfo 的 RequiredModules 和 NestedModules 清單是用於準備要發佈的模組相依性清單。The RequiredModules and NestedModules lists of PSModuleInfo are used in preparing the dependency list of a module to be published.
  • Install-Module 和 Update-Module Cmdlet 中已加入相依性安裝支援。Added dependency installation support in the Install-Module and Update-Module cmdlets. 預設安裝和更新模組相依性。Module dependencies are installed and updated by default.
  • Find-Module Cmdlet 已加入 -IncludeDependencies 參數,以在結果中包含模組相依性。Added an -IncludeDependencies parameter to the Find-Module cmdlet to include module dependencies in the results.
  • Find-Module、Install-Module 和 Update-Module Cmdlet 中已加入 -MaximumVersion 支援。Added -MaximumVersion support on the Find-Module, Install-Module, and Update-Module cmdlets.
  • 已加入新的 Get-InstalledModule 和 Uninstall-Module Cmdlet。Added new Get-InstalledModule and Uninstall-Module cmdlets.

PowerShellGet Cmdlets 示範和模組相依性支援:PowerShellGet cmdlets demo with module dependencies support:

確保存放庫有模組相依性可用:Ensure that module dependencies are available on the repository:

Find-Module -Repository LocalRepo -Name RequiredModule1,RequiredModule2,RequiredModule3,NestedRequiredModule1,NestedRequiredModule2,NestedRequiredModule3 | Sort-Object -Property Name

Version    Name                     Repository    Description
-------    ----                     ----------    -----------
2.5        NestedRequiredModule1    LocalRepo     NestedRequiredModule1 module
2.5        NestedRequiredModule2    LocalRepo     NestedRequiredModule2 module
2.0        NestedRequiredModule3    LocalRepo     NestedRequiredModule3 module
2.5        RequiredModule1          LocalRepo     RequiredModule1 module
2.5        RequiredModule2          LocalRepo     RequiredModule2 module
2.0        RequiredModule3          LocalRepo     RequiredModule3 module

建立具相依性的模組,這些相依性是在其模組資訊清單的 RequiredModules 和 NestedModules 屬性中指定的。Create a module with dependencies that are specified in the RequiredModules and NestedModules properties of its module manifest.

$RequiredModules = @('RequiredModule1',
                     @{ModuleName = 'RequiredModule2'; ModuleVersion = '1.5'; },
                     @{ModuleName = 'RequiredModule3'; RequiredVersion = '2.0'; })

$NestedRequiredModules = @('TestDepWithNestedRequiredModules1.psm1', 'NestedRequiredModule1',
                            @{ModuleName = 'NestedRequiredModule2'; ModuleVersion = '1.5'; },
                            @{ModuleName = 'NestedRequiredModule3'; RequiredVersion = '2.0'; })

New-ModuleManifest -Path 'C:\Program Files\WindowsPowerShell\Modules\TestDepWithNestedRequiredModules1\TestDepWithNestedRequiredModules1.psd1' `
-NestedModules $NestedRequiredModules -RequiredModules $RequiredModules -ModuleVersion "1.0" -Description "TestDepWithNestedRequiredModules1 module"

發佈具相依性之 TestDepWithNestedRequiredModules1 模組的兩個版本 (“1.0”“2.0”) 到存放庫。Publish two versions (“1.0” and “2.0”) of the TestDepWithNestedRequiredModules1 module with dependencies to the repository.

Publish-Module -Name TestDepWithNestedRequiredModules1 -Repository LocalRepo -NuGetApiKey "MyNuGet-ApiKey-For-LocalRepo"

指定 -IncludeDependencies 來尋找具其相依性的 TestDepWithNestedRequiredModules1 模組。Find the TestDepWithNestedRequiredModules1 module with its dependencies by specifying -IncludeDependencies.

