Reporting Services 資料警示Reporting Services Data Alerts

Reporting ServicesReporting Services 資料警示是資料驅動的警示解決方案,可協助您得知報表中您有興趣或對您很重要的某個相關時間點的資料。data alerts are a data driven alerting solution that helps you be informed about report data that is interesting or important to you, and at a relevant time. 透過使用資料警示,您就不必再搜尋資訊,而會自動收到資訊。By using data alerts you no longer have to seek out information, it comes to you.

資料警示訊息是透過電子郵件傳送。Data alert messages are sent by email. 依據資訊的重要性而定,您可以選擇傳送訊息的頻率,以及僅在結果變更時傳送。Depending on the importance of the information, you can choose to send messages more or less frequently and only when results change. 您可以指定多位電子郵件收件者,如此就能通知其他人,以提升效率並增進共同作業。You can specify multiple email recipients and this way keep others informed to enhance efficiency and collaboration.

適用於:Applies to: SharePoint 模式適用於:Applies to: SharePoint mode

資料警示架構和工作流程Data Alerts Architecture and Workflow

以下摘要說明 Reporting ServicesReporting Services 資料警示的主要區域:The following summarizes the key areas of Reporting ServicesReporting Services data alerts:

  • 定義和儲存資料警示定義:您會執行報表、建立識別有興趣之資料值的規則、定義傳送資料警示訊息的循環模式,以及指定警示訊息的收件者。Define and save data alert definitions-you run a report, create rules that identify interesting data values, define a recurrence pattern for sending the data alert message, and specify the recipients of the alert message.

  • 執行資料警示定義:警示服務會在排定的時間處理警示定義、擷取報表資料,以及根據警示定義中的規則建立資料警示執行個體。Run data alert definitions-Alerting service processes alert definitions at a scheduled time, retrieves report data, creates data alert instances based on rules in the alert definition.

  • 將資料警示訊息傳遞至收件者:警示服務會建立警示執行個體,並透過電子郵件將警示訊息傳遞至收件者。Deliver data alert messages to recipients-Alerting service creates an alert instance and sends an alert message to recipients by email.

此外,身為資料警示擁有者,您可以檢視有關資料警示的資訊,以及刪除和編輯您的資料警示定義。In addition, as a data alert owner you can view information about your data alerts and delete and edit your data alert definitions. 警示只有一個擁有者,也就是建立警示的人。An alert has only one owner, the person who created it.

警示系統管理員也就是具備「SharePoint 管理警示」權限的使用者,可以管理網站層級的資料警示。Alerting administrators, users with SharePoint Manage Alerts permission, can manage data alerts at the site level. 這些使用者可以檢視每一位網站使用者的警示清單並刪除警示。They can view lists of alerts by each site user and delete alerts.

Reporting ServicesReporting Services 資料警示與 SharePoint 警示不相同。data alerts are different from SharePoint alerts. 您可以在任何文件類型上定義 SharePoint 警示,包括報表。You can define SharePoint alerts on any document type, including reports. SharePoint 警示會在文件變更時傳送。SharePoint alerts are sent when the document changes. 例如,您將資料行加入報表中的資料表。For example, you add a column to a table in a report. 相反地,資料警示是在報表中顯示的資料符合警示定義中的條件時傳送。In contrast, data alerts are sent when the data shown in a report satisfied rules in the alert definitions. 規則通常參考報表中顯示的資料。The rules typically reference the data that displays in a report.

藉由在報表上建立資料警示,您就可以監視報表資料中的變更,並且在報表資料符合定義您或其他人感興趣之資料的規則時,依照符合業務需求的間隔以電子郵件傳送資料警示訊息。By creating data alerts on reports, you can monitor changes in report data and send data alert messages by email when report data follow rules that define data of interest to you and others, and at intervals that meet your business needs. 您也可以依需要執行資料警示。You can also run data alerts on demand. 如果您擁有「SharePoint 建立警示」權限,就可以在任何您有權檢視的報表上建立警示。If you have SharePoint Create Alert permission, you can create alerts on any report that you have permissions to view. 您可以在報表上建立多個警示,而且多位使用者可以在報表上建立相同或不同的警示。You can create multiple alerts on a report and multiple users can create the same or different alerts on a report. 若要與其他人共同作業,您可以將這些人指定為您所建立資料警示定義中警示訊息的收件者。To collaborate with others, you can specify them as the recipients of alert messages in data alert definitions that you create.

下圖說明建立和儲存資料警示定義、建立 SQL Agent 作業開始處理資料警示執行個體,以及透過電子郵件傳送包含觸發警示之報表資料的資料警示訊息給一位或多位收件者的工作流程。The following diagram shows the workflow of creating and saving a data alert definition, creating a SQL Agent job to begin processing an instance of the data alert, and sending data alert messages that contain the report data that triggered the alert to one or more recipients by email.