Find-Module -Name TestDepWithNestedRequiredModules1 -Repository LocalRepo –IncludeDependencies -MaximumVersion "1.0"

Version    Name                                Repository  Description
-------    ----                                ----------  -----------
1.0        TestDepWithNestedRequiredModules1   LocalRepo   TestDepWithNestedRequiredModules1 module
2.5        RequiredModule1                     LocalRepo   RequiredModule1 module
2.5        RequiredModule2                     LocalRepo   RequiredModule2 module
2.0        RequiredModule3                     LocalRepo   RequiredModule3 module
2.5        NestedRequiredModule1               LocalRepo   NestedRequiredModule1 module
2.5        NestedRequiredModule2               LocalRepo   NestedRequiredModule2 module
2.0        NestedRequiredModule3               LocalRepo   NestedRequiredModule3 module

使用 Find-Module 中繼資料來尋找模組相依性。Use Find-Module metadata to find the module dependencies.

$psgetModuleInfo = Find-Module -Repository MSPSGallery -Name ModuleWithDependencies2
$psgetModuleInfo.Dependencies.ModuleName

RequiredModule1
RequiredModule2
RequiredModule3
NestedRequiredModule1
NestedRequiredModule2
NestedRequiredModule3

$psgetModuleInfo.Dependencies

Name Value
---- -----
ModuleName RequiredModule1
CanonicalId PowerShellGet:RequiredModule1/#http://psget/psGallery/api/v2/

ModuleName RequiredModule2
ModuleVersion 2.0
CanonicalId PowerShellGet:RequiredModule2/2.0#http://psget/psGallery/api/v2/

ModuleName RequiredModule3
RequiredVersion 2.5
CanonicalId PowerShellGet:RequiredModule3/2.5#http://psget/psGallery/api/v2/

ModuleName NestedRequiredModule1
CanonicalId PowerShellGet:NestedRequiredModule1/#http://psget/psGallery/api/v2/

ModuleName NestedRequiredModule2
ModuleVersion 2.0
CanonicalId PowerShellGet:NestedRequiredModule2/2.0#http://psget/psGallery/api/v2/

ModuleName NestedRequiredModule3
RequiredVersion 2.5
CanonicalId PowerShellGet:NestedRequiredModule3/2.5#http://psget/psGallery/api/v2/

安裝具相依性的 TestDepWithNestedRequiredModules1 模組。Install the TestDepWithNestedRequiredModules1 module with dependencies.

Install-Module -Name TestDepWithNestedRequiredModules1 -Repository LocalRepo -RequiredVersion "1.0"
Get-InstalledModule

Version    Name                    Repository   Description
-------    ----                    ----------   -----------
1.0        NestedRequiredModule1   LocalRepo    NestedRequiredModule1 module
2.5        NestedRequiredModule2   LocalRepo    NestedRequiredModule2 module
2.0        NestedRequiredModule3   LocalRepo    NestedRequiredModule3 module
1.0        RequiredModule1         LocalRepo    RequiredModule1 module
2.5        RequiredModule2                    LocalRepo    RequiredModule2 module
2.0        RequiredModule3                    LocalRepo    RequiredModule3 module
1.0        TestDepWithNestedRequiredModules1  LocalRepo    TestDepWithNestedRequiredModules1 module

更新具相依性的 TestDepWithNestedRequiredModules1 模組。Update the TestDepWithNestedRequiredModules1 module with dependencies.

Find-Module -Name TestDepWithNestedRequiredModules1 -Repository LocalRepo -AllVersions

Version    Name                                Repository  Description
-------    ----                                ----------  -----------
1.0        TestDepWithNestedRequiredModules1   LocalRepo   TestDepWithNestedRequiredModules1 module
2.0        TestDepWithNestedRequiredModules1   LocalRepo   TestDepWithNestedRequiredModules1 module

Update-Module -Name TestDepWithNestedRequiredModules1 -RequiredVersion 2.0
Get-InstalledModule

Version    Name                                Repository  Description
-------    ----                                ----------  -----------
1.0        NestedRequiredModule1               LocalRepo   NestedRequiredModule1 module
2.5        NestedRequiredModule2               LocalRepo   NestedRequiredModule2 module
2.0        NestedRequiredModule3               LocalRepo   NestedRequiredModule3 module
2.5        NestedRequiredModule3               LocalRepo   NestedRequiredModule3 module
1.0        RequiredModule1                     LocalRepo   RequiredModule1 module
2.5        RequiredModule2                     LocalRepo   RequiredModule2 module
2.0        RequiredModule3                     LocalRepo   RequiredModule3 module
2.5        RequiredModule3                     LocalRepo   RequiredModule3 module
1.0        TestDepWithNestedRequiredModules1   LocalRepo   TestDepWithNestedRequiredModules1 module
2.0        TestDepWithNestedRequiredModules1   LocalRepo   TestDepWithNestedRequiredModules1 module

執行 Uninstall-Module Cmdlet 來解除安裝您使用 PowerShellGet 安裝的模組。Run the Uninstall-Module cmdlet to uninstall a module that you installed by using PowerShellGet.

如想刪除相依於此模組的任何其他模組,PowerShellGet 會擲回錯誤。If any other module depends on the module that you want to delete, PowerShellGet throws an error.

Get-InstalledModule -Name RequiredModule1 | Uninstall-Module

PackageManagement\Uninstall-Package : The module 'RequiredModule1' of version '2.5' in module base folder 'C:\Program Files\WindowsPowerShell\Modules\RequiredModule1\2.5' cannot be uninstalled, because one or more other modules 'ModuleWithDependencies2' are dependent on this module. Uninstall the modules that depend on this module before uninstalling module 'RequiredModule1'.
At C:\Program Files\WindowsPowerShell\Modules\PowerShellGet\PSGet.psm1:1303 char:25
+ ... $null = PackageManagement\\Uninstall-Package @PSBoundParameters
+ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+ CategoryInfo : InvalidOperation: (Microsoft.Power...ninstallPackage:UninstallPackage) [Uninstall-Package], Exception
+ FullyQualifiedErrorId : UnableToUninstallAsOtherModulesNeedThisModule,Uninstall-Package,Microsoft.PowerShell.PackageManagement.Cmdlets.UninstallPackage

Save-Module CmdletSave-Module cmdlet

Save-Module -Repository MSPSGallery -Name ModuleWithDependencies2 -Path C:\MySavedModuleLocation
dir C:\MySavedModuleLocation

Directory: C:\MySavedModuleLocation

Mode LastWriteTime Length Name
---- ------------- ------ ----
d----- 4/21/2015 5:40 PM ModuleWithDependencies2
d----- 4/21/2015 5:40 PM NestedRequiredModule1
d----- 4/21/2015 5:40 PM NestedRequiredModule2
d----- 4/21/2015 5:40 PM NestedRequiredModule3
d----- 4/21/2015 5:40 PM RequiredModule1
d----- 4/21/2015 5:40 PM RequiredModule2
d----- 4/21/2015 5:40 PM RequiredModule3

Update-ModuleManifest CmdletUpdate-ModuleManifest cmdlet

這個新的 Cmdlet 是用來協助以輸入屬性值更新資訊清單檔。This new cmdlet is used to help update manifest file with input property values. 它會採用 Test-ModuleManifest 執行的所有參數。It takes all parameters that Test-ModuleManifest does.

我們發現很多模組作者想要在匯出的值中指定 “*”,如 FunctionsToExport、CmdletsToExport 等等。在模組發佈至 PowerShell Gallery 的期間,未指定的功能和命令不會正確填入到 Gallery 中。We notice that a lot of module authors would like to specify “*” in exported values such as FunctionsToExport, CmdletsToExport, etc. During module publishing to PowerShell Gallery, unspecified functions and commands will not be populated properly onto the Gallery. 因此,建議模組作者以適當的值更新其資訊清單。Therefore, we suggest module authors update their manifests with proper values.