Reporting Services 警示中的工作流程Workflow in Reporting Services alerting

資料警示支援的報表Reports Supported by Data Alerts

您可以在以報表定義語言 (RDL) 撰寫並且於報表設計師或報表產生器中建立的所有類型專業報表上建立資料警示。You can create data alerts on all types of professional reports that are written in the report definition language (RDL) and created in Report Designer or Report Builder. 包含資料表和圖表等資料區的報表、擁有子報表的報表,以及擁有多個平行資料行群組和巢狀資料區的複雜報表。Reports that include data regions such as tables and charts, reports with subreports, and complex reports with multiple parallel column groups and nested data regions. 唯一的需求是,報表至少包含一個任何類型的資料區域,而且報表資料來源設定為使用預存認證或無認證。The only requirements are the report includes at least one data region of any type and the report data source is configured to use stored credentials or no credentials. 如果報表沒有任何資料區,則無法為其建立警示。If the report has no data regions, you cannot create an alert on it.

您無法針對使用 Power ViewPower View所建立的報表建立資料警示。You cannot create data alerts on reports created with Power ViewPower View.

當您以原生模式或 SharePoint 模式安裝 Reporting ServicesReporting Services 或是使用獨立版的報表產生器時,可以將報表儲存到報表伺服器、您的電腦或 SharePoint 文件庫。When you install Reporting ServicesReporting Services in native mode or SharePoint mode or use the standalone version of Report Builder, you can save reports to a report server, your computer, or a SharePoint library. 若要在報表上建立資料警示,則報表必須儲存或上載到 SharePoint 文件庫。To create data alerts on reports, the reports must be saved or uploaded to a SharePoint library. 這表示,您無法在儲存到原生模式的報表伺服器或電腦的報表上建立警示。This means that you cannot create alerts on reports saved to a report server in native mode or your computer. 此外,您也無法建立內嵌於自訂應用程式中的警示。Also, you cannot create alerts embedded in custom applications.

Reporting ServicesReporting Services 支援報表中各種不同的認證類型。supports a variety of credential types in reports. 您可以在資料來源設定為使用預存認證或不使用認證的報表上建立資料警示。You can create data alerts on reports with data source configured to use stored credentials, or no credentials. 不過您無法在設定為使用整合式安全性認證或提示輸入認證的報表上建立警示。You cannot create alerts on reports configured to use integrated security credentials or prompt for credentials. 報表會在處理警示定義時一併執行,而沒有認證的情況下處理會失敗。The report is run as part of processing the alert definition and the processing fails without credentials. 如需詳細資訊,請參閱下列內容:For more information, see the following:

執行報表Run Reports

建立資料警示定義的第一個步驟,就是在 SharePoint 文件庫中尋找您要的報表,然後執行報表。The first step in creating a data alert definition is to locate the report you want in the SharePoint library, and then run the report. 如果報表執行時未包含任何資料,則無法在當時於報表上建立警示。If a report contains no data when you run it, you cannot create an alert on the report at that time.

如果報表已參數化,您會在執行報表時指定要使用的參數值。If the report is parameterized, you specify the parameter values to use when you run the report. 參數值將儲存在您於報表上建立的報表警示定義中。The parameter values will be saved in the data alert definitions that you create on a report. 這些值會在重新執行報表做為處理資料警示定義的步驟時使用。The values are used when the report is rerun as a step in processing the data alert definition. 如果您要變更參數值,則需要使用這些參數值重新執行報表,並且在該版本的報表上建立警示定義。If you want to change the parameter values you need to rerun the report with those parameter values and create an alert definition on that version of the report.

建立資料警示定義Create Data Alert Definitions

Reporting ServicesReporting Services 資料警示功能包括資料警示設計工具,可用來建立資料警示定義。The Reporting ServicesReporting Services data alerts feature includes the Data Alert Designer, which you use to create data alert definitions.

若要建立資料警示定義,請執行報表,然後從 SharePoint 報表檢視器的 [動作] 功能表開啟 [資料警示設計工具]。To create a data alert definition, you run the report and then open Data Alert Designer from the SharePoint Report Viewer Actions menu. 如此就會產生報表的報表資料摘要,而資料摘要中的前 100 個資料列會在 [資料警示設計工具] 的資料預覽資料表中顯示。The report data feeds for the report are generated and the first 100 rows in the data feed display in a data preview table in Data Alert Designer. 只要您在 [資料警示設計工具] 中處理警示定義,就會持續快取所有來自報表的資料摘要。All the data feeds from a report are cached as long you are working on the alert definition in Data Alert Designer. 快取可讓您在資料摘要之間迅速切換。The caching enables you to switch quickly between data feeds. 當您在 [資料警示設計工具] 中重新開啟警示定義時,資料摘要會重新整理。When you reopen an alert definition in Data Alert Designer, the data feeds are refreshed.

資料警示定義包含以下內容:規則和子句,報表資料必須滿足這些規則和子句才能觸發資料警示訊息;排程,定義傳送警示訊息的頻率以及開始和停止傳送警示訊息的日期 (選擇性);像是主旨和警示訊息中要包含的描述等資訊;以及訊息的收件者。Data alert definitions consist of rules and clauses that report data must satisfy to trigger a data alert message, a schedule that defines the frequency to send the alert message and optionally the dates to start and stop sending the alert message, information such the Subject line and a description to include in the alert message, and the recipients of the message. 在您建立警示定義之後,可以將它儲存到 SQL Server 警示資料庫。After you create an alert definition, you save it to the SQL Server alerting database.

儲存資料警示定義和警示中繼資料Save Data Alert Definitions and Alerting Metadata

您以 SharePoint 模式安裝 Reporting ServicesReporting Services 時,會自動建立 SQL Server 警示資料庫。When you install Reporting ServicesReporting Services in SharePoint mode, the SQL Server alerting database is automatically created.

資料警示定義和警示中繼資料會儲存到警示資料庫中。Data alert definitions and alerting metadata are saved in the alerting database. 根據預設,這個資料庫的名稱為 ReportingServices<GUID>_Alerting。By default, this database is named ReportingServices<GUID>_Alerting.

當您儲存資料警示定義時,警示會為該警示定義建立 SQL Server Agent 作業。When you save the data alert definition, alerting creates a SQL Server Agent job for the alert definition. 作業會包括作業排程。The job includes a job schedule. 排程是依據您在警示定義上定義的循環模式。The schedule is based on the recurrence pattern you define on the alert definition. 執行該作業會起始資料警示定義的處理。Running the job initiates the processing of the data alert definition.

處理資料警示定義Process Data Alert Definitions

SQL Server Agent 作業的排程開始處理警示定義時,會執行報表以重新整理報表資料摘要。When the schedule of the SQL Server Agent job starts the processing of the alert definition, the report is run to refresh the report data feeds. 警示服務會讀取資料摘要,並且套用資料警示定義對資料值指定的規則。The alerting service reads the data feeds and applies the rules that the data alert definitions specify to the data values. 如果一個或多個資料值符合規則,則會建立資料警示執行個體,並且以電子郵件將包含警示結果的資料警示訊息傳送給所有收件者。If one or more data values satisfy the rules, a data alert instance is created and a data alert message with the alert results is sent to all recipients by email. 結果會是建立警示執行個體時滿足所有規則的報表資料資料列。The results are rows of report data that satisfied all rules at the time the alert instance was created. 為避免產生多個相同結果的警示訊息,您可以指定只有在結果變更時傳送訊息。To prevent multiple alert messages with the same results, you can specify that messages are sent only when the results change. 在此情況下會建立警示執行個體,並且儲存到警示資料庫,但是不會產生警示訊息。In this case, an alert instance is created and saved to the alerting database, but no alert message is generated. 如果發生錯誤,警示執行個體還是會儲存到警示資料庫,而且包含錯誤之詳細資料的警示訊息會傳送給收件者。If an error occurs, the alert instance is also saved to the alerting database and an alert message with the details about the error is sent to recipients. 本主題稍後的<診斷和記錄>一節將提供記錄和疑難排解的詳細資訊。The Diagnostics and Logging section later in this topic has more information about logging and troubleshooting.

傳送資料警示訊息Send Data Alert Messages

資料警示訊息是透過電子郵件傳送。Data alert message are sent by email.

[寄件者] 一行包含 Reporting ServicesReporting Services 電子郵件傳遞組態提供的值。The From line contains a value provided by the Reporting ServicesReporting Services email delivery configuration. [收件者] 一行列出您在 [資料警示設計工具] 中建立警示時指定的收件者。The To line lists the recipients that you specified when you created the alert in Data Alert Designer.

除了您在 [資料警示設計工具] 中指定的電子郵件 [主旨] 之外,資料警示訊息還包含下列資訊:Besides the email Subject line, which you specify in Data Alert Designer, the data alert message includes the following information:

  • 建立資料警示定義的建立者名稱。The name of the person who created the data alert definition.

  • 如果您在警示定義中提供了描述,該描述會在電子郵件本文最上方顯示。If you provided a description in the alert definition, it displays at the top of the email text.

  • 警示結果,包含滿足警示定義中所指定規則之報表資料摘要中的資料列。The alert results, consisting of the rows in the report data feed that satisfy the rules specified in the alert definition.

  • 建立警示定義所在之報表的連結。A link to the report that the alert definition is built upon.

  • 警示定義中的規則。The rules in the alert definition.

  • 用來執行報表的參數和值。The parameters and values that you used to run the report.

  • 位於報表資料區域外之報表項目的內容值。The contextual values from report items that are outside of the report data regions.

如果無法件例警示執行個體或資料警示訊息,則會傳送錯誤訊息給所有收件者。If a data alert instance or data alert message cannot be created an error message is sent to all recipients. 訊息不會包括警示結果,而是錯誤描述。Instead of the alert results, the message includes an error description.

如需相關資訊,請參閱 Data Alert MessagesFor more information, see Data Alert Messages.

安裝資料警示Install Data Alerts

資料警示功能只有在 Reporting ServicesReporting Services 是以 SharePoint 模式安裝時才可使用。The data alerts feature is available only when Reporting ServicesReporting Services is installed in SharePoint mode. 當您以 SharePoint 模式安裝 Reporting ServicesReporting Services 時,安裝程式會自動建立儲存警示定義和警示中繼資料的警示資料庫,以及兩個用於管理警示的 SharePoint 頁面,並且將 [資料警示設計工具] 加入 SharePoint 網站。When you install Reporting ServicesReporting Services in SharePoint mode, setup automatically creates the alerting database that stores data alert definitions and alerting metadata, and two SharePoint pages for managing alerts and adds Data Alert Designer to the SharePoint site. 在安裝期間不需要針對警示執行特殊步驟或是設定特殊選項。There are no special steps to perform or options to set for alerting during installation.

如果您想要深入了解以 SharePoint 模式安裝 Reporting ServicesReporting Services (包括 Reporting ServicesReporting Services 中的新 SQL Server 2012SQL Server 2012 共用服務,以及在使用 Reporting ServicesReporting Services 功能之前,必須先建立和設定的 Reporting ServicesReporting Services 服務應用程式),請參閱 MSDN Library 中的 安裝適用於 SharePoint 2010 的 Reporting Services SharePoint 模式If you want to learn more about installing Reporting ServicesReporting Services in SharePoint mode, including the Reporting ServicesReporting Services shared service that is new in SQL Server 2012SQL Server 2012 and Reporting ServicesReporting Services service application that you must create and configure before you can use Reporting ServicesReporting Services features, see Install Reporting Services SharePoint Mode for SharePoint 2010 in MSDN library.

如本主題前段的圖中所示,資料警示會使用 SQL Server Agent 作業。As the diagram earlier in the topic shows, data alerts use SQL Server Agent jobs. 若要建立作業,必須執行 SQL Server Agent。To create the jobs, SQL Server Agent must be running. 您可能已將 SQL Server Agent 設定為在安裝 Reporting ServicesReporting Services時自動啟動。You might have configured SQL Server Agent to start automatically when you installed Reporting ServicesReporting Services. 否則,您可以手動啟動 SQL Server Agent。If not, you can start SQL Server Agent manually. 如需詳細資訊,請參閱 設定 SQL Server Agent啟動、停止、暫停、繼續、重新啟動 Database Engine、SQL Server Agent 或 SQL Server Browser 服務For more information, see Configure SQL Server Agent and Start, Stop, Pause, Resume, Restart the Database Engine, SQL Server Agent, or SQL Server Browser Service.

您可以使用 SharePoint 管理中心內的 [提供訂閱和警示] 頁面,查看 SQL Server Agent 是否正在執行,並且建立和下載自訂的 Transact-SQLTransact-SQL 指令碼,之後可執行這些指令碼將權限授與 SQL Server Agent。You can use the Provision Subscriptions and Alerts page in SharePoint Central Administration to find out whether SQL Server Agent is running and create and download customized Transact-SQLTransact-SQL scripts that you then run to grant permissions to SQL Server Agent. 另外還可以使用 PowerShell 產生 Transact-SQLTransact-SQL 指令碼。If can also generate the Transact-SQLTransact-SQL scripts by using PowerShell. 如需詳細資訊,請參閱 SSRS 服務應用程式的佈建訂用帳戶及警示For more information, see Provision Subscriptions and Alerts for SSRS Service Applications.

設定資料警示Configure Data Alerts

SQL Server 2012SQL Server 2012 開始,只要在 SharePoint 模式下安裝 Reporting ServicesReporting ServicesReporting ServicesReporting Services 功能的設定 (包括資料警示) 就會在報表伺服器組態檔 (rsreportserver.config) 和 SharePoint 組態資料庫之間散發。Starting in SQL Server 2012SQL Server 2012 the settings for Reporting ServicesReporting Services features, including data alerts, are distributed between the report server configuration file (rsreportserver.config) and a SharePoint configuration database whenever you install Reporting ServicesReporting Services in SharePoint mode. 當您在安裝和設定 Reporting ServicesReporting Services的過程中建立服務應用程式時,會自動建立 SharePoint 組態資料庫。When you create the service application as a step in installing and configuring Reporting ServicesReporting Services, the SharePoint configuration database is automatically created. 如需詳細資訊,請參閱 < RSReportServer Configuration FileReporting Services 組態檔For more information, see RSReportServer Configuration File and Reporting Services Configuration Files.

Reporting ServicesReporting Services 資料警示的設定包括清除警示資料和中繼資料的間隔,以及以電子郵件傳送資料警示訊息的重試次數。The settings for Reporting ServicesReporting Services data alerts include the intervals for cleaning up alerting data and metadata and the number of retries when sending data alert messages by email. 您可以更新組態檔和組態資料庫,以便使用不同的資料警示設定值。You can update the configuration file and the configuration database to use different values for data alert settings.

您可以直接更新報表伺服器組態檔。You update the report server configuration file directly. SharePoint 組態資料庫則要使用 Windows PowerShell 指令程式更新。You update the SharePoint configuration database by using Windows PowerShell cmdlets.

下表列出資料警示的組態項目、其預設值、描述和位置。The following table lists the configuration elements for data alerts, their default values, descriptions, and locations.

設定Setting 預設值Default Value 描述Description LocationLocation
AlertingCleanupCycleMinutesAlertingCleanupCycleMinutes 2020 兩次清除循環開始之間的分鐘數。Number of minutes between starts of the cleanup cycle. 報表伺服器組態檔Report Server Configuration File
AlertingExecutionLogCleanupMinutesAlertingExecutionLogCleanupMinutes 1008010080 保留執行記錄項目的分鐘數。Number of minutes to keep execution log entries. 報表伺服器組態檔Report Server Configuration File
AlertingDataCleanupMinutesAlertingDataCleanupMinutes 360360 保留暫存資料的分鐘數。Number of minutes to keep temporary data. 報表伺服器組態檔Report Server Configuration File
AlertingMaxDataRetentionDaysAlertingMaxDataRetentionDays 180180 在刪除警示執行中繼資料、警示執行個體和執行結果之前經過的天數。The number of days until alert execution metadata, alert instances, and execution results is deleted. 報表伺服器組態檔Report Server Configuration File
MaxRetriesMaxRetries 33 重試處理資料警示的次數。Number of times to retry processing of data alerts. 服務組態資料庫Service Configuration Database
SecondsBeforeRetrySecondsBeforeRetry 900900 每次重試之前等待的秒數。Number of seconds to wait before each retry. 服務組態資料庫Service Configuration Database

依據預設,MaxRetries 和 SecondsBeforeRetry 設定會套用到引發資料警示的所有事件。By default, the MaxRetries and SecondsBeforeRetry settings apply to all events that data alerts fire. 如果您想要更進一步控制重試次數和重試延遲,可以針對指定不同 MaxRetries 和 SecondsBeforeRetry 值的任何或所有事件處理常式加入項目。If you want more granular control of retries and retry delays, you can add elements for any and all event handlers that specify different MaxRetries and SecondsBeforeRetry values.

事件處理常式和重試Event Handlers and Retry

事件處理常式包括:The event handlers are:

事件處理常式Event Handler 描述Description
FireAlertFireAlert 按一下 [資料警示管理員] 中的 [執行] ,初始化立即處理警示定義。You click Run in Data Alert Manager to initiate immediate processing of an alert definition.
FireScheduleFireSchedule SQL Server Agent 會為警示定義啟動作業排程。SQL Server Agent launches the job schedule for an alert definition.
CreateScheduleCreateSchedule 您建立資料警示定義,然後就會依據警示定義中指定的頻率間隔件例 SQL Server Agent 作業排程。You create a data alert definition and a SQL Server Agent job schedule is created based on the frequency interval specified in the alert definition.
UpdateScheduleUpdateSchedule 您更新資料警示定義的頻率間隔,SQL Server Agent 作業排程就會更新。You update the frequency interval of the data alert definition and the SQL Server Agent job schedule is updated.
DeleteScheduleDeleteSchedule 您刪除資料警示定義,該定義的 SQL Server Agent 也會刪除。You delete the data alert definition and its SQL Server Agent job is deleted.
GenerateAlertGenerateAlert 警示執行階段會處理報表資料摘要、套用資料警示定義中指定的規則、判斷是否建立資料警示的執行個體,以及在需要時建立資料警示的執行個體。The alerting runtime processes the report data feed, applies the rules specified in the data alert definition, determines whether to create an instance of the data alert, and if needed creates an instance of the data alert.
DeliverAlertDeliverAlert 執行階段會建立資料警示訊息,並且以電子郵件將它傳送給所有收件者。The runtime creates the data alert message and sends it to all recipients by email.

下表將摘要說明事件處理常式以及引發重試的時間:The following table summarizes the event handlers and when retry will fire:

錯誤類別Error Category < < 事件類型Event type > > >
FireAlertFireAlert FireScheduleFireSchedule CreateScheduleCreateSchedule UpdateScheduleUpdateSchedule DeleteScheduleDeleteSchedule GenerateAlertGenerateAlert DeliverAlertDeliverAlert
記憶體不足Out of memory XX XX XX XX XX XX XX
執行緒中止Thread abort XX XX XX XX XX XX XX
SQL 代理程式並未執行SQL Agent is not running XX XX XX XX
暫時性。Transient. 通常是由於連接問題、逾時和鎖定造成。Mostly due to connections problems, timeouts, and locks. XX XX XX XX XX XX XX
IOExceptionIOException XX
WebExceptionWebException XX
SocketExceptionSocketException XX
SMTPException (*)SMTPException (*) XX

(*) 將觸發重試的 SMTP 錯誤:(*) SMTP errors that will trigger a retry:

  • SmtpStatusCode.ServiceNotAvailableSmtpStatusCode.ServiceNotAvailable

  • SmtpStatusCode.MailboxBusySmtpStatusCode.MailboxBusy

  • SmtpStatusCode.MailboxUnavailableSmtpStatusCode.MailboxUnavailable

停用資料警示Disable Data Alerts

如果您要停用資料警示功能,可更新組態檔的 [服務] 區段。If you want to disable the data alert feature, you update the Service section of the configuration file. 以下程式碼顯示組態檔的 [服務] 區段。The following code shows Service section of the configuration file.

<Service>

<IsSchedulingService>True</IsSchedulingService>

<IsNotificationService>True</IsNotificationService>

<IsEventService>True</IsEventService>

<IsAlertingService>True</IsAlertingService>

...

</Service>

若要停用警示,請將 <IsAlertingService>True</IsAlertingService>中的 True 變更為 False。To disable alerting, change True to False in <IsAlertingService>True</IsAlertingService>.

資料警示的權限Permissions for Data Alerts

您必須具有在 SharePoint 網站上執行報表和建立警示的權限,才能在報表上建立資料警示。Before you can create data alerts on reports, you must have permission to run the report and create alerts on the SharePoint site. 若要了解有關報表權限的詳細資訊,請參閱下列主題。To learn more about report permissions, see the following.

Reporting ServicesReporting Services 資料警示支援兩種權限層級:資訊工作者和警示系統管理員。data alerts support two permission levels: information worker and alerting administrator. 下表列出相關的 SharePoint 權限和使用者工作。The following table lists the related SharePoint permissions and user tasks.

使用者類型User Type SharePoint 權限SharePoint Permission 工作描述Task Description
資訊工作者Information worker 檢視項目View Items

建立警示Create Alerts
檢視項目 (例如報表) 以及在報表上建立資料警示。View items such as reports and create data alerts on the reports. 編輯和刪除警示。Edit and delete alerts.
警示系統管理員Alerting administrator 管理警示Manage Alerts 檢視儲存在 SharePoint 網站上所有資料警示的清單,並且刪除警示。View a list of all data alerts saved on the SharePoint site and delete alerts.

診斷和記錄Diagnostics and Logging

資料警示提供許多方式來幫助資訊工作者和系統管理員追蹤警示以及了解警示失敗的原因,並且幫助系統管理員運用記錄來了解哪些警示訊息傳送給哪些人、傳送的警示執行個體數目等。Data alerts provides a number of ways to help information workers and administrators keep track of alerts and understand why alerts failed and help administrators make use of logs to learn which alert messages were sent to whom, number of alert instances sent, and so forth.

資料警示管理員Data Alert Manager

資料警示管理員會列出警示定義和錯誤資訊,有助於資訊工作者和警示系統管理員了解錯誤發生的原因。Data Alert Manager lists alert definitions and error information that help information workers and alerting administrators understand why the failure occurred. 一些常見的錯誤原因包括:Some common reasons for failure include:

  • 報表資料摘要已變更,且資料警示定義規則中使用的資料行已不包含在資料摘要中。The report data feed changed and columns that are used in the data alert definition rules are no longer included in the data feed.

  • 已撤銷檢視報表的權限。Permission to view the report was revoked.

  • 基礎資料來源中的資料類型已變更,且警示定義不再有效。The data type in the underlying data source changed and the alert definition is no longer valid.

記錄檔Logs

Reporting ServicesReporting Services 會提供一些記錄檔,有助於深入了解處理資料警示定義、所建立的資料警示執行個體等等時執行的報表。provides a number of logs that can help you learn more the reports that are run when processing data alert definitions, the data alert instances that are created and so forth. 有三個記錄檔特別實用:警示執行記錄、報表伺服器執行記錄及報表伺服器追蹤記錄。Three logs are particularly useful: the alerting execution log, the report server execution log, and the report server trace log.

如需其他 Reporting ServicesReporting Services 記錄檔的相關資訊,請參閱 Reporting Services 記錄檔和來源For information about other Reporting ServicesReporting Services logs, see Reporting Services Log Files and Sources.

警示執行記錄Alerting Execution Log

警示執行階段服務會將項目寫入警示資料庫的 ExecutionLogView 資料表中。The alerting runtime service writes entries in the ExecutionLogView table in the alerting database. 您可以查詢資料庫或執行下列預存程序,以取得有關儲存到警示資料庫之資料警示的更完整診斷資訊。You can query the table or run the following stored procedures to get richer diagnostic information about the data alerts saved to the alerting database.

  • ReadAlertDataReadAlertData

  • ReadAlertHistoryReadAlertHistory

  • ReadAlertInstancesReadAlertInstances

  • ReadEventHistoryReadEventHistory

  • ReadFeedPollHistoryReadFeedPollHistory

  • ReadFeedPoolsReadFeedPools

  • ReadPollDataReadPollData

  • ReadSentAlertsReadSentAlerts

您可以使用 SQL 代理程式依照排程執行預存程序。You can use SQL Agent to run the stored procedure on a schedule. 如需詳細資訊,請參閱 SQL Server AgentFor more information, see SQL Server Agent.

報表伺服器執行記錄Report Server Execution Log

執行報表會產生資料摘要,做為建立資料警示定義的基礎。Reports are run to generate the data feeds that data alert definitions are built upon. 報表伺服器資料庫中的報表伺服器執行記錄會在每次報表執行時擷取資訊。The report server execution log in the report server database captures information each time the report is run. 您可以查詢資料庫中的 ExecutionLog2 檢視,以了解詳細資訊。You can query the ExecutionLog2 view in the database for detailed information. 如需詳細資訊,請參閱 < 報表伺服器執行記錄和 ExecutionLog3 檢視For more information, see Report Server Execution Log and the ExecutionLog3 View.

報表伺服器追蹤記錄Report Server Trace Log

報表伺服器追蹤記錄包含報表伺服器服務作業的詳細資訊,包括報表伺服器 Web 服務和背景處理所執行的作業。The report server trace log contains highly detailed information for report server service operations, including operations performed by the report server Web service and background processing. 如果您要偵錯包含報表伺服器的應用程式,或者調查寫入事件記錄或執行記錄的特定問題,追蹤記錄資訊可能會很有用。Trace log information might be useful if you are debugging an application that includes a report server, or investigating a specific problem that was written to the event log or execution log. 如需詳細資訊,請參閱 Report Server Service Trace LogFor more information, see Report Server Service Trace Log.

效能計數器Performance Counters

資料警示會提供自己的效能計數器。Data alerts provide their own performance counters. 除了效能計數器之外,其他內容都會與警示執行階段服務內含的某一個事件相關。All but one performance counter is related to an event that is part of the alerting runtime service. 與事件佇列相關的效能計數器會告知所有使用中事件的佇列長度。The performance counter related to the event queue tells the length of the queue of all active events.

事件或事件佇列Event or Event Queue 效能計數器Performance Counter
ALERTINGQUEUESIZEALERTINGQUEUESIZE 警示:事件佇列長度Alerting: event queue length
FireAlertFireAlert 警示:已處理的事件數 - FireAlertAlerting: events processed - FireAlert
FireScheduleFireSchedule 警示:已處理的事件數 - FireScheduleAlerting: events processed - FireSchedule
CreateScheduleCreateSchedule 警示:已處理的事件數 - CreateScheduleAlerting: events processed - CreateSchedule
UpdateScheduleUpdateSchedule 警示:已處理的事件數 - UpdateScheduleAlerting: events processed - UpdateSchedule
DeleteScheduleDeleteSchedule 警示:已處理的事件數 - DeleteScheduleAlerting: events processed - DeleteSchedule
GenerateAlertGenerateAlert 警示:已處理的事件數 - GenerateAlertAlerting: events processed - GenerateAlert
DeliverAlertDeliverAlert 警示:已處理的事件數 - DeliverAlertAlerting: events processed - DeliverAlert

Reporting ServicesReporting Services 會提供其他 Reporting ServicesReporting Services 功能的效能計數器。provides performance counters for other Reporting ServicesReporting Services features. 如需詳細資訊,請參閱 < reportserver: Service 和 reportserversharepoint: Service 效能物件的效能計數器MSRS 2014 Web Service 和 MSRS 2014 Windows 效能計數器服務效能物件(原生模式),並MSRS 2014 Web 服務 SharePoint 模式和 MSRS 2014 Windows 服務 SharePoint 模式效能物件的效能計數器(SharePoint模式)For more information, see Performance Counters for the ReportServer:Service and ReportServerSharePoint:Service Performance Objects, Performance Counters for the MSRS 2014 Web Service and MSRS 2014 Windows Service Performance Objects (Native Mode), and Performance Counters for the MSRS 2014 Web Service SharePoint Mode and MSRS 2014 Windows Service SharePoint Mode Performance Objects (SharePoint Mode).

支援 SSLSupport for SSL

Reporting ServicesReporting Services 可以使用 HTTP SSL (安全通訊端層) 服務來建立與報表伺服器或 SharePoint 網站的加密連接。can use the HTTP SSL (Secure Sockets Layer) service to establish encrypted connections to a report server or SharePoint site.

警示執行階段服務和資料警示使用者介面支援 SSL,而且無論您使用 SSL 或 HTTP 的運作方式都很類似,不過還是有些微的差異。The alerting runtime service and data alerts user interface support SSL and works similarly whether you use SSL or HTTP; however, there are some subtle differences. 使用 SSL 連接建立資料警示定義時,從資料警示訊息連結回 SharePoint 文件庫的 URL 也會使用 SSL。When the data alert definition is created using and SSL connection, the URL that links back to the SharePoint library from the data alert message also uses SSL. 您可以識別 SSL 連接,因為它的 URL 中是使用 HTTPS,而不是 HTTP。You can identify the SSL connection because it uses HTTPS instead of HTTP in its URL. 同樣地,如果是使用 HTTP 連接件例資料警示定義,則返回 SharePoint 網站的連結會使用 HTTP。Likewise, if the data alert definition was created using an HTTP connection, the link back to the SharePoint site uses HTTP. 無論警示定義是使用 SSL 或 HTTP 所建立,使用者和警示系統管理員使用 [資料警示設計工具] 或 [資料警示管理員] 時的體驗都是一樣的。Whether the alert definition was created using SSL or HTTP, the experience for users and alerting administrators are identical when using Data Alert Designer or Data Alert Manager. 如果在資料定義建立、更新再儲存期間應變更通訊協定 (HTTP 或 SSL),則會保留原始通訊協定並且在連結 URL 中使用。If the protocol (HTTP or SSL) should change between the time that the alert definition was created and then updated and resaved, the original protocol is kept and used in link URLs.

如果您在 SharePoint 網站上建立設定為使用 SSL 的資料警示,然後移除 SSL 需求,警示會繼續在網站上運作。If you create a data alert on a SharePoint site that is configured to use SSL and then remove the SSL requirement the alert continues to work on the site. 如果網站遭到刪除,則會改用預設的區域網站。If the site is deleted, the default zone site is used instead.

資料警示使用者介面Data Alert User Interface

資料警示提供了管理警示的 SharePoint 頁面,以及建立和編輯資料警示定義的設計工具。Data alerts provide SharePoint pages for managing alerts and a designer for creating and editing data alert definitions.

資料警示的全球化Globalization of Data Alerts

特定指令碼 (像是阿拉伯文與希伯來文) 是由右至左書寫。Certain script such as Arabic and Hebrew are written right to left. 資料警示支援由右至左書寫的指令碼,以及由左至右書寫的指令碼。Data alerts support right-to-left scripts as well as left-to-right scripts. 資料警示會偵測文化特性,並且對應地改變使用者介面的外觀和行為以及資料警示訊息的配置。Data alerts detect culture and alter the appearance and behavior of the user interface and the layout of data alert messages accordingly. 文化特性衍生自使用者電腦上作業系統的地區設定。The culture is derived from the regional setting of the operating system on the user's computer. 每次您更新並重新儲存資料警示定義時,就會儲存文化特性。The culture is saved each time you update and then resave the data alert definition.

警示定義中的文化特性會影響資料是否符合警示定義中的規則。Whether data satisfies the rules in the alert definition can be affected by the culture in the alert definition. 字串比較最常受文化特性專屬的規則所影響。String comparisons are most commonly affected by culture specific rules.

判斷警示定義中的文化特性會否影響報表資料是否符合警示定義中的規則。Determining whether report data satisfies the rules in the alert definition can be affected by the culture in the alert definition. 這種情況最常出現在字串中。This most commonly occurs in of strings. 例如,在德文文化特性的警示定義中,比較英文字母 "o" 與德文字母 "ö" 的規則將不會相符。For example, in an alert definition with the German culture, a rule that compares the English letter "o" and the German letter "ö" would not be satisfied. 在使用英文文化特性的相同警示定義中,就會符合該規則。In the same alert definition using the English culture the rule would be satisfied.

資料格式也是以警示定義的文化特性為基礎。Data formatting is also based the culture of the alert definition. 例如,如果文化特性使用句號做為小數符號,則值會顯示為 45.67;而使用逗號做為小數符號的文化特性則會顯示為 45,67。For example, if the culture uses a period as the decimal symbol, then the value displays as 45.67; whereas a culture that uses a comma as the decimal symbol, displays 45,67.

依據您使用的資料警示使用者介面而定,由右至左書寫的支援也會有所不同。Depending on which data alert user interface you use, the support for right-to-left varies. [資料警示設計工具] 支援在文字方塊中使用由右至左指令碼,但是設計工具的配置並不是由右至左。Data Alert Designer supports right-to-left script in text boxes, but the layout of the designer is not right to left. 其配置就像其他工具一樣,是由左至右。Its layout is left to right like other tools. 如果以由右至左文字方向建立警示定義,然後在由右至左書寫的環境中進行編輯,則在您儲存警示定義時,會保留由右至左文字方向。If an alert definition, created with right-to-left text orientation, and then edited in a left-to-right environment, the right-to-left text orientation is preserved when you save the alert definition. [資料警示管理員] 的行為與 SharePoint 頁面相同。Data Alert Manager behaves the same as a SharePoint page. 其配置就像其他 SharePoint 頁面一樣,是由右至左。Its layout is right-to left, just like other SharePoint pages. 以由右至左書寫的資料警示定義為基礎的資料警示訊息,會由右至左顯示訊息文字,但訊息配置是由左至右。Data alert messages that are based on right-to-left data alert definitions, display message text right to left and the message layout is left to right.

相關工作Related Tasks

另請參閱See Also

資料警示設計工具 Data Alert Designer
警示系統管理員的資料警示管理員 Data Alert Manager for Alerting Administrators
SharePoint 使用者的資料警示管理員Data Alert Manager for SharePoint Users