如果模組有匯出的屬性,Update-ModuleManifest 會使用匯出的函式、Cmdlet、變數等資訊填滿指定的資訊清單檔案:If you have modules that have exported properties, Update-ModuleManifest will fill the specified manifest file with information from exported functions, cmdlets, variables etc:

Get-Content -Path "C:\Temp\PSGTEST-TestPackageMetadata\2.5\PSGTEST-TestPackageMetadata.psd1"
@{
# Script module or binary module file associated with this manifest.
# RootModule = ''
# Version number of this module.
ModuleVersion = '2.5'
# ID used to uniquely identify this module
GUID = '610e5c5b-dc42-4eaa-8511-ebfb44066d5e'

#(Other properties removed here for Simplicity…)

# Functions to export from this module
FunctionsToExport = '*'
# Cmdlets to export from this module
CmdletsToExport = '*'
# Variables to export from this module
VariablesToExport = '*'
# Aliases to export from this module
AliasesToExport = '*'
}

在 Update-ModuleManifest 之後:After Update-ModuleManifest:

Update-ModuleManifest -Path "C:\Temp\PSGTEST-TestPackageMetadata\2.5\PSGTEST-TestPackageMetadata.psd1"
Get-Content -Path "C:\Temp\PSGTEST-TestPackageMetadata\2.5\PSGTEST-TestPackageMetadata.psd1"
#
# Module manifest for module 'NewManifest'
#
# Generated by: author name
#
# Generated on: 11/13/2015
#
@{
# Script module or binary module file associated with this manifest.
# RootModule = ''
# Version number of this module.
ModuleVersion = '2.5'
# ID used to uniquely identify this module
GUID = '610e5c5b-dc42-4eaa-8511-ebfb44066d5e'
# Functions to export from this module
FunctionsToExport = 'Get-FooFn Get-FooWF'
# Cmdlets to export from this module
CmdletsToExport = 'Test-PSGetTestCmdlet'
}

每個模組也還有相關聯的中繼資料欄位。For each module, there are also metadata fields associated with it. 為了在 PowrShell Gallery 上正確顯示中繼資料,您可以使用 Update-ModuleManifest 填入 PrivateData 下的這些欄位。In order to display metadata properly on PowrShell Gallery, you can use Update-ModuleManifest to populate those fields under PrivateData.

Update-ModuleManifest -Path "C:\Temp\PSGTEST-TestPackageMetadata\2.5\PSGTEST-TestPackageMetadata.psd1" -Tags "Tag1" -LicenseUri "http://license.com" -ProjectUri "http://project.com" -IconUri "http://icon.com" -ReleaseNotes "Test module"

資訊清單檔範本的 PrivateData 雜湊表具有下列屬性︰PrivateData hashtable from the manifest file template has the following properties:

# Private data to pass to the module specified in RootModule/ModuleToProcess. This may also contain a PSData hashtable with additional module metadata used by PowerShell.
PrivateData = @{
    PSData = @{
        # Tags applied to this module. These help with module discovery in online galleries.
        # Tags = @()

        # A URL to the license for this module.
        # LicenseUri = ''

        # A URL to the main website for this project.
        # ProjectUri = ''

        # A URL to an icon representing this module.
        # IconUri = ''

        # ReleaseNotes of this module
        # ReleaseNotes = ''

        # External dependent modules of this module
        # ExternalModuleDependencies = ''
    } # End of PSData hashtable
} # End of PrivateData hashtable

注意: 只有最新的 PowerShell 5.0 版才支援 DscResourcesToExport。Note: DscResourcesToExport is only supported on the latest PowerShell version 5.0. 如果執行舊版的 PowerShell,就無法更新欄位。We won’t be able to update the field if you are running on previous PowerShell version